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R B !■; K T H i; R N S . 














VOL. I. 






r K E F A C E . 

The work which is now })reseuted to the world assumes, by its compre- 
hensively national title, that the various and diversified information it 
contains is so illustrative of the Scottish nation, and of the origin and 
constitution of modern Scottish society, as to justify the adoption for it 
of a designation so conspicuous. Of any other country, it is true, an ac- 
count of its surnames, families, and honours, would cast little or no light 
over the constitution of the society existing therein. Such an account 
would probably tell next to nothing of the earlier races out of whicli 
society was formed, because, in the case of any other nation, whatever 
might elsewhere be found to illustrate that part of its history, few indica- 
tions in the names now boi'ne by individuals or families, or in its titles of 
honour, will be found to mark the tribes or institutions whence they 
sprung, or to be otherwise identified with the commencement of its 
national unity. This is a result to be found in Scotland alone; not 
uniformly, indeed, nor always without admixture of doubt, but certainly 
in a greater degree than in any other kingdom or state. 

Modern Scottish society, and Scottish nationality in its proper sense, 
may be said to have come into existence together. Hereditary monarchy, 
hereditary surnames, families, and honours, hitherto unknown among its 
peoples, were their common instruments for consolidation, for conserva- 
tion, and for progress. To the Cumbrian, the Pict, the Scot, Norwegian, 
Dane, or Saxon, who, at various times and in various degrees, were spread 
over its soil, these distinctions were exceptional and comparatively un- 

In the early part of the twelfth century, the greater part of the country 
now constituting Scotland was in a state little better than that of chaos, 
and worse than that of anarchy. A contempoi-ary document of a solemn 



character describes the soutliern portion (and it may be held as equally 
true of the northern) as having till then been occupied rather than in- 
habited " by diverse tribes of diverse nations coming from diverse parts ; 
of dissimilar language, features, and modes of living, not easily able to 
hold converse among themselves, practically Pagans rather than Christ- 
ians, living more like irrational animals than as worthy of the name of a 
people," * and even deducting from this picture for the exaggerations of 
a Churcliman, enough remains to confirm the foregoing remark. The 
arrival of a new people of polished manners, military discipline, and 
Christian zeal, by giving new institutions and, for a time, a new language 
to this incongruous mass, created a nation and a nationality, yet without 
a so-called revolution or even a change of dynasty. The new race, 
whose presence was so beneficially felt in Scotland, came through Eng- 
land, yet were not of it. They were the Normans, — a people of the 
same original stock as many of the tribes above referred to, but refined 
and instructed by familiarity with the institutions of the South. 

This new order of things, however, might have attained to no per- 
manence, or even if permanent, to no historic significance — at least in 
tbe sense which our title assumes — had not the silent but ceaseless immi- 
gration of the new race continued without interruption for nearly two 
centuries, in the course of which they identified their fortunes with those 
of a dynasty which, although sprung from an elder settlement of the 
population, was led by sympathy, education, and the necessities of 
their position, to cherish, enrich, and lean upon this new people for 
the preservation of their crown and prerogatives, and to cement their 
union by numerous family alliances. A revolution, Avhich placed first 
one and then another family of the new race ixpon the throne of Scot- 
land, completed the solidarity of the social union of races in Scotland, 
while it prevented fresh admixtures of foreign blood ; and lastly and 
chiefly the practice of bestowing hereditary surnames and honours, and 
of holding all lands from the Ci'own, which obtained generally throughout 

• Diversje tribus, diversanim nacionum, ex diversis partibus affluentes, regionem prefatum habita 
verunt. Sed dispari gente et dissimxdi linguS, et varia more viventes, haut facile (inter) sese consen 
cientes, gentilitatera potius quara fidei cultum teuuenmt. Quos iufelices et damiiate habitacioiiis, 
habitatores, more pecudum irrationabiliter degentes, dignatus est Dominus, . . . visitai-e. — 
Tnqvisition hy David Prince of Cumbria (circa 1116). 


this period, and found a pemianeiit and faitliful record in charters and 
other public deeds, many of which are still in existence, insured to Scot- 
land the integrity and continuity of its social annals. 

The surnames traceable to immigrant Norman chiefs, or to the lands 
bestowed upon their i-etainers, constitute by far tlie greater portion of those 
peculiar and pertaining to vast numbers of individuals forming modem 
Scottish society. Under those derived from lands, not a few Danish and 
Norwegian names are to be found, which, in like manner as those of Celtic 
and Norman origin referring to personal or local distinctives, are to be re- 
cognised by their composition ; yet, while of this latter class, even in the 
remote North we find in the names Fraser, Grant, Cameron, and others, 
undeniable proofs, notwithstanding their present use of the Celtic tongue, 
of a Norman or French immigration, the composition of the southern 
population is singularly manifested when the distinctive of an individual 
of the more ancient lineageis^/iere,asinthecaseofaFleming or an Inglis, 
expressed by the simple name of Scott. An account of the origin or of the 
original holders of these surnames of the forefathers of the present Scot- 
tish people, cannot fail to be highly interesting to all classes at the 
present day. 

But, a mere explanation of the origin oi surnavies alone would lack com- 
pleteness unless accompanied with some account of the families by which 
they were borne, — of the distribution of those families over the country, — 
of their subdivision into new families, — and of the distinguished individ- 
uals who sustained their reputation and promoted their influence: and such 
an account it is one of the objects of this Work to supply. ' The Scottish 
Nation' professes to present the succession, the affiliations and alliances, 
and the leading incidents in the history of the families whose sur- 
names have obtained distinction and influence throiighout Scotland since 
the reign of Malcolm Canmore. 

The ancient laronies of Scotland, associated as they were with heredi- 
tary jurisdictions only short of regal, had all a significancy in that country 
unequalled in any others where the feudal regime obtained. The holders 
of these honours were regarded as heads of its name as well as of their 
vassals ; and to promote the honour of the one as well as the welfare of 


the otlier was their business and their strength. An account of these 
honours is an account of the ten-itoi-ial supremacy of a name and of a 
family, among the members of wbich the lands under the jurisdiction 
of tlieir heads were in course of time parcelled out. 

A history of Scottish titles is a necessaiy supplement to that of families. 
and a key to many of the social and political incidents in that kingdom 
as well as in the history and fortunes of its families. Such a history fonns, 
thei-efore, another and it is hoped a valuable topic of the present Work. 

Immeasurably beyond all these social facts in importance, although 
greatly illustrated by the lights they furnish, the biographies of its dis- 
tinguished natives become, when properly treated, the topic which illus- 
trates and shows forth in its strength and peculiarities ' The Scottish 
Nation.' The poorest country in Europe, occupied by a hardy race trained 
to military exercises, struggling for centuries to maintain their national in- 
dependence, and ever contending for masteiy amongst themselves, Scotland 
has beheld her sons loving and honouring the country that gave them birth 
with a high and pure patriotism ; and clinging to each other with a pro- 
verbial partiality, yet not alone on account of their common relationship, 
but also for those qualities of endurance, energy, and intelligence which 
their common struggles and even social feuds drew forth and incorporated 
as it were with the national character. At a comparatively early period 
she sent forth many of her sons to obtain distinction and honours in other 
lands; and when more peaceful times had arrived and milder institu- 
tions obtained, she saw them launch into the arts of civil life, for which 
their hereditary qualities, animated by the lessons of a simple but sin- 
cere piety, had well prepared them, and assert for themselves a front 
rank among the leaders of mind and intellect in Europe, in numbers alto- 
gether unexampled in the social development of other nations. Of such 
men is Scotland's pride and glory, and their lives and deeds constitute 
the truest account of the Scottish nation. 

In its general hiograpliy the present work embraces a wider range 
than is contemplated in any of those specially devoted to that subject, 
comprismg many names not to be met with in history, yet of men whose 
skill, genius, or labours have added to the comfort, the knowledge, or 


tlie happiness of mankind. Not a few names, moreover, that have long 
been borne down by undeserved obloquy have been restored to their 
proper position ; while others, upheld by misstatement or exaggeration 
at an undue elevation, have been placed on a lower pedestal. In all cases 
the truth has been stated, without reference to party feelings or sectaiiau 

In the department of literature great attention has been bestowed upon 
the articles relating to men distinguished by their writings. By append- 
ing the titles and dates of their works, and sometimes when these were 
numerous, classifying the subjects treated of, easy reference is combined 
with great economy of space. In a word, as respects the productions of its 
literary characters, ' The Scottish Nation' becomes as it were a Bihli- 
otheca Scottica corrected and brought down to the present day. 

For a work of this character it is evident that an Alj^J/ahctical arrange- 
ment, or what is generally although incorrectly known as the Dictionary 
form, is the only one compatible with clearness, order, and facility of ref- 
erence, and accordingly such a form has been adopted, with some peculi- 
arities which it is hoped will be found to improve it in these respects. 
In all other works of this kind, when several articles or parties of 
the same name came to be described, the suh-alphahetical order, or that 
of the initial letters has obtained. In the case of biographies, however, 
on this principle, the ancestor is placed often at a distance from and not 
unfrequently long after his descendants. Throughout long lists of similar 
surnames the strictly alphabetical arrangement mixes up epochs, and 
mars all attempts to present the connection which distinguished indi- 
viduals bearing them had to one another. This inconvenience, except 
In a few unimportant cases, has been obviated by a double arrange- 
ment. In narrating Isolated biographies of individuals of the same sur- 
name the order In time is followed; they succeed each other accord- 
ing to the epochs in which the parties lived. Where, however, a lineal 
descent Is traceable, the biographies are Introduced and continued in a 
direct succession. The order of the series Is here chronological, but in 
the order of families, and not by Individuals. 

To the student of Scottish history the value of the assistance furnished 


by a work of the character of ' The Scottish Nation' need not be dwelt 
upon. In the accounts given of every family or title of antiquity and note, 
numerous indirect and incidental lights are thrown upon its pages. The 
direct additional matter it supplies, is, however, perhaps of still more 
importance. In this, as well as in many other points, it will be found a more 
accurate and complete exhibition of the Earlier History of Scotland than 
any that has yet been presented to the public. 

In the course of his labours the author was necessarily obliged to enter 
into an extensive correspondence with noblemen and gentlemen in all 
parts of the kingdom, and with some families out of it, and he now returns 
his acknowledgments to all for the kindness and promptitude with which 
they answered his applications, furnished valuable information, and, in 
many cases, placed their family records, for the time, at his perusal. 
It may give some idea of the care and research bestowed upon this 
work when it is stated that the author was altogether nearly twelve years 
occupied in its composition and correction. 

The Autographs, Seals, Genealogical and Titular talales, and other 
illustrative objects, as well as the Portraits on wood and steel with which 
the work is so profusely embellished, have all been taken fi-om original 
or other authentic sources. 

A National Gallery of Scottish Portraits has long been pointed out as 
a desideratum, and learned societies have recently brought the matter 
strongly before the public. In the care taken to make the Portrait illus- 
trations authentic and numerous in a degree far beyond those in any col- 
lection heretofore presented to the world, the Publishers anticipate that 
the. first exhibition of a National Portrait Gallery worthy of the 
name will be found in the pages of ' The Scottish Nation.' 

The Biographies that were required to be added during the publica- 
tion of the work by demise of distinguished individuals, are given in the 
form of a Supplement. 

W. A. 




1. BoKN3, Roljert, 

2. Abekcromby, Sir Ralph, 

3. Allan, Sir William, „ 

4. Bethune (Beaton), Cardinal, „ 

5. Buchanan, George, ,, 

6. Cami'Bf.ll, Thomas, ,, 
7 Chalmers, Thomas, D.D.. LL.D., „ 

From a painting hy Nasmyth, 

J. Hoppner, R.A, 


"•- 1 
by F. Pourbns, 

Sii Thomas Lawrence, 
T. Duncan, 

Engraved by W. IIo 

f Roman Catliolic 1 
College at Blair 

J. B. Bird, 
VV. E. Sibbald, 

W. Holl, 

J. B. Bird, 
E. Einden, 
J. B. Bird, 

To fais jtapl 

page 4 




1. Earldom of Aniens, 

2. „ Atiiol, 

3. ,, Buchan, 

4. ,, Caithness, 

I. Ancient Earldoms. 
As an-anged by the author and others 

II. Ancient Barosages. 
1. Campbell, Lord Lochow, As arranged by the author and others. 



1. Abercromby, John, M.D., 

2. Abercromby, Sir Ralph, birth 

place of, 

3. Abercromiiy, Sir Ralph, 

4. „ „ (on) 
horseback), j 

5. Adaji, Alexander, LL.D., 

6. Albany, Seal of Robert, \ 

1st duke of, ) 

7. Albany, Doune Castle, Resi- 1 

dence of 2d duke of, f 

8. Albany, Earl of Bdchan, ) 

son of 1st duke of J 

9. Albany, John, 4th duke of, 

10. ,, „ Autograph of, 

11. Alexander I., Seal of David ) 

I., brother of, j" 

12. Alexander I., Monastery I ( 

built hy, (on Inchcolni.) j '| 

13. Alexander I., Silver Pennies of, 

14. „ Seal of, 

15. ,, Coldingham) 
Priory rebuilt by, j 

16. Alexander II., Seal of, 

17. Alexander III., Seal of. 



From a Medallion on Monument, 

,, a drawing taken on the spot by J. C. Brown, 
„ Ka}''s Portraits, 

a painting by Sir Henry Raeburn, 

Anderson's Diplomata Scotiai, Engr.avcd by .1. Adam, 

Cardonnell's Scot. Antiq., 
Pinkerton's Gallery of Portraits, 

Sloanc's MSS., " 

Anderson's Diplomata Scotias, 

Swan's Views in Fifeshire, ) 
by J. C. Brown, f 

Anderson's Numismata, 

Cardonnell's Scot. Antiq., 
Anderson's Diplomata Scotiic, 

J. Adam, 

G. Measom, 
J Adam, 







6. Measom, 42 


















Alexandek Ul., in the Pai-1 
li.ament of EiIwavJ I., ) 

Alexander III., Kiiighorn," 
(tlie scene of tlie (le.ith of,) 

Alexander III., Dunferm- 
line Abbey, Intciioi(Archi- 
teetuie of tlie period of), 

Alexander II., Chesspiece 
(to illustrate Seottish Art 
of the period of), 

Alexander. Sir William, 1st 
earl of Stirlinp! (mansion of), 

Alexander, Sir William, 1st 
earl of Stirling (portrait of), 

From a Contemporary print, Engraved 

a drawing taken on the spot I 

by J. C. Brown, j '" 

Billing's Baronial and Eccle- 1 

siastical Antiquities, j " 

Scottish Antiquarian Museum, ,, 

Billing's Baronial and Eecle- ) 
siastical Antiquities, f " 

Walpole's Royal and Noble 1 

Authors, f " 

Allan, David, Sketcli— Cliarity Scene, by 

en > 


Ar.BuriiNnT, .lohn, II. D., 

Armstrono, John, M.D., 

Arnot, lingo, 

Atuol, (Blair Castle, seat of "(_ 
tlie duke of.) ) 

AvTON, Sir Robert, 

Baillie, Robert (of Jerviswood), 

Baillie, Matthew, M.D., 

Baillie, Joanna, 

Baird, Sir David, 

Baird, George Husband, D.D. 

Balcahres Craig, Fifeshire, 

Balfour, Sir James, 

Balqonie Castle, Fifeshire, 

Baliol, Jolin, Seal of, 

Baliol, Edward, Seal of, 

Balmer, Robert, D.D., 

Bannatfne, Lord 

Barbour, John, (Aberdeen 
Catliedral, where served ' 

Barclay, J^iiin, 

Beattie, James, LL.D., 

Belhaven, 2d Lord, 

Bell, Benjamin, 

Bell, Sir Charles, 

BissET, John, (Beauly priory ) 
founded by,) j" 

Black, Joseph. M D., 

Blair, Hugh, D.D., 

Blair, Robert (Lord President), 

Blantyre, F. T. Stewart, Duch- 
ess of Richmond, daugliter of 
Walter, 3d son of the 1st Lord, 

BoRTHwicK Castle, 

Boswell, James, 

Boyd, Robert, 

Boyd, Zachary, 

Breadalbank, (Taymouth"! , 
Castle, seat of the mar- >- i 
qiiis of,) Interior,} *■ 

58. Ditto, ditto, Exterior, 

59. BuowN, Thomas, M.D., 

60. Bkus, Robert de. Seal of, 

61. ,, ,, Turnberry ) 
Castle (tlie birthplace of), j 

62. Bruce, King Robert, Seal of, 

63. Bruce, Roliert, 

64. Bruce, James, (mansion-) J 

house of.) j i 

65. Bruce, James, portrait of, 

66. Buchas, 1st ear! of (of the \ 

house of Erskine), j 

67. Buchanan, George, 

68. Buchanan, Claudius, D.D., 

69. Burnet, Gilbert, D.D. 

70. Burnet, J.-vines, (Lord Monboddo,) 

71. Burns, John, M.D., 

72. Campbell, 1st Lord, and hisLadv, 

73. Campbell Castle, J 



a scarce print, 

painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 

Kay's Portraits, 

Cardonnell's Scot. Antiq., 

a bust, 

an original miniature, 

a rare print, 

a painting by Sir W. Newton, 

,, Sir Henry Raeburn, 

Kay's Portraits, 
Swan's Views in Fifeshire, 
an original print, 
Kattrs" Scotia Depicta, 
Anderson's Diplomata Scotise, 

n )) 

a lithographic print, 
Kay's Portraits, 

Cardonnell's Scot. Antiq., 

an original print, 
apaintingby Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
Pinkerton's Gallery of Portraits, 
Kay's Portraits, 
an original print, 

Cardonnell's Scot. Antiq. 

a painting by Sir Henry Eaeburn, 
Kay's Portraits, 

a painting by Sir Peter Lely, 

Kattes' Scotia Depicta, 
Lodge's Portraits, 
Pinkerton's Gallery, 

a drawing t.aken on the spot ) 
by J. C. Brown, j" 

a drawing by Sargent, 
,, Watson, 

Anderson's Diplomata Scotioe, 

Tytler's Scottish Worthies, 

Anderson's Diplomata Scotise, 
an original miniature, 
a drawing taken on the spot > 
by J. C. Brown, j" 

Kay's Portraits, 

loonographia Scotica, 

Pinkerton's Gallery, 
a portrait prefixed to his life. 
Lodge's Portraits, 
Kay's Portraits, 
a painting by Graham Gilbert, 
Pinkerton's Gallery of Portraits, 
a drawing taken on the spot ( 
by J. C. Brown, C 


by J. 











J. Adam, 



G. Measom, 




W. Williams, 


G. Measom, 




W. Williams, 








J. Adam, 




J. Adam, 








J. Adam, 


W. Williams, 








J. Adam, 


W. Williams, 








J. Adam, 




W. Williams, 




Linton, . 





J. Adam, 








G. Measom, 
















_, ^ /. * I- A T (From \Valpolc'slin\nIniul \()I)le ) i. , . .. 

7-1. Cami-hei.l, tmintess ot Ai-gyle,-^ Aiitliois f l-"gi'>''i^'l ''V Liiiton, 556 

. Campbki.l, Aicliibiilil (Maiquis i 

John (2(1 duke o" 

of Avgyle), 

L, Jollll 

7G. Campuixl, Jollll (2d duke of ( - i- i .-.i 

. 1 \ r .1 a painting bv Aitkmaii, 



77. Carson, Aglionby Ross, M. A., '( e- nr r^ i ,„„ 

andLL.D., _ f " " fe"' W. Gordon, „ „ 599 

78. Cakstairs, Principal, ,, Chambers' Eminent Scotsmen, ,, ,, ijoi 

79. Cassii.lis, Countess of, ,, a painting in Ciilze:in Castle, ,, „ ()(i7 

80. Clapi'Erton, Captain Hugh, ,, „ by Gildon Miinlon, „ ,, 047 

81. CoLiiUHOUN, Lady, „ a portrait pielixed to liui- I/il'c, ,, „ 606 

82. Co.NsTABi.E, Archibald, ,, a painting by Sir Henry Kaebuni, „ „ 680 

83. Craio, Sir Thomas, ,, an original print, „ „ 688 
Si. Craio, Lord, ., Kay's I'ortraits, ,, ,, tjyi 
83. CitAWKOUi), Archibald, Arms of. ,, Wilson'; I'reliistorie Annals. ,, J. .•\dnin, 700 

86. CRAUFunDs OF Ardmillan.I l.ord Ardmillan, „ „ 705 

Anns ol the j " ' " " '"-^ 

87. CRA\yFORD, David, 1st earl ) ( Lord Lindsay's Lives of the ) „ 

of, Seal of, j" ") " Lindsays, / " " '"^ 
bS. Crawford, David, 5th earl of, j_ 

Seal and Autograph of, ) " " " '• " '''■ 

89. Crawforu, David, lltli earl f _ 

of. Autograph of, / " " " " " ''■' 

90. CRiCHTON,James(tlie Admirable), ,, Jouni. of Aniiq. Soc. of Scotland, ,. Linton, 729 
yi. CiiOMAiiTy, 1st earl of „ Walpole'sKoyal and Noble Authors. „ „ 73{ 





Abercorn, Duke of, is a peerage held by the Hamilton 
family in its eldest surviving male heir, as directly descended 
from Lord Cluud Hamilton (see vol. ii. p. 418), fourth son 
of James, second earl of Arran, regent of Scotland in tlie 
minority of Queen Mary. He was created duke of Cliatel- 
lierault in the kingdom of France. Lord Claud was distin- 
guished for his zealous and steady attachment to Mary 
Queen of Scots, and at an early age was appointed coin- 
inendator of the abbacy of Paisley. The extensive lands 
of this abbacy were after the Reformation erected into « 
temporal lordship, and he was elevated to the peerage under 
the title of Lord Paisley. He died in 1622, aged 78. Ha 
married Margaret, only daughter of George, sixth Lord 
Seton, and iiad by her four sons, of whom James, tlie eldest, 
was created b.iron of Abercorn, 1603, and, in 1G06, advanced 
to the dignity of earl of Abercorn, baron of Paisley, Hamil- 
ton, Mountcastle, and Kilpatrick. The estate of AI)ercorn, 
from which this title is derived, is in Linlithgowshire. The 
name is derived from Abe7', beyond, and Corn, a corrup- 
tion of Curn, which has generally been held as equivalent to 
Carron. The earl of Abercorn was appointed in 1604 one 
of the commissioners on the part of Scotland to treat of a 
union with England. As one of the promoters of the plan- 
tation of Ulster, he had a very great estate granted out 
of the escheated lands in that country, and was called 
as a peer to the parliament of Ireland in 1613. He died 
in 1618, and was succeeded by his son James, who during his 
father's lifetime had been created a peer of Ireland in 1616, by 
the title of baron of Strabane. James, the second earl, was 
a loyal supporter of Charles I. On the death of the second 
duke of Hamilton in 1651, without male issue, he became the 
male representative of the house of Hamilton. He was suc- 
ceeded by his soil George, third earl, at whose death, without 
issue, the title devolved upon Claud, grandson of Claud second 
Lord Strabane. Claud, fourth earl of Abercorn, adhered to 
James VIL at the Revolution, and after the battle of the 
Boyne embarked for France, but was killed on the voyage in 
1690. His brother Charles, fifth earl, gave in his adhesion 
'o King William's government, and died in 1701 without 
surviving issue. The title then devolved on James, descended 
from Sir George Hamilton, fourth son of the first earl, and 
great-grandson of the first duke of Chatelherault. On the 
occasion of the clause in the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, stipu- 
lating for justice to the Hamilton family in regai'd to the 

duchy of Chatelherault, James, sixth earl of Abercorn, pre- 
ferred his claim as nearest heir male of the first duke, 
against that of Anne, duchess of Hamilton, the heir female. 
The court of France, however, came to no decision. Jamea. 
eighth earl, was created a peer of Great Britain in 1786, 
by the title of Viscount Hamilton. John James Hamilton. 
9th earl, was advanced to the dignity of marquis of Abercorn 
in 1790; and djnng in 1818, was succeeded by his grandson, 
James, 2d marquis. The latter, on Jan. 13, 1862, was served 
heir male of the 1st duke of Chatelherault, and in 1868 was 
created duke of Abercorn and marquis of Hamilton. 

Abercrombie, or Abebckosibt, a surname derived from 
a barony of that name in Fifeshire, erected in a district ori- 
ginally named Abercrombie, aber meaning beyond, and crom- 
bie, the crook, in allusion to the bend or crook of Fifeness. Tlie 
parish, until recently called St. Mon.ance, and now Abercromby, 
was known by the name of AbercrombiV so far back as 1174. 
The Abercrombies of that ilk were esteemed the chiefs of the 
name until the seventeenth century, when that line became 
extinct, and Abercromby of Birkeubog, in Banflshire, became 
the head of the clan of Abercromby. In 1637 Alexander 
Abercromby of Birkenbog was created a baronut of Scotland 
and Nova Scotia, and distinguished himself as a royalist dur- 
ing the civil wars. The baronetcy is still in the family. 

Abercrombie, Baron, an extinct peerage, bestowed by 
Chai'les I., in 16-17, on Sir James Sandilands of St. Mon.ance, 
or Abercrombie, in P'ife, descended from James Sandilands 
belonging to the noble house of Torphlchen. Lord Aber- 
crombie married a daughter of the first carl of Southcsk, and 
by her he had a son, James, second Lord Abercrombie, who 
dying without issue in 1681, the title became extinct. 

Abercromby of Abonkir and Tullibody, Baron, a title in 
the peerage of the United Kingdom, conferred in l€01 on 
Mary Anne, widow of the celebrated Sir Ralph Abercromby, 
immediately after her husband's death at the battle of Alex- 
andria, with remainder to the heirs male of the deceased 
general. Baroness Abercromby died in 1821, and was suc- 
ceeded by her eldest son, George, a barrister at law, first 
baron. On his death in 1843, Colonel George Ralph Aber- 
cromby, his son, born in 1800, became second baron. Tbo 
latter died in 1852, when his son, George Ralph Campbell 



Abercromby, born in 1838, became third baron. See Abek- 
CROMBY, Sir Kalph. 

ABERCROMBIE, John, M.D., an eminent 
physician, and moral and religious writer, was 
born in Aberdeen, 12tli October, 1780. His 
fatlier was minister of the East church of that 
city. After having completed his literary edu- 
cation in his native city, he was sent to the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, to prosecute his studies for 
the medical profession. The celebrated Dr. Alex- 
ander Monro was at that time professor of anatomy 
and surgeiy there, and the subject of this memoir 
attended his lectures. 

In 1803, being then twenty-three years of age, 
Dr. Abercrombie began to practise as a physician 
in Edinburgh. He soon acquired a high reputa- 
tion, and became extensively known to his pro- 
fessional brethren through the medium of his con- 
tributions to the ' Medical and Surgical Journal.' 
On the death of the celebrated Dr. Gregory in 
1821, Dr. Abercrombie at once took his place as a 
consulting physician. He was also named physi- 
cian to the king for Scotland, an appointment 
which, though merely honorary and nominal, is 
usually conferred on the physician of greatest 
eminence at the time of a vacancy. He subse- 
quently held, till his death, the office of phy- 
sician to George Heriot's Hospital. In 1828, 
he published a treatise on the ' Diseases of the 
Brain and Nervous System,' and soon after an 
essay on those of the 'Abdominal Organs,' both 
of which rank high among professional publica- 
tions. In 1830 he appeared as an author in a 
branch of literature entii'ely different, and one in- 
volving the treatment of subjects in the highest 
department of philosophy and metaphysical specu- 
lation, having published in that year his able 
work, in 8vo, on the 'Intellectual Powers.' In 
1833 he produced a woi'k of a similar kind, on 
' The Philosophy of the Moral Feelings,' also in 
8vo. In 1832, during the prevalence of the cho- 
lera, he had published a medical tract entitled 
' Suggestions on the Character and Treatment of 
Malignant Cholera.' In 1834 he published a 
pamphlet entitled ' Observations on the Moral 
Condition of the Lower Orders in Edinburgh.' 
The same year appeared an address delivered by 
him at tlie Fiftieth Anniversary of the Destitute 

Sick Society, Edinbm-gh. He was also the au- 
thor of Essays on the ' Elements of Sacred Truth,' 
and on the 'Harmony of Christian Faith and 
Character;' besides other writings which have 
been comprised in a small volume entitled ' Essays 
and Tracts.' Of wi-itings so well known, and s(i 
veiy highly esteemed, as proved by a circulation 
extending, as it did in some, even to an eighteenth 
edition, it were useless to speak in praise either o( 
their literary or far higher merits. But, distin- 
guished as he was, both professionally and as a 
writer in the highest departments of philosophy, 
it was not exclusively to his great fame in either 
respect, or in both, that he owed his wide influ- 
ence throughout the community in which he lived. 
His name ever stood associated with the guidance 
of every important enterprise, whether religious 
or benevolent, — somehow he provided leisure to 
bestow the patronage of his attendance and his 
deliberative wisdom on many of the institutions 
of Edinburgh, and, with a munificence which has 
been rarely equalled, ministered of his substance 
to the upholding of them all. He valued money 
so little, that he often declined to receive it, even 
when the offerer urged it, as most justly his own 
His diligence and application were so great that 
whoever entered his study found him intent at 
work. Did they see him travelling in his carriage. 
they could perceive he was busy there. ^Obituary 
7iotice in Witness netcspaper.'] 

In 1834 the luiiversity of Oxford conferred upon 
him the degree of ]\I.D., which he had long previ- 
ously obtained from the university of Edinburgh. 
In 1835 he was chosen by the students lord rector 
of Marischal college, Aberdeen. Dr. Abercrom- 
bie died suddenly at Edmbm-gh, fi-om rupture of 
an artery in the region of the heart, on the 14th 
of November, 1844. Distinguished alike as a 
physician, an author, a benefactor of the poor, 
and a sincere Christian, his loss was universally 
lamented. He was buried in the West church- 
yard, Edinburgh, where a monument with a me- 
dallion has been erected to his memoiy, the for- 
mer bearing the following inscription : — " In mem- 
ory of John Abercrombie, M.D., Edin. and Oxon., 
Fellow of the Royal colleges of Physicians and 
Surgeons, Edinburgh, Vice-president of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, and first Physician to the 



Queen in Scotland, born xii. Oct. mdcclxxx. 
troni a life very early devoted to the service of 
God, occujjied in the most assiduous labours, and 
distinguished not more by professional eminence 
than by personal worth and by successful author- 
shiji on the princijiles of Christian morals and 
philosophy, it pleased God to translate him sud- 
denly to the life everlasting xiv. Nov. mdcccxliv." 
Annexed is a copy of the medallion, which embo- 
dies as true a likeness of Dr. Abercrombie as stone 
or wood can convey. 


The procession at his funeral was one of the 
largest ever seen in Edinbm-gh. It was joined 
by the members both of the Royal College of Phy- 
sicians, and the Royal College of Surgeons, as 
well as by the Free Church presbytery of Edin- 
burgh and the commission of the General Assem- 
bly of the Free Church, and by many professional 
brethren from a distance. Dr. Abercrombie mar- 
ried in 1808 Agnes, only child of David Wardlaw, 
Esq., of Netherbeath in Fifcshire, and had eight 
daughters, one of whom died at the age of fom-. 
Seven daughters survived him, the eldest of whom 
became the second wife of the Rev. John Bruce, 
minister of Free St. Andrew's church, Edinburgh, 
in whose congregation Dr. Abercrombie was an 
elder, and who preached his funeral sermon, which 

was afterwards published. The estate of Nelher- 
beath descended to Mi-s. Bruce. 

The following is a list of Dr. Abcrcroinbio's 
puhlications : 

Diseiuses of the Brjiin and Nervows System, 8vo, 1828's of the Abdominal Org-ana, 8vo, 1829. 

The Intellectual Towers, 8vo, 1830. 

SiigKest'ons on the Character and Treatment of Malign.iiil 
Cholera, 8vo, 1832. 

The Philosophy of the Moral Feelings, 8vo, 1833. 

Observations on the Moral Condition of tlio Lowei Oroert 
in Eilinbiu'gh, 8vo, 1834. 

Address delivered at the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Desti- 
tute Sick Society, Edinburgh, 1835. 

Mental Culture, 18mo, being the Address delivered to the 
studi'uts of Marisehal College when he was elected Lord Rec- 
tor of that university, 183.T. 

The Hiirmony of Scripture F.-iith and Character 18mo, 1836 

Tlunk on Things, 18mo, 1839. 

Messi.ah our Example, 18mo, 1841. 

The Contest and the Ai-mour, 18mo, 1841. 

The Elements of Sacred Truth, 18mo, 1844. 

Ess.ays and Tr.acts, including the two hist works and some 
other writings on similar subjects, 8vo, 1844, 1847. 

ABERCROMBIE, John, conjectured by Demp- 
ster, in his Hist. Eccl. Scot., to have been a Ben- 
edictine monk, was the author of two energetic 
treatises in defence of the Chmxh of Rome against 
the principles of the Reformers, entitled ' Veritatia 
Defeusio,' and ' Ha^resis Confusio.' He flourished 
about the middle of the sixteenth century. 

ABERCROMBIE, Patrick, physician and his- 
torian, third son of Alexander Abercrombie of 
Fettemeir, Aberdeenshire, a branch of the Birk- 
enbog family of that name, was born at Forfar in 
1656, and took his medical degrees at St. Andrews 
in 1685. His elder brother, Franois Abercrombie 
of Fetterneir, on his marriage with Anna, Baron- 
ess Sempill, was, in Julj' 1685, crsjited by James 
Vn. Lord Glassford, under the singular restriction 
of being limited for his own life. After leaving 
the university, Patrick travelled on the continent, 
and on his return to England, embracing the Ro- 
man Catholic religion, he was appointed physi- 
cian to James VII. ; but at the Revolution was 
deprived of his office, and for some years lived 
abi'oad. Returning to his native country, he af- 
terwards devoted himself to the study of national 
antiquities. In 1707 he gave to the world a trans- 
lation of M. Beauge's rare French work, ' L'llis- 
toire de la Guerre d'Ecossc,' 1556, under the title 
of ' The Campaigns in Scotland in 1548 and 1549,' 
which was reprinted in the oiiginal by Mr. Smythe 



of Methven for the Bannatyne Club, in 1829, with 
a preface containing an account of Abercronibie's 
translation. His great work, however, is 'The 
Martial Achievements of the Scots nation, and of 
such Scotsmen as have signalized themselves by 
the Sword,' in two volumes folio, the first pub- 
lished in 1711, and the second in 1715. He also 
wrote the 'Memoirs of the family of Abercrombie.' 
Dr. Abercrombie died in poor circumstances in 
1716 ; some authorities say 1720, and others 1726. 
The following is a list of his works. 

Tlie Advantages of the Act of Secunty, compared witli 
those of the intended Union; founded on the Revolution 
Principles, published by Mr. Daniel De Foe. Edin. 1707, 4to. 

A Vindication of the same, against Mr. De Foe. Edin. 
1707, 4to. 

Tlie History of the Campaigns 1.548 and 1549, between the 
Scots and the French on the one side, and the English and 
their foreign auxili.aries on the other. From the French of 
Beauge, with a Preface, showing the Advantages which Scot- 
land received by the Ancient League with France, and the assistance given by each kingdom to the other. Edm. 
1707, 8vo. 

The Martial Achievements of the Scots nation, being an 
Account of the Lives, Char.acters, and Memorable Actions of 
such Scotsmen as have signalized themselves by the Sword, 
at home and abroad. Edin. 1711-1715. 2 vols. fol. 

ABERCROMBIE, John, an eminent horticul- 
turist, and author of several horticultural works, 
was the son of a respectable gardener near Edin- 
burgh, where he was born about the year 1726. 
In his eighteenth year he went to London, and 
obtained employment in the royal gai'dens. His 
first work, ' The Gardener's Calendar,' was pub- 
lished as the production of Mr. Mawe, gardener to 
the duke of Leeds, who received twenty guineas 
for the use of his name, which was then well- 
known. The success of that work was so com- 
plete, that Abercrombie put his own name to all 
his future publications ; among which may be 
mentioned, 'The Universal Dictionary of Garden- 
ing and Botany,' 4to, ' The Gardener's Vade Me- 
cuni,' and other popular productions. He died at 
Somerstown, London, in 1806, aged 80. A list of 
Ids works is subjoined. 

Tlie Universal Gardener and Botanist, or a Dic- 
tionary of G:u'dening and Botany, exliibiting, in Botanical 
Arrangement, according to the Lmnsean system, every Tree, 
Shrub, and Herbaceous Plant that merit Cultm'e, &c. Lend. 
1778, 4to. 

The Garden Mushroom, its Natm'e and Cultivation, exnib- 
iting full and plain directions for producing this desirable 
plant in perfection and plenty. Lend. 1779. 8vo. New edi- 
tion enlai-gcd, 1802, 12mo. 

The British Fruit G.arden, and Art of Pruning ; compnsin>i 
the most approved Methods of Pl.antmg and raising every use- 
ful Fruit Tree and Fruit-bearing Shrub. Lond. 1779, 8vo 

The Complete Forcing Gardener, for the thorough Practi- 
cal Management of the Kitchen Garden, raising all earh 
crops in Hot-beds, and forcing early Frait, &c. Lond. 1781. 

The Complete Wall-tree Pruner, &c. Lond. 1783, 12ino. 

The Propagation and Bot.anicaI AiTangement of Plants 
and Trees, useful and ornamental. Lond. 1785, 2 vols. 12mo. 

The Gardener's Pocket Dictionary, or a Systematical Ar- 
rangement of Trees, Herbs, Flowers, and Fruits, agi-eeable to 
the Linna3an Method, with their Latin and Enghsh names, 
their Uses, Propagation, Culture, &c. Lond. 1786, 3 vols. 

Daily Assistant in the Modem Practice of English Garden- 
ing for eveiy Month in the Year, on an entire new plan 
Lond. 1789, 12mo. 

The Universal Gardener's Kalendar, and System of Practi- 
cal Gardening. Lond. 1789, 12mo; 1808, 8vo. 

The Complete Ivitchen G.ardener and Hot-bed Forcer, witl, 
the thorough Practical M.anagemeut of Hot -houses, Fire- 
walls, &c. Lond. 1789, 12mo. 

The's Vade-mecum, or Comp.anion of General 
Gardening; a Descriptive Disphay of the Phints, Flowers, 
Shmbs, Trees, Fruits, and general Cultiure. Lond. 1789, 8vo. 

The Hot-house Gardener, or the general Culture of the 
Pine Apple, and the Methods of forcing early Grapes, Peach- 
es, Nectarines, and other choice Fniits in Hot-houses, Vin- 
eries, Fruit - houses. Hot-walls, with Dhections for raising 
Melons and early Strawbenies, &c. Plates. Lond. 1789, 

The G.ardener's Pocket Journal and Annual Register, in a 
concise Monthly Display of all Practical Works of General 
Gardening throughout the year. Lond. 1791, 12mo; 1814. 

It has been already stated, in giving the ongin of the name, 
(see page 1,) that in the 17th century, Abercromby of Bir- 
kcnbog in Bantlshu-e, became the chief of the name of Aber- 
cromby. Alexander Abercromby of Birkenbog was gi*and 
falconer in Scotland to King Charles I. In 1636 his eldesi 
son, Alexander, was created a baronet of Nova Scotia, and 
took an active pait against King Charles in the ciNil wai's ol 
that period. From the pedigi'ee of the family it appears that 
Sir Alexander Abercromby of Birkenbog, the first baronet, 
had two sons. The eldest, James, succeeded his father. 
Alexander, the second son, succeeded his cousin George Aber- 
cromby of Skeith, in the estate of Tullibody, in Clackman- 
nanshire, formerly a possession of the calls of Stirling. This 
Alexander the grandfather of the celebrated military 
commander, Sii* Ralph Abercromby, and the second of tlip 
name of Abercromby who possessed Tullibody. The most 
eminent of this family were Sir Ralph Abercromby ; 
and his two brothers, Alexander, Lord Abercromby, a judge 
of the court of session ; and General Sir Robert Abercromby, 
K.C.B.; of .all three notices are here given. 

ABERCROMBY, Sm Ralph, K.B., a dis- 
tinguished general, was the eldest sou of George 
Abercromby, of Tullibody, in Clackmannanshire, 
by Mary, daughter of Ralph Dundas, Esq. of Ma- 
nor. His father was born in 1705, passed advo- 
cate in 1728, and died June 8, 1800, at the ad 

S \ K i; .\ 1. I' II A 1! i; I! (■ U M I) Y 






vanced age of ninety-five, being the oldest nieni- 
bcr of tlie college of justice. His son K;il|ili was 
boni on tlie 7th of October, 1734, in the okl man- 
sion of Menstiie, then the ordinary residence of 
his parents, near the village of that name which 
lies at the southern base of the Oehil hills, on the 
boundary between the parish of Alloa in Clack- 
mannanshire, and tlie Perthshire part of the 
parish of Logic. The day of his birth has not 
been inserted in the session book of the parish 
of Logie, but the following is an extract 
from the register of his baptism: "A. D. 1734, 
October 2Gth, Bap. Ralph, lawful son to George 
Abercromby, younger of Tullibody, and Mary 
Dundas his lady." Menstrie nouse, in whicli he 
was born, was, in the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, the property and residence of Sir 
William Alexander, the poet, afterwards created 
earl of Stirling. Although not now inhabited by 
any of the Abercromby family, it is still entire. 
A woodcut representation of it is here given 

After the usual course ot study, young Aber- 
cromby entered the army in 1756, as a cornet in 
the 3d regiment of dragoon guards. His commis- 
sion is dated 22d March of that year. In February 
1760 he obtained a lieutenancy in the same regi- 
ment; in April 1762 he was promoted to a com- 
pany in the 3d regiment of horse. In 1770 he 
became major, and in 1773, lieutenant -colonel. 
In 1780 he was included in the list of brevet colo- 

nels, and in 1781 he was appointed coloucl of the 
lUlUl, or King's Irish infantry. This newly raised 
regiment was reduced at the peace in 17S3, when 
Colonel Abercromby was placed on half-pay. In 
Sei>teniber 1787 he became major-general. In 
1788, in which year he resided in George's Square, 
Edinburgh, he obtained the command of the Oyth 
regiment of foot. He was afterwards removed to 
the 6th regiment, from that to the 5th, and in 
November 1797 to the 7th regiment of dragoons 

He first served in the seven years' war, and 
acquired great knowledge and military experience 
in that service, before he had an opportunity of 
distinguishing himself, wliich afterwards, when 
the opportunity came, enabled him to be the first 
British general to give a check to the French in 
the first revolutionary war. He has often been 
confounded with the General Abercrombio who 
commanded the troops against the French at 
Crown Point and Ticonderoga in America in 
1758, but Sir Ralph at that period was only a 
cornet of dragoons, and 
=^__ notwithstanding the mis- 

take into which some of 
his biographers have fal- 
len, it is certain that ha 
never was in America. 

In the year 1774, when 
lieutenant-colonel, he had 
been elected member o.' 
parliament for Clack- 
niaunanshire,which conn 
ty he continued to repre- 
sent till the next election 
in 1780, but never made 
any figure in parliament. 
On the commencement 
_ _ of the war with France 

in 1792, ho was employed 
in Flanders and Holland witli tne local rank 
of lieutenant-general, and in the campaigns of 
1793 and 1794 he served under the duke of 
York, when he gave many proofs of his skill, 
vigilance, and intrepidity. He commanded the 
advanced guard dm-ing the action on the heights 
of Cateau, April 16, 1794. On this occasion 
he captured 35 pieces of cannon, and took 
jirisoner Chapny the French general. In 




the despatches of the duke of York his ability and 
courage were twice mentioned with special com- 
mendation. In the succeeding October he received 
a wound at Nimeguen, and upon him and General 
Dundas devolved the arduous duty of conducting 
the retreat througli Holland in the severe winter 
which followed. It has been remarked that the 
talents, as well as the temper, of a commander are 
put to as severe a test in conducting a retreat as 
in achieving a victory. This was well illustrated 
in the case of General Abercromby. The guards 
and the sick were committed to his care ; and in 
the disastrous march fi-om Deventer to Oldensaal 
the hardships sustained by those under his charge 
were such as the most consummate skill and judg- 
ment were almost inadequate to alleviate, while 
the feelings experienced by the commander him- 
self were painful in the extreme. Harassed in 
the rear by a victorious enemy, upwards of fifty 
thousand strong, obliged to conduct his troops 
with a rapidity beyond their strength, through bad 
roads, in the most inclement part of a winter more 
than usually severe, — the sick being placed in 
open waggons, as no others could be procured, — 
and finding it impossible to procure shelter for his 
soldiers in the midst of the drifting snow and 
heavy falls of sleet and rain, the anguish he felt 
at seeing their numbers daily diminishing from the 
effects of cold, fatigue, and hunger, can scarcely 
,be described. About the end of March 1795, the 
British army, which during the retreat had some- 
times to halt, face and fight the enemy, arrived at 
Bremen in a very reduced state, and thence em- 
barked for England. The judgment, patience, 
humanity, and perseverance shown by General 
Abercromby in this calamitous retreat were equal 
to the occasion, and received due acknowledg- 

In the autumn of 1795 General Abercromby was 
appointed to succeed Sir Charles Grey, as com- 
mander-in-chief of the troops employed against 
the French in the West Indies. Previous to his 
amval, the French revolutionaiy army had made 
considerable exertions to recover then' losses in 
that quarter. They retook the islands of Guada- 
loupe and St. Lucia, made good their lauding on 
Martinique, and hoisted the tricolour on several 
forts in the islands of St. Vincent, Grenada, and 

Marie Galante; besides seizing the property of 
the rich emigrants who had fled thither from 
France, to the amount of 1,800 millions of livi-es. 
The expedition under General Abercromby was 
unfortunately prevented from sailing until after 
the equinox, and several transports were lost in 
endeavouring to clear the Channel. The remain- 
der of the fleet reached the West Indies in safety, 
and by the month of March 1796 the troops were 
in a condition for active duty. A detachment of 
the army under Sir John Moore, was sent against 
the island of St. Lucia, which was speedily cap- 
tured, though the attack on this island was at- 
tended with peculiar difficulties from the intricate 
nature of the country. A new road was made for 
the heavy cannon, and on the 26th of May 1796, 
the gan-ison surrendered. St. Vincent was next 
subdued ; and thence the commander-in-chief pro- 
ceeded to Grenada, where the fierce and enterpris- 
ing Fedon was at the head of a body of insurgents 
prepared to oppose the British. After the arrival 
of General Abercromby, however, hostilities were 
speeddy brought to a termination ; and on the 
19th of June, full possession was obtained of every 
post in the island, and the haughty chief Fedon, 
with his troops, was reduced to unconditional sub- 
mission. The British also became masters of the 
Dutch colonies on the coast of Guiana, namely 
Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice. 

Early in the following year (1797) the general 
sailed, with a considerable fleet of ships of war 
and transports, against the Spanish island of Tri- 
nidad, and on the 16th of February approached 
the fortifications of Gaspar Grande, under cover 
of which a Spanish squadron, consisting of four 
sail of the line and a fi'igate, were found lying at 
anchor. On perceiving the approach of the Bri- 
tish, the Spanish fleet retu-ed farther into the bay. 
General Abercromby made arrangements for at- 
tacking the town and ships of war early in the 
following morning. Dreading the impending con- 
flict, the Spaniards set fire to their own ships, and 
retu-ed to a different part of the island. On the 
following day the British troops landed, and soon 
after the whole colony submitted to General Aber- 

After an unsuccessful attack on the Spanish 
island of Puerto Rico, the general retm-ned to 


SIR RAI.l'll. 

England the same year (1797) and was received 
with every demonstration of public respect and 
fionour. In his absence he had been made a 
knight of the Bath and presented to the colonelcy 
of the Scots Greys. Ou his return he was ap- 
pointed governor of the Isle of Wight, and was 
afterwards invested with the lucrative govern- 
ments of Forts Gem-ge and Augustus. The same 
year he was raised to the rank of lieutenant-gen- 
eral, which he had hitherto held only locally. 

In 1798 Sir Ralph was appointed commander- 
in-chief of the forces in L-eland, where the insur- 
rectionary spii'it, inflamed by promises of assist- 
ance from France, was every day assuming a more 
serious form and threatening to break out into 
open rebellion. Soon after his anival, finding 
that the disorderly conduct of some of the British 
troops had but too much tended to increase the 
spirit of insubordination and discontent that pre- 
vailed, he issued a proclamation, in which he 
lamented and reproved the excesses and Lrregu- 
lai'ities into which they had fallen, and which, to 
use his own words, " had rendered them more for- 
midable to their friends than to their enemies," 
and declared his firm detennination to punish, 
with exemplary severity, any similar outrage of 
which they miglit be guilty in future. He did not 
long retain his command in L'eland. The incon- 
veniences arising fi'om the delegation of the high- 
est civil and military authority to different persons, 
liad been felt to occasion much perplexity and 
confusion in the management of public affairs, at 
that season of agitation and alaim, and finding 
the service, under such circumstances, disagree- 
able. Sir Ralph resigned the command, and the 
Marquis Comwallis, on becoming lord-lieutenant 
of Ii-eland, was appointed his successor. 

Sir Ralph was next nominated commander-in- 
chief of the forces in Scotland ; and for a short 
interval, the cares of his militaiy duties were 
agi-eeably blended with the endearments of his 
kindi-ed and the society of his early friends. 
During his residence in Edinburgh at this time, 
the military spirit that generally prevailed ren- 
dered tne occurrence of reviews extremely popular 
among the inhabitants. The accompanying wood- 
cut represents Sir Ralph in the act of giving the 
word of command to the troops. 


.-,'-'.'.. ■'^wVVv 

It was at this period that the Loehiel Highland- 
ers were inspected at Falkirk by General Vyse, 
one of the major-generals of tJie staff in Scotland, 
under Sir Ralph Abercromby, who was present at 
the inspection. Cameron, tlie chief of Loehiel, 
married Sir Ralph's eldest daughter Anne. The 
regiment was ostensibly composed of Camerons, 
but there were enrolled in its ranks, not only 
lowlanders, but even Englishmen and Irishmen. 
Some laughable attempts at fraud in endeavouring 
to pass inspection are related, but unless actually 
disabled, few objections were made, although 
Scotsmen in general found a preference. " ^V^lere 
are you from ? " said General Vyse to a strange- 
looking fellow, who was evidently an L-ishman, 
although he endeavoured to make believe that he 
was Scotch. "From Falkirk, yir honour, this 
morning," was the ready answer. His language 
betraying him, the general demanded to know 
how he came over. " Sure I didn't come in a 
wheelbaiTow ! " The rising choler of the inspect- 
ing oflScer was speedily soothed by the milder tact 
of Sii- Ralph, who, seeing the man a fit recruit, 
laughed heartily, and he was passed. On this 
occasion Sir Raljih, during his stay in Falku-k, 
took up his residence with the son of his late fn- 




tiler's gardener at Tullibody, Mr. James Walker, 
a naercliant iu the toivii, and long knomi for his 
agricultm-al skill, as " the Stirlingshire Farmer." 
Sir Ralph delighted, after dinner, to recall the in- 
cidents of their boyhood, when he and Mr. Walk- 
er, with their brothers, were at school together. 
He had previously shown the attachment of former 
days to a younger brother of Blr. Walker, during 
the struggle for liberty between America and the 
mother country. These kindly and benevolent 
traits, it has been well remarked, easily explain 
why Sir Ralph Abercromby was personally so 
dear to all who knew him. — \_Kar/s Edinburgh 

In the autumn of 1799 he was selected to take 
the chief command of the expedition sent out to 
Holland, for the purpose of restoring the prince of 
Orange to the stadtholdership, from which he had 
been driven by the French. In this expedition 
the British were at the outset successful. On the 
:;7th of August the British troops disembarked 
near the Helder point, but were almost imme- 
diately attacked by General Daendells ; after a 
contest, which lasted from day-dawn till about 
five in the afternoon, the Dutch were defeated, 
and retired, leaving the British in possession of a 
ridge of sand hills which stretched along the coast 
from south to north. Sir Ralph Abercrombie re- 
solved to attack the Helder next morning, but the 
enemy withdrew during the night, in consequence 
of wliich thirteen ships of war and three India- 
men, together with the arsenal and naval maga- 
zine, fell into the possession of the British. Ad- 
miral Mitchell, who commanded the British fleet, 
immediately offered battle to the fleet of the Ba- 
tavian republic lying in the Texel, but the Dutch 
sailors refusing to fight against those who were 
combating for the rights of the prince of Orange, 
the whole fleet, consisting of twelve sail of the 
line, surrendered to the British admiral. This 
encouraging event, however, did not put an end 
to the struggle. The mass of the Dutch people 
held sentiments vety different from those of the 
sailors, and they refused to receive the British as 
their deliverers from the yoke of France. On the 
morning of the 10th of September the Dutch and 
French forces attacked the position of the British, 
which extended from Petten on the German ocean 

to Oude-Sluys on the Zuyder-Zee. The onset 
was made with the utmost bravery, but the enemy 
were repulsed with the loss of a thousand men. 
From the want of numbers, however. Sir Ralpu 
Abercromby was unable to follow up this advan- 
tage, until the duke of York arrived as command- 
er-in-chief, with a reinforcement of Russians, 
Batavians, and Dutch volunteers, which augment- 
ed the allied armv to nearly thirty-sis thousand 
men. Sir Ralph now served as second in com- 

On the morning of the 19th September the army 
under the duke of York commenced an attack on 
the enemy's positions on the heights of Camper- 
down, which was successful. The Russian troops, 
under General Hermann, made themselves mas- 
ters of Bergen, but beginning to pillage too soon, 
the enemy rallied, and attacked them with so 
much impetuosity that they were driven from the 
town in all directions. The British were in con- 
sequence compelled to abandon the positions they 
had stormed, and to fall back upon their former 
station. Another attack was made on the 2d of 
October. The conflict lasted the whole day, and 
the enemy abandoned their positions during the 
night. On this occasion Su- Ralph Abercromby 
had two horses shot under him. Sir John Moore 
was twice wounded severely, and reluctantly car- 
ried off the field, while the marquis of Huntly 
(the last duke of Gordon) who, at the head of the 
92d regiment, eminently distinguished himself, 
received a wound from a ball in the shoulder. 
The Dutch and French troops had taken up ano- 
ther strong position between Benerwych and the 
Zuyder-Zee, fi'om which it was resolved to dis- 
lodge them before they could obtain reinforce- 
ments. A day of sanguinary fighting ensued, 
which continued without intermission till ten 
o'clock at night amid deluges of rain. The French 
republican general, Brune, having been reinforced 
with six thousand additional men, and the ground 
which he occupied being found to be impregnable, 
the duke of York resolved upon a retreat. A con- 
vention was accordingly concluded with Geueial 
Brune, by which the British troops were allowed 
to embark for England. 

In June 1800 Sir Ralph was appointed to the 
command of the troops, then quartered in the 




island of IMinorca, which had been sent out upon 
a secret expedition to the Jlediterranean. On 
the 22d of that montli lie ari-ived at IMinorca, and 
on the 23d tlie troops were embarked, and sailed 
for Leghorn. Tliey arrived there on the 9th of 
July, but in consequence of an armistice having 
been concluded between the French and the Aus- 
trians, thev did not land there ; but while part of 
the troops proceeded to Malta, the remainder re- 
turned to IMinorca. On the 26th of July Sir 
Ralph arrived again at that island, where he re- 
mained till the 30th of August, when the troops 
were again embarked ; and on the 14th September 
the fleet, which consisted of upwards of two hun- 
dred sail, under the command of Admiral Lord 
Keith, came to anchor off Europa point in the bay 
of Gibraltar. After taking in water at Teutan, 
the fleet, on the 3d of October, arrived off Cadiz, 
where it was intended to disembark the troops, 
and orders were accordingly issued for the purpose, 
but a flag of truce was sent from the shore, and 
some negotiations took place between the com- 
manders, in consequence of which the orders for 
landing were countermanded. After thus threat- 
ening Cadiz, and sailing about apparently without 
any distinct destination, orders were at last re- 
ceived ft-om England, for part of the troops to pro- 
ceed to Portugal, and the remainder to IMalta, 
where they an-ived about the middle of Novem- 
ber. The latter portion afterwards formed part 
of the forces employed in the expedition to Egyi)t, 
with the view of driving the French out of that 
country. The sailing backwards and forwards of 
the fleet for so many months, seemingly without 
any definite aim, so far from being indicative of 
want of design or weakness in the councils of the 
government at home, as was believed and said at 
the time, was no doubt intended to deceive the 
French as to the real object and destination of the 

From jMalta the fleet, with Sir Ralph Aber- 
cromby and the troops on board, sailed on the 
20th December, taking with them 500 Maltese 
recruits, designed to act as pioneers. On the 1st 
of January 1801, it rendezvoused in the bay of 
Marmorice, on the coast of Caramania, where it 
remained till the 23d of February, on which day, 
to the number of 175 sail, it weighed anchor 

again ; and on the 1st of Alarcli, it came in sight 
of the coast of Egypt. On the following morning 
the fleet anchored in Abonkir bay, in the very 
place where, a few years liefire. Admiral Nelson 
had added so signally to the naval triumphs of 
Great Britain. 

This was undoubtedly the most glorious period 
of Sir Ralph Abercromby's career. " All minds," 
says a contemporary historian, " were now anxi- 
ously directed towards Egypt. It was a novel 
and interesting sjioctacle to contemplate the two 
most powerful nations of Europe contending in 
Africa for the possession of Asia. Not only to 
England and France, but the whole civilized 
world, the issue of this contest was of the utmost 
importance AMth respect to England, the diffi- 
culties to be surmounted were ])roportioned to the 
magnitude of the object. The vizier, with his 
usual irresolution, yet debated on the propriety of 
co-operation, while the captain bashaw, who was 
at Constantinople, with part of his fleet, inclined 
to treat with the enemy. The English taking the 
unpopular side, that of the government, still less 
was to be hoped from the countenance and snpporl 
of the people, whom the French had long flattered 
with the idea of freedom and independence. It 
remained, also, to justify the breach of faith so 
speciously attributed to this nation in the treaty 
of El Arisli. These were serious obstacles to the 
progress of the expedition in Eg}-])t ; but they, 
were not the only obstacles. The expedition had 
to contend with an army habituated to the coun- 
tr}', respected at least, if not beloved, by the in- 
habitants, and flushed with reputation and suc- 
cess ; an army inured to danger ; aware of the 
importance of Egypt to their government ; deter- 
mined to defend the possession of it ; and encour- 
aged in this determination, no less by the assur- 
ance of speedily receiving effectual succours, than 
b}' the promise of reward, and the love of glory." 

The violence of the wind, from the 1st to the 
7th of March, rendered a landing impracticable ; 
but the weather becoming calmer on the 7th, that 
day was spent in reconnoitring the shore ; a ser- 
vice iu which Sir Sidney Smith displayed great 
skill and activity. 

In the meantime Bonaparte had sent naval 
and military reinforcements from Europe, and the 




delay in tlie disembarkation of tlie British troops 
caused by the state of tlie weatlior, enabled the 
French to malic all ncc(!ssary preparations to re- 
ceive them. Two thonsand five 1miii(Ii-c<I of the 
latter were stronrjiy intrenched on the sand liills 
near tlic shore, and foi-rned, in a concave figun;, 
opposite the British sliips. The main body of the 
French army was stationed at and near Alexan- 
dria, within a few miles. At two o'clock on the 
moi-ning of the 8th, the British troops began to 
assemble in the boats, their fire-lockg between their 
knees. A rocket from the admiral's ship gave the 
signal ; and when all was ready, the boats, eon 
laining five thousand men, pulled in towards the 
shore, a distance of about five miles. The silence 
was broken only by the sullen dip of the oars. As 
soon as the boats came within reach, a most tre- 
mendous fire was opened upon them from fifteen 
pieces of artillery placed on the ridge of sand hills 
in front, besides the guns of Aboukir castle and 
the musketry of y,.')00 men. These completely 
swept the sea, and the falling of the balls and shot 
rs compared, by a contemporary writer, to the 
falling of a violent hail-storm on the water. Two 
boats were sunk willi all on boai-il of them. Each 
man had belts loaded with three days' ))rovisions, 
ami a cartouch-bo.\ with sixty rounds of ball car- 
tridge. It was nine o'clock when the rest reached 
hind ; and the French, who had poured down in 
thousands to the beach, and even attacked the 
British in the boats, were ready to receive them 
at the bayonet's point. It was now that their 
commander reajied the advantage of his precau- 
tionary discipline. While anchored in the bay 
of Marmorice, he had caused the troops to prac- 
tise all the nianonivres of landing ; so that, di.'^^eni- 
liarkation having become familiar to them, on 
reaching the shore, they leaped from the boats, 
formed into line, mounted the heights, in the face 
of the enemy's fire, without returning a shot, 
charged with the bayonet the enemy stationed on 
the summit, put them to flight, and seized their 
cannon. In this service the 28d and 40th regi- 
ments, which first reached the shore, particularly 
distinguished themselves ; wliile the seamen, har- 
nessing themselves to the field artillery with ropes, 
drew them on shore, and replied to the incessant 
roar of the hostile caniiou with repeated and tri- 

umphant cheers. In vain did the enemy endea- 
vour to rally his troops ; in vain did a body ol 
cavalry charge suddenly on the guards at the mo- 
ment of their debarkation. 'J'lie French gave way 
at all points, maintainingi as they retreated, a 
scattered and in(tlllcient fire. The boats returned 
to the ships for the remaining part of the army, 
and before noon the landing was effected. It not 
being deemed expedient, however, to bring on 
shore the camp stores; the commandcr-in-chie( 
and the troops, after having advanced three miles 
into the country, alike slept in huts made of the 
date-tree branches. 

The next day the troops were employed in 
searching for water, in which they happily suc- 
ceeded ; and the castle of Aboukir refusing to sur- 
render, two regiments were ordered to blockade it. 
On the IStli, Sir Ralph, desirous of forcing the 
heights near Alexandiia, on which a body of 
French, amounting to 0,000 men, was posted, 
marched his army to the attack. 

After a severe contest, the French were com- 
pelled to retire to the heights of Neeopolis, which 
formed the principal defence of Alexandria. Anx- 
ious to follow up the victory, by driving the enemy 
from his new position. Sir Ralph ordered forward 
the reserve under Sir John Moore, and the second 
line under General Hutchinson, to attack the 
heights, which were found to be commanded by 
the guns of the fort. As they advanced into the 
open plain, they were exposed to a most destruc- 
tive fire, from which they had no shelter; and 
having ascertained that the lieights, if taken, 
could not be retained, the attempt was aban- 
doned, and the British army retired, with consider- 
able loss, to the position which was soon to be 
the theatre of Sir Ralph's last victory; — tliat. 
namely, from which the enemy had been driven, 
comprising a front of more than half-a-mile in ex- 
tent, with their right to the sea, and their left to 
the canal of Alexandria and Lake Maadic, thus 
cutting oif all communication with the city, ex- 
cept by way of the desert. The loss of the Brit- 
ish, on that unfortunate day, in killed and wound- 
ed, was upwards of 1,000, and General Aber- 
cromby himself, on this occasion, had a very 
narrow escape. His horse being shot under him, 
he became surrounded by the enemy's cavaliy. 




iind was rescued onlj- by the devoted iiitiepidity 
M' the 19tli regiment. After the 13th, Aboukir 
oastle, whicli had hitlierto been only blockaded, 
was besieged, and on the 18th the garrison sur- 
rendered. Tlie annexed woodcut represents the 
i;eneral viewing tlie army encamped on the plains 
jf Effvpt, a bliort time before his lamented death. 

It is veiy characteristic of liini, and though the 
glass at his eye may indicate that age Iiad begun 
to affect his sight, the erectucss of his figure shows 
that, notwithstanding his long and active career, 
advancing years and the hard sen-ices in which 
he had been engaged, had left their traces but 
liglitly on his frame 

The French commanacr-ui-cliicf. General Me 
nou, having arrived fi-ora Caii-o, with a reinforce 
ment of 9,000 men, early on the morning of the 
21st of March, was fouglit the decisive battle of 
Alexandria, in which, after a sanguinary and pro- 
tracted struggle, the Britisli were victorious. Gen- 
eral Jlenou bemg obliged to retreat with a loss 
of between three and four thousand men, including 
many officeis, and three generals killed. Tlie loss 
of the British was also heavy, and this flas the 

last field of the victor, for ncrc Sir Kalph Aher- 
cromby received his death-wound. 

Meaning to surprise the British, the French 
commander attacked theii' position between three 
and four o'clock in the morning, with his whole 
force, amounting to about twelve thousand men. 
The action was commenced by a feigned attack 
on the le% while the main strength of the enemy 
was directed against the right wing of the British 
army. They advanced in columns, shouting " Vive 




la France!" "Vive la Republique!" but they 
were received with steady coolness by the British 
troops, who, warned the previous evening, by an 
Arab chief, of the intentions of the French gen- 
eral, were in battle array by three o'clock, and 
prepared to receive the onset of the enemy. The 
contest continued with various success until eight 
o'clock, when General Menou, finding that all his 
eftbrts were fruitless, ordered a retreat, and from 
the want of cavalry on the part of the British, the 
French eft'ccted their escape to Alexandria, in 
good order. 

On the first alarm. Sir Ralph Abercromby, 
blending the coolness and experience of age with 
the ardour and activity of youth, repaired on 
horseback to the right, and exposed himself to all 
the dangers of the field. During the battle he 
rode about in all parts, cheering and animating 
his men, and while it was still dark he got among 
the enemy, who had already broken the front line 
and fallen into the rear. Unable to distinguish 
the French soldiers from his own, he was only ex- 
tricated from his dangerous situation by the val- 
our of his troops. To the first British soldier who 
came up to him he said, " Soldier ! if you know 
me, don't name me." Soon after, two French 
dragoons rode furiously at him, and attempted to 
lead him away prisoner. Sir Ralph, however, 
would not yield ; one of his assailants made a 
thrust at his breast, and passed his sword with 
great force under the general's arm. Although 
severel}' bruised by a blow from the sword-guard, 
Sii' Ralph, with the vigour and strength of arm 
for «liich he was distinguished, seized the French- 
man's weapon, and after a short struggle, wrested 
it from his hand, and turned to oppose his remain- 
ing adversary, who, at that instant, was shot dead 
by a corporal of the 42d, who had witnessed the 
danger of his commander, and ran up to his as- 
sistance; on which the other dragoon retired. 

Although Sh- Ralph, early in the action, had 
been wounded in the thigh by a musket ball, he 
treated the wound as a trifle, and continued to 
move about, and give his orders with his charac- 
teristic promptitude and clearness. On the re- 
treat of the enemy he fainted from pain and the 
loss of blood. His magnanimous conduct, both 
during the battle and after it, is thus detailed by 

the late General David Stewart, of Garth, who 
was an eye-witness to it. After describing Sii 
Ralph's rencontre with the French dragoons, he 
continucB : " Some time after the general attempt- 
ed to alight from his horse ; a soldier of the High- 
landers, seeing that he had some difliculty in 
dismounting, assisted him, and asked if he should 
follow him with the horse. He answered, that 
he would not recpiire him any more that day. 
While all this was passing, no officer was near 
him. The first officer he met was Sir Sidney 
Smith ; and observing that his sword was broken, 
the general presented him with the trophy he had 
gained. He betrayed no symptom of personal 
pain, nor relaxed a moment the intense interest 
he took in the state of the field ; nor was it per- 
ceived that he was wounded, till he was joined by 
some of the staff, who observed the blood trick- 
ling down his thigh. Even dui'ing the interval 
from the time of his being wounded, and the last 
charge of cavalry, he walked with a firm and 
steady step along the line of the Highlanders and 
General Stuart's brigade, to the position of the 
guards in the centre of the line, where, from its 
elevated situation, he had a full view of the wnole 
field of battle. Here he remained, regardless of 
the wound, giving his orders so much in his usual 
manner, that the officers who came to receive 
them perceived nothing that indicated either pain 
or anxiety. These officers afterwards could not 
sufficiently express their astonishment, when they 
came to learn the state in which he was, and the 
pain which he must have suffered from the nature 
of his wound. A musket ball had entered his 
groin, and lodged deep in the hip joint ; the ball 
was even so finnly fixed in the hip joint that it 
required considerable force to extract it after his 
death. My respectable friend, Dr. Alexander 
Robertson, the siu-geon who attended him, assured 
me that nothing could exceed his surprise and 
admiration at the calmness of his heroic patient. 
With a wound in such a part, connected with and 
bearing on every part of his body, it is a matter 
of surprise how he could move at all, and nothing 
but the most intense interest in the fate of his 
army, the issue of the battle, and the honour of 
the British name, could have inspired and sus- 
tained such resolution. As soon as the impulse 




sensed in the assurance of victory, he yielded to 
exhausted nature, acknowledged that he required 
some rest, and hiy down on a little sand lull dose 
to the battery." 

From the field of victory he wns removed on a 
litter, feeble and faint, on board the admiral's flag 
ship, ' the Foudroyant,' where every effort was 
made by the medical gentlemen of the fleet and 
the army to extract the ball, but without effect. 
During a week that he lingered in great bodily 
suffering, he continued to exercise the same vigi- 
lance over the condition and prospects of his ar- 
my as he had manifested while at its head. His 
son. Lieutenant - colonel Abercromby, attended 
him from day to day, and regnlarl}' received his 
instructions, as if no serious accident had befallen 
him. Throughout the evening of the 27th, he 
became more than usually restless, and complain- 
ed of excessive languor, and an increased degree 
of thirst ; next day mortification supervened, and 
in the evening he expired ; thus closing his glori- 
ous career, on the 28th March 1801, in the GSth 
year of liis age. 

In the despatches sent home with an account of 
his death by General (afterwards Lord) Hutchin- 
son, who succeeded him in the command, the lat- 
ter says : " We have sustained an irreparable loss 
in the person of our never-sufficiently-to-be-la- 
raented commander-in-chief. Sir Ralph Aber- 
cromby, who was mortally wounded in the action, 
and died on the 28th of March. I believe he was 
wounded early, but he concealed his situation 
from those about him, and continued in the field 
giving his orders with that coolness and perspicu- 
ity which had ever marked his character, till long 
after the action was over, when he fainted through 
weakness and loss of blood. Were it permitted 
for a soldier to regret any one who has fallen in 
the service of his country, I might be excused for 
lamenting him more than any other person ; but 
it is some consolation to those who tenderly loved 
him, that, as his life was honourable, so was his 
death glorious. His memory will be recorded in 
the annals of his countiy, will be sacred to every 
British soldier, and embalmed in the recollection 
of a grateful posterity." His remains were con- 
veyed, (in compliance with his own request,) to 
Malta, and interred in the Conimandcry of the 

Grand Master, beneath the castle of St. Elmo. A 
monument was erected to his memory in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, parliament having voted a sum of 
money for the pinpose. His widow was created 
Baroness Abercromby of Aboukir and Tullibody, 
with remainder to the heirs-male of the deceased . 
geneial ; and, in support of the dignity, a pension 
of £2,000 a-year was granted to her, and to tlie 
two next succeeding heirs-male. 

Sir Ralpli Abercromby possessed, in a high dc- 
gi-ee, some of tlie best qualities of a general, and 
his coolness, decision, and intrejiiditj', were the 
theme of general praise. As a country gentleman, 
also, his character stood very high, being described 
as " the friend of the destitute poor, the patron o( 
useful knowledge, and the promoter of education 
among the meanest of his cottagers." His studies 
were of so general a nature that it is stated in 
Stirling's edition of Nimmo's History of Stirling- 
shire, that when called to the continent in 1793, 
he had been daily attending the lectures of the 
late Dr. Hai-dy, regius professor of church histoiy 
in the university of Edinburgh. 

To Sir Ralph's patronage many who would 
otherwise have passed their lives in obscnritj', 
owed their being placed in situations where they 
had opportunities of advancement and distinction ; 
among the rest was the late Major-general Sir 
William Morison, K.C.B., one of the many able 
oflicers whom the East India Company's sen'i(;e 
has produced. His father, Mr. Morison of Green- 
field, Clackmannanshire, was a land surveyor in 
Alloa in the conntj' of Stirling, who was well 
kno«ni to most of the gentlemen in that neigh- 
bourhood, and was in particular employed b3' Sir 
Ralph Abercromby. When Sir Ralph was going 
al)road on foreign service, he had occasion to con- 
sult Mr. Morison, the father, about one of his 
f^irms, and was particularly pleased with the accu- 
racy and clearness of the plan and its references, 
w^hich he submitted to him. On being asked who 
drew them up, Mr. Morison told Sir Ralph that it 
was done by his son, and the gei>cral immediately 
said that he should like to have the whole of hia 
estate mapped in the same manner, so that, when 
away from home, he might be able, by reference, 
to correspond about any point that occurred. The 
maps were made by vouug Morison, who waited on 




Sir Ralph to explain tliem, and the veteran gen- 
eral, who was a gi-eat judge of character, instantly 
perceived the value of the self-taught youth. Ho 
made inquiries as to his views and prospects, and 
finding that he was anxious to go to India, he 
procured for him a cadetship, in the year 1800. 
From the outset the young man justified Sir 
Ralph's estimate of his abilities, and he so applied 
his faculties to military science, that his attain- 
ments raised him to a high rank in the Indian 
army, and he died 15th May 1851, a major-general 
in the East India Company's service, a knight 
commander of the Bath, and member of parlia- 
ment for Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire. 

Sir Ralph married Mary Anne, daughter of 
John Menzies, Esq. of Ferutower, Perthshire, and 
left four sons, viz. George, passed advocate in 1794, 
who succeeded his mother on her death in 1821, 
as Lord Abercromby, and died in 1843 ; Sir John, 
a major-general, and G.C.B., who died unmar- 
ried in 1817 ; James, a barrister at law, returned, 
with Francis Jeffrey, Esq., (subsequently a lord 
of session,) as one of the members of parliament 
for the city of Edinburgh at the first election under 
the Reform act, afterwards Speaker of the House 
of Commons, created Lord Dunfermline in 1839 ; 
and Alexander, a colonel in the army ; with three 
daughters ; Anne, married to Donald Cameron, 
£sq. of Lochiel ; Mary, died unmarried in 1825 ; 
and Catherine, wife of Thomas Buchanan, Esq., 
m the East India Company's service. Lord Dun- 
fermline, the third son, died in 1858, leaving a 
son, Ralph, second Lord Dunfermline. (See Dun- 
fermline, Lord, vol. ii. p. 105.) 

ABERCROMBY, Alexander, an eminent 
lawyer and occasional essayist, was born October 
15, 1745. He was the second son of George 
Abercromby of Tullibody, and the brother of Sir 
Ralph. He received his education at the univer- 
sity of Edinbiu-gh, and was admitted a member of 
the faculty of advocates in 1766. He distin- 
guished himself at tlie bar, and in 1780, after 
being sheriff of Stirlingshire, he became one of 
the depnte-advocatcs. He was raised to the bench 
m May 1792, when he assumed the title of Lord 
Abercromby. In December of the same year, he 
was made a lord of justiciary. He was one of the 
originators of the ' Mirror,' a periodical published 

at Edinburgh in 1779 and following year, to which 
he contributed eleven papers. He also furnished 
nine papers to the ' Lounger,' a work of a similar 
kind, published in 1785 and 1786. He caught a 
cold, while attending his duty on the northern 
circuit in the spring of 1795, from which he never 
recovered, and died on the 17th of November ol 
that year, at Exmouth, in Devonshire, where he 
had gone on account of his health. A short tri- 
bute to his memory was written by his friend, 
Henry Mackenzie, for the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh. — Hdig and Bi-untorCs Senators of the Col- 
lege of Justice. 

ABERCROjNIBY, Sir Robert, the youngest 
brothei- of Sir Ralph Abercromby, was a general 
in the army, a knight of the Bath, and at one pe- 
riod the governor of Bombay and commander-in- 
chief of the forces in India. He was afterwards 
for thirty years governor of the castle of Edin- 
burgh. When the late Mr. Robert Haldane, the 
brother of Mr. James Alexander Haldane, de- 
teiinined upon selling his estates, and devoting 
himself to the dift'usion of the gospel in India, 
Sir Robert Abercromby, whose niece Mr. J. A. 
Haldane had married, purchased from him his 
beautiful and romantic estate of Airthrey, in Stir- 
lingshire, and was succeeded by his nephew. Lord 
Abercromby, the son of his elder brother. Sir 
Ralph. Su- Robert died in 1827. 

Aberdeen, earldom of, a peer.nge possessed by a bmnch 
of tlie ancient family of Gordon. In ld44, Sir John Gordon 
of Haddo was beheaded at Edinburgh, for his adlierence to 
the cause of Charles I. After the Restoration, Sir John 
Gordon, his eldest son, was restored to the baronetiige which 
bad been bestowed on his father in 1642, and to the estates o\ 
the family. He was succeeded by his brother George, who lord high chancellor of Scotland in 1682, and the same 
ye.ia- was created Earl of Aberdeen, Viscount Fonii.irtine, Ba- 
ron Haddo, llethlic, Tarves, and Kellie. In 1814 the fourth 
earl of Aberdeen was created Viscount Gordon of Aberdeen, 
m the peerage of the United Kingdom. See Gordon, p. 323 

Abeknetht — (beyond the Nethy) — a surname derived 
from a barony of that name in Lower Stratheam, Perthshire, 
which was possessed in the reign of William I. by Orme, the 
son of Hugh, who was styled Abbot of Abemethy, and whose 
descendants assumed the name of Abemethy. In 1288 Sir 
William ile Abemethy, the first of the family styled of Sal- 
toun, and Su' Patrick de Abemethy, lay in wait for Duncan 
earl of Fife, one of the regents of the kingdom during the 
minority of JIargiret of Norway, at PotpoHock, and murdered 
him. William was seized by Sir Andi-ew Moray of Bothwell 
and condemned to perpetual imprisonment, and Patrick fled 
rato France and died there. \^F(yrdim.'] His nephew, Alex- 
ander de Abernethy, in 1308, along with Robert de Keith 




Adam de Gordon, and otlier leading bai-ons, were sureties to 
Edward for the good behaviour of William de Lanihyrton, 
bishop of St. Andrews. [_Ri/iner^s Fivdera, tome iii. p. 82.] 
The same individual was appomted by Edward warden of 
the country between the Forth and the mountains of Scot- 
land, 15th June, lolO. \_lbici. tome iii. j). 211.] His eldest 
daughter JLargaret manned to John Stewart, earl of An- 
gus, who got with her the barony of Abcrnethy, the superior- 
ity of which is still possessed by the family of Douglas, (now 
Hamilton,) .as representatives of the earl of Angus. To the 
fanujus letter to the Pope, drawn up by the barons of Scot- 
land at the parliament of Aberbrothic Gth April, 1320, appears 
the n.ime of William de Abernethy, lord of Saltoun. He 
was the son of the first Sir William de Abernethy of S.altoun. 
His son, also named Sir William, appears in the list of noble 
pei-sons who fought at the b.attle of Halidon hill, I'Jth July, 
1333, [Haiks' Aniiah, vot ii. p. 307,] fi'om which disastrous 
field he appears to h.ave escaped. He had from Da\nd II. a 
gr.aut of the lands of Rothiem.iy in Aberdeenshire. George 
Abernethy of Saltoun, his son, was taken piisoner at the fatal 
fight of Durham, 17th Oct., 13-16. At the battle of H.ulaw 
21th July 1411, William Abernethy, son .and heir to the Lord 
Saltoun, one of the principal leaders, and w-as slain. But 
although he is called "the worthy Lord Saltone " and of his 
death it is said in the popular ballad, 

"Ajid on the otlier side war lost 

Into the field dismal day, 
Cliief men of wortli of micklc cost. 

To be lamented siur for aye. 
The lord Saltone of Rotliicniay, 

A man of niiclit and niickle main 
Gi' dolour was for his decay 

That sae unhai)pily was slain ;" 

yet the peerage was not confeiTod upon the family till 28th 
.lune, 1445, — 34 years later, — in the person of Laurence 
.\bernethy of Saltoim and Kothiemay, created*on Saltoun 
of Abeniethy, and as the said William Abernethy predeceased 
his father, he was called " the Lord Saltone" only by coiutesy. 
This Laurence Abernethy of Saltoim and Rothiemay, first 
Lord Saltoun, was the twelfth in descent from Orm the 
.ounder of the family. Marg.aret, the eldest daughter of the 
seventh Lord Saltoun, married Sir Alexander Fraser of Phil- 
ortli in Aberdeenshire, and their son. Sir Alexander Fraser, 
oecame the tenth Lord Saltoun, and his descendants suc- 
ceeded to the title. The brother of his mother, John, 
eighth Lord Saltoun, sold the estate of Rothiemay. The 
family of Abeniethy is now represented by the Frasers of 
Philorth, lords Saltoun. — See Saltoun. — The p.arish and 
village of Abernethy are of great antiquity. The latter 
was at one period the capital of the Pictish kings. It is 
n.amed by various English writers and by Fordoun as the 
place where Malcolm C.anmore concluded a peace with Wil- 
liam the Conqueror in 1072, delivered to him hostages, and 
did homage to him for the lands which he held in England. 
But although now a mean village, " it would appeal-," says Dr. 
Jamieson, " that it was a royal residence in the reign of one 
of the Pictish pnnces who bore the name of Nethan or Nectan. 
The Pictish chronicle has ascribed the foundation of Aberne- 
thy to Nethan I., in the third year of his reign, corresponding 
with A.D. 458. The Register of St. Andrews, with greater 
probability, gives it to Nethan II. about the year GOO." We 
find that while the church of Abernethy was granted by 
WilUam I. in 1178, to his foundation of the abbey of Aber- 
brothock, Orme, abbot of Abernethy, granted the half of the 
tithes of the property of himself and his heirs to the same 
iustitutiou. The other half belonged to the Culdees, .is in 

ancient times Abernethy was n principal sejit of the Cuhiecs, 
who liad a university at Abeniethy, which in 1273 wna turned 
into a priory of canons regular of St. Augustine. It is s 
burgh of bimjny, and has a charter from Arcliibald, earl nf 
Angus, lord of Abeniethy, dated November 29, 1028. Tho 
title of Lord Abernethy was conferred on the earl of Angus 
when a-eated marquis of DougliLs in 1G33, and is now one >■( 
the inferior titles of the duko of Hamilton as representative 
and cliief of the illustrious house of Douglas.— See ILuiiiLTOS. 

ABERNETHY, John, an einiiu'iit pliysician of 
London, was born in 1763 or 17C4, at Abcrnethy 
in r'frtli.shire,it is believed; altliougb Londonderry 
in Ireland is also mentioned as his birtli-placc. 
When very young, his parents removed to Lon- 
don, where he was apprenticed to tlie late Mr. 
(afterwards Sir) Charles Blick, surgeon of St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital. He was the pupil and 
friend of the celebrated John Hunter. In 1780, 
ou being elected assistant-surgeon to St. Bartlio- 
lomew's, he began to give lectures in the hospital 
on anatomy and surgery. On tlie death of Sir 
Cliarles Bliclc he succeeded him as surgeon to 
the Hospital. In 1793 he published 'Surgical 
and Pliysiological Essays. ' In 1804 appeared 
'Surgical Observations,' volume first, relating to 
tumours, and two years afterwards, volume se- 
cond, treating principally of the digestive organs. 
Having been elected anatomical lecturer to the 
Royal College of Surgeons, he published in 1814 
the subject of his first two lectures, under tlie 
title of ' An Enquiry into Mr. Hunter's Theory of 
Life,' elucidatory of his old master's opinions of 
the vital processes. In 1809 appeared his 'Sur- 
gical Observations on the Constitutional Origin 
and Treatment of Local Diseases, and on Aneu- 
risms,' in which are detailed his memorable ca.scs 
of tying the iliac artery for aneurism ; a bold and 
successful operation, which at once established his 
reputation. He was the author of several other 
popular medical works. In chemistiy, we owe Ui 
him in conjunction witli Mr. Howard, brotlier at 
the duke of Norfolk, the discovery of tlie " fulmi- 
nating mercm-y," the force of which, as an exjjlo- 
sive power, is greater than tliat of gunpowder. 
He died on the 20th of April, 1831, at his hou« 
at Enfield. Many amusing anecdotes are related 
of his eccentricities. He attributed most com- 
plaints to the disordered state of the stomach, and 
his chief remedies were exercise and regulation of 
the diet. Once he prescribed a skipping ropf to a 




female hypochondriac patient of the upper ranks ; 
and at another time, as a cure for gout, he advised 
an indolent and luxurious citizen to " live upon 
sixpence a-day, and earn it." In spite of the 
bluntness of his manner, however, he was very 
benevolent, and often not only gratuitously visited 
persons whose poverty prevented them from com- 
ing to him, but even sometimes supplied their 
wants from his own purse. The following is the 
account given of the abrupt and unceremonious 
but truly characteristic manner in which he ob- 
tained his wife. The name of the lady is not 
given. " While attending a lady for several weeks, 
he observed those admirable qualifications in her 
daughter, which he truly esteemed to be calculated 
to make the marriage state happy. Accordingly, 
on a Saturday, when taking leave of his patient, 
he addi'essed her to the following purport : — ' You 
are now so well that I need not see you after 
Monday next, when I sliall come and pay you my 
farewell visit. But, in the meantime, I wish you 
and your daughter seriously to consider the pro- 
posal I am now about to make. It is abrupt and 
unceremonious, I am aware; but the excessive 
occupation of my time by my professional duties 
affords me no leisure to accomplish what I desire 
by the more ordinary course of attention and soli- 
citation. My annual receipts amount to £ , 

and I can settle £ on my wife (mentioning 

the sums): my character is generally known to the 
public, so that you may readily ascertain what it 
is. I have seen in your daughter a tender and 
affectionate child, an assiduous and careful nurse, 
and a gentle and ladylike member of a family; 
such a person must be all that a husband could 
covet, and I offer my hand and fortune for her 
acceptance. On INIonday, when I call, I shall 
expect your determination; for I really have not 
time for the routine of courtship.' In this humour, 
♦he lady was wooed and won ; and the union 
proved fortunate in ever'y respect." — Annual Obi- 
tuary, 1832. 

The following is a list of his works 

Surgical and Physiological Essays. Lond. 1793-7, 8vo. 

Surgical Obsei-vatiOTis, containing a Cl.assification of Tu- 
mours, mth Cases to illustrate the History of each Species. 
Lond. 1804, 8vo. 

Surgical Observations, part second, containing .in Account 
of the DisordtTS of the Health m general, and of the Digestive 
Orgaiis ra particular. Obser\'ations on the Diseases of the 

Urethra, and ObseiTations relative to the Treatment of one 
Species of the Naivi Maternre. Lond. 1806, 8vo. 'Lond. 
1816, 8vo. Observ.ations on the Constitutional Origin ana 
Treatment of Local Diseases; and on Aneurisms. Lond. 
1809, 8vo. 3d edit. 1813, 8vo. 

Surgical Observations, part second, containing Observations 
on the Origin and Treatment of Pseudo-sj'pliilitic Diseases, 
and on Diseases of the Urethriu Lond. 1810, 8vo. 

Surgical Observations on Injuries of the Head, and other 
Miscellaneous Subjects. Lond. 1810, 8vo. 

An Inquiry into the Probability and Rationahty of Jlr. 
Hunter's Theory of Life, being the Subject of the first two 
Anatomic:d Lectures before the Royal College of Sm-geons 
Lond. 1814, 8vo. 

The IntroductoiT Lecture for the year 1815, exhibitins 
some of Mr. Hunter's Opinions respecting Diseases; delivered 
before Royal College of Surgeons, London. Lond. 1815, 8vo. 

Surgical Works, a new edit. 1815, 2 vols. 8vo. 

Physiological Lectures, 1817. 

Abotne, Earl of, a title possessed by the Gordon f imilv, 
derived from tlie parish of Aboyne in Aberdeenshire. On the 
de.atli of tlie last duke of Gordon in 1836, wiien dukedom 
became extinct, the title of e.arl of Aboyne merged in that of 
marquis of Huntly. (See Huntly, marquis of.) 

Abthane, a title which occurs in Scottish history, aiio 
which appears peculiar to Scotl.and, as no trace of it has been 
found in .any other country. It is a Th.anedom or proprietor- 
ship of land held of the crown, and in the possession of an 
abbot. Like a Thiinedom also, it is the title of a Saxon pro 
prietor, that is, a proprietor under the S.ixon l.^ws, holding 
direct of the crown, .and is therefore exactly equivalent to 
that of a bai-on. Three Abth.ainries only have been 
as yet traced in Scotland, viz. those of Dull, lulmichael, and 
Madderty ; the two fonner in Athol, the latter in Strathearn. 
Mr. Skene, whose investig.ations supply the foregoing infor- 
mation, seems to have est.ablished that all these three wei'e 
created betiveen the ycai^s 1098 and 1124, — that is, between 
the accession of Edgar to the throne and that of Darid I. , they were all held in connection with the Culdee monks 
of Dmikeld ; that they must have been in possession of an 
abbot of that monastery ; and that the party who then held 
that dignity, and in whose favour they were created, was 
Ethelred, youngest son of M.alcolra III., who consequently 
had obtained them from one of his brothers, Edgar or Alex- 
ander, the then reigning monarchs of Scotl.and. The fact of 
the possession of these and other hands in Athol by the then 
reigning family of Scotland, is one of the m.any circumstances 
adduced by this gentleman, to demonstrate the descent of 
Malcolm III., .and after him a long line of Scottish kings, 
from the .ancient Maoimors of Athol, one of the many facts 
illustrative of early Scottish history for which we aj-e indebted 
to his cai-eful investigations and ingenious inductions. See 
Athol, E^vkls of. On the death of Ethelred, these lands 
ag.ain reverted to the crown. In v.arious charters so recent as 
the reign of D.avid II. they are described as the " ■abth.anes of 
Dull " of " Kilmichael," &c. The second family whose chief 
obtained the earldom of Lennox .appears by an entry in an 
early history of the Dmmmonds to have been previously 
the heredit.ary b.aillies of the abth.ainries of Dull, and on the 
promotion of its head to that dignity, that baillierie passed to 
a younger branch or cadet of it according to Celtic usage. — 
Skene on ihe Origin of the Eighlanders, vol. ii. pp. 129 — 13" 
152. 153. 




•ACHAIUS, or Achayus, or Eocnv, the son of 
ICing Ethwin, or Ewen, succeeded to the crown of 

Scotland in 788, upon the death of Solvathis, or 
Selvach. Before his accession to the tin-one, he 
lived familiarly with the nobles, and was well ac- 
quainted with the causes of their mutual feuds. It 
was, therefore, the first act of his reign to recon- 
cile the chiefs with one another, and check the 
turbulent spirit which their animosities had en- 
gendered. No sooner had he succeeded in thus 
reconciling his subjects, than he was called upon 
to take measures to repel an aggression of the 
predatory Irish. A number of banditti from Ire- 
land, who infested the district of Kintyre, in the 
west of Scotland, having been completely routed 
by the inhabitants, the Irish nation was highly 
exasperated, and resolved to revenge the injury 
done to them. Acliaius despatched an ambassa- 
dor to soften their rage, but before he had time to 
return from his fruitless mission, an immense 
number of Irish plundered and laid waste the 
island of Isla. These depredators were all drown- 
ed when returning home with their spoil, and such 
was the terror which this calamity inspired into 
the Irish, tliat they immediately sued for peace, 
which w-as generously gi'anted them by the king 
of Scotland. A short time after the conclusion of 
this treaty, the emperor Charlemagne sent an am- 
bassador to Achaius, requesting the Scots king to 
enter into a strict alliance with him against the 
English, who, in the language of the envoy, 
" shamefully filled both sea and land with their 
piracies, and bloody invasions." After much hesi- 
tation and debate among the king's counsellors, 
the alliance was unanimously agreed to, and 
Achaius sent his brother William, along with 
Clement, John Scotus, Raban, and Alcuiu, a na- 
tive of the north of England, four of the most 
learned men then in Scotland, together with an 
army of four thousand men, to accompany the 
French ambassador to Paris, where the alliance 
was concluded, on terms very favourable to the 
Scots. In order to perpetuate the remembrance 
of this event, Achaius added to the arms of Scot- 
land a double field sowed with lilies. After as- 
sisting Hungus, king of the Picts, to repel an 
aggression of Athelstane, king of the West Sax- 
nns. Achaius spent the rest of his reign in com- 

plete tranquillity, and died in 819, distinguished 
for Ills piety and wisdom. — Brewster's Edinburyh 

ADAIR, James JlAiUTrRicic, physician and 
medical writer, was born at Inverness in 1728, 
and for several years practised at Bath. lie wa^ 
noted for extreme irritability of temper, and 
among other persons with whom he had a dispute 
was the eccentric Philip Thicknessc, in the dedi- 
cation to whose memoirs is given an account of 
one of his last quairels. He afterwards went to 
Antigua, and became physician to the command- 
er-in-chief and the colonial troops, and one of 
the judges of the court of king's bench and com- 
mon pleas in island. He was tlie author of 
several medical tracts on regimen, the materia 
medica, &c., as also of a pamphlet against the 
abolition of the slave trade. He died 24th April 
1801, at Ayr. 

The following is a list of Dr. Adair's works: — 

Medical Cautions for the Considerntion of Inv.iHd.s, more 
especially of those wlio resort to Batli. Lomi. 1786, 8vo 
Second edit, gre.itly enharged, 1787, 8vo. 

A Pliilosophical and Medical Sketch of tho Natural History 
of the Body and Mind, witli .in Essay on the Diffi- 
culties of attaining Medical- Knowledge. Lond. 17S7, 8vo. 

Essays on Fashionable Diseases ; the Dangerous Eftects of 
Hot and Crowded Eooins; the Clothing of Invalids; Lady 
and Gentlemen Doctors; and on Quacks and Quackery. 
Lond. 1789, 8vo. 

Ess.ay on a Non-Descript, or Newly Invented Disease ; its 
Nature, Causes, and Means of Relief, with some very impor- 
tant ObseiTations on the Powerful and most Surprising Eftects 
of Animal Magnetism, in the Cure of tliesaid Disease- Lond. 
1790, 8vo. 

Anecdote! of the Life, Adventures, and Vindication of a 
MediciJ Character, metaphorically Dcfimct. By Benjamin 
Goosequill. Lond. 1790, 8vo, with regard to his own Life 
and Character. 

A Candid Inquiry into the Truth of Certain Charges of the 
Dangerous Consequences of the Suttonian or Cooling Regi- 
men under Inoculation for the Small Poi ; with some remarks 
on a Successful Method used some years ogo in Hungary, in 
the case of Natural Small Pox. Lond. 1790, 8vo. 

Two Sermons; the first addressed to Seamen, the second 
to British West India Slaves, by a Physician, (Dr. A.); to 
which are subjoined, Remarks on Fem.ale Inlidelity, and a 
Plan of Pl.atonic Matrimony, by which that Evil ni.ay be Les- 
sened or totally Prevented, by E. G. 1791, 8vo. 

.\n Ess.ay on Regimen. Air, 1799, 8to. 

Unanswerable Arguments against the Abolition of the Slave 
Trade, with a Defence of the Proprietors of the British Sugsr 
Colonies. Lond. 1790, 8vo. 

An Essay on Diet and Regimen, as indispensable to the 
Recover)' and Preservation of Firm Health, especially to In- 
dolent, Studious, Delicate, and Invalid; with appropriate Loud. 1804, 8vo. 




Obsen'ations on Regimen and Preparation under Inocula- 
tion, and on the Tre;itnient of the Natural Small Pox in the 
West Indies; with Strictures on the Suttonian Practite. 
Med. Com. viii. p. 211, 1782. 

Hints respecting .Stimulants, Astringents, Anodynes, Cicnta, 
Vermifnga, Nausativa, Fi.Ked Air, Arsenicum Album, &c. 
lb. IX. p. 206. 

Remarks on Alumen Rupium, .ind several other Articles of 
the Materia McJica. lb. x. p. 233. 

Three Cases of Pthisis PulmonaUs, treated by Cuprani 
Vitriolatum and Conium M.icuhitum, two of which termi- 
nated favourably. Med. Com. xvii. p. 473, 1792. 

Case of Inflamm.atory Constip.ation of the Bowels, success- 
fully treated. Mem. Med. ii. p. 236, 1789. 

Adam, a surname belonging to a family of some antiqui- 
ty in Scotland. Duncan Adam, son of Alexander Adam, 
lived in the reign of Robert the Bmce, and had four sons, 
Robert, John, Eegiuiild, and Duncan, fi-om whom .all the 
Adams, Adamsons, .and Adies in Scotland, are descended. 
IBnrke's Landed Gentry.'] From the youngest son, Duncan 
Adam, who accompanied James, Lord Douglas, in his expe- 
dition to Spain on his way to the Holy Land, with the heart 
of King Robert, is stated to have descended, John Adaji, 
who was slain at Flodden in 1513. His son Charles Adam 
was seated at Fanno, in Forfarshire, and his descend.ant in 
the foiu^h degree, Archibald Adam, of F.anno, sold his 
patrimonial lands in the time of Charles I., and acquired 
those of Queensmanour in the s.ame county. His great- 
grandson, JoiiN Adam, married Helen Cranstoun, of the 
family of Lord Cranstoun, by whom he left one son, Wil- 
liam Adam, an eminent architect, who purchased several 
estates, p.articularly that of Bhair, in the county of Kinross, 
where he bmlt a house and village, which he named Mary- 
burgh. He m.arried Mary, daughter of Robertson, 
Esq. of Gladney, and, with other issue, had John Adam, 
his heir (the father of the Eight Hon. William Adam, Lord 
Chief Commissioner of the Jury Court in Scotland, the sub- 
ject of a subsequent biography), and Robert and James 
Adam, the celebrated architects, of both of whom notices are 
here given : — 

ADAM, Robert, a celebrated architect, was 
born at KJrkaldy in 1728. He was the second son 
of Mr. William Adam of Maryburgh, who, like his 
father, was also an architect, and who designed 
Hopetoun house, the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, 
and other buildings. After studying at the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, Robert, in 1754, proceeded 
to the continent, and resided three years in Italy, 
studying his art. From the splendid monuments 
of antiquity which that country presents to the 
traveller, he imbibed that scientific style of design 
by which all his works are distinguished. But it 
was only from fragments that he was enabled to 
form his taste, the ravages of time and the hands 
of barbarians having united for the destruction of 
those noble specimens of ancient architecture, the 
ruins of which only remain to attest tlieii" former 
grandem' and magnificence. With the intention 

of viewing a more complete monument of ancient 
splendour than any he had seen, accompanied by 
M. Clerisseau, a French artist, and two expert 
draughtsmen, in July 1757 he sailed from Venice 
to Spalatro in Dalmatia, to inspect the remains of 
the palace to which the emperor Dioclesian re- 
tired from the cares of government. They found 
the palace much defaced ; but as its remains still 
exhibited the nature of the structure, they pro- 
ceeded to a minute examination of its various 
parts. Their labours, however, were immediately 
interrupted by the interference of the government 
of Venice, from a suspicion that they were mak- 
ing plans of the fortifications. Fortunately, Gen- 
eral Graeme, commander-in-chief of the Venetian 
forces, interposed ; and, being seconded by Count 
Antonio Marcovich, they were soon allowed to 
prosecute their designs. In 1762, on his return 
to England, he was appointed architect to the 
king, an ofiice which he resigned six years after- 
wards, on being elected M.P. for the county ot 
Kinross. In 1764 he published, in one volume 
folio, a splendid work, containing seventy-one en- 
gravings and descriptions of the ruins of the pal- 
ace of Dioclesian at Spalatro, and of some other 
buildings. ' In 1773 he and his brother James, 
also an eminent architect, brought out 'The Works 
of R. and J. Adam,' in numbers, consisting ol 
plans and elevations of buildings in England 
and Scotland, erected or designed, among whicn 
are the Register House and the University of Ed- 
inburgh, and the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, in 
Scotland, and Sion House, Caen -Wood, Luton 
Park House, and some edifices at Whitehall, in 

Mr. Adam died 3d March, 1792, by the burst- 
ing of a blood-vessel, and was buried in Westmin- 
ster Abbey. The year before his death he de- 
signed no less than eight public buildings and 
twenty-five private ones. His genius extended 
itself beyond the decorations of buildings, to vari- 
ous branches of manufacture ; and besides the 
improvements which he introduced into the ai-chi- 
tectnre of the country, he displ.ayed great skill 
and taste in his numerous drawings in landscape. 
— Annual Register., vol. xxxiv. — Scots Mag. 1803. 

Of the Register House at Edinbirrgh it is ra- 
mai'ked by Telford, in his contribution on Civi) 




Ai'cliitectiire to the Edinburgh Kncyclopedia, that 
" only a part of this masterly plan has been exe- 
cuted, but even this composes an apparently com- 
plete building. The original design as given in 
the works of R. and J. Adam, has in the centre a 
magnificent circular saloon, covered and lighted 
by a dome. This saloon is surrounded by small 
apartments, and the whole of these are enclosed 
by buildings in the shape of a parallelogram, by 
which ingenious contrivance access to aU the 
apaitments and an effective lighting of the whole 
is perfectly accomplished. Even as it is, this 
building, both internally and extcrnallj', reflects 
great credit on the architect, and from the chaste- 
ncss of the details, it is evident that the external 
features have been the result of much atten- 
tion. A greater degree of magnificence," he adds, 
" might have been obtained by keeping the base- 
ment of the principal front lower, by adding to 
the magnitude of the order," and by a few modi- 
fications of other details. 

Among the private edifices pertaining to Scot- 
land connected with the name of Robert Adam, 
are, Hopetoun House, on the south bank of tlie es- 
tuary of the Forth, to which magnificent edifice he 
added the graceful wings ; Melville Castle, on the 
banks of the Esk near Lasswade, which was by 
his ingenuitj' rendered a magnificent and appro- 
priate feature in that part of the kingdom ; Cul- 
zean Castle, on a bold promontory on the coast 
of Ayrshire, where, with his usual fertility of in- 
vention, the same architect has rendered this seat 
of the marquis of Ailsa a just resemblance of a 
Roman villa as described by Pliny ; and last, but 
not least, Gosford House in East Lothian, per- 
haps the most extensive and superb of modiMU 
Scottish structures, built by the earl of Wemyss 
from one of his designs. Of Sion House, the 
mansion of the duke of Northumberland, in the 
county of Middlesex, the chief features of novelty 
are in tlie style of Spalatra and the Pantheon at 
Rome, but the interior arrangements are in every 
respect as good as can well be imagined. Luton 
park in Bedfordshire, the seat of the marquis of 
Bute, is the most original of all his works, aiid 
although not in all respects the happiest, may be 
considered — the facade especially — as designed in 
his best manner. 

ADAM, Jamks, the brother of the preceding, 
held, at one period, the ofBce of architect to his 
majesty George IH. Ho was the designer ol 
Portland Place, one of the noblest streets in Lon- 
don, and (liod on the 17th October, 1791. From 
the two brothers tlie Adolphi Buildings in the 
Strand derive their name, being their joint work. 

ADAM, William, Right Hon., nephew of the 
two foregoing gentlemen, lord chief commissioner 
of Ihejuiy court in Scotland, on ils first introduc- 
tion there for the trial of civil causes, the son of 
John Adam of Blair Adam, and his wife Jean, the 
daughter of John Ramsay, Esq., was born 21st 
July 1751, O.S. He was educated at Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, and Oxford, and in 177.3 was admitted 
a member of the faculty of Advocates, but ncvei 
practised at the Scottish bar. In 1774 he was 
chosen JLP. for Gatton; in 1780 for Stranraer, 
&c. ; in 1784 for the Elgin burghs ; and in 1790 
for Ross-shire. At the close of Lord North's ad- 
ministration in 1782, in consequence of some family 
losses he became a barri.'iter-at-law. In 1794 he 
retij-ed from parliament to devote himself to hie 
profession. In 1802 he was appointed counsel for 
the East India Company, and in 1806 chancellor ol 
the duchy of Cornwall. In the same year he was 
returned M.P. for Kincardineshire, and in 1807, 
being elected both for that county and for Ivinross- 
shire, he prefereed to sit for the former. In 1811 
he again vacated his seat forhis professional duties. 
Being now generally esteemed a sound lawyer his 
practice increased, and he was consulted by the 
prince of Wales, the duke of York, and many of 
the nobility. In the course of his parliamentary 
career, in consequence of something that occurred 
in a discus.sion during the first American war, he 
fought a duel with the late JL'. Fox, which hap- 
pily ended without bloodshed, when the lattei 
jocularly, remarked, that had his antagonist not 
loaded his pistol with government powder, he 
would have been shot. Mr. Adam generally op- 
posed the politics of Mr. Pitt. In 181-1 he sub- 
mitted to government the plan for trying civil 
causes by jury in Scotland. In 1815 he was made 
a privy councillor, and was appointed one of the 
barons of the Scottish exchequer, chiefly with 
the view of enabling him to introduce and estab- 
lish the new system of trial by jury in civil cases 



In 1816 an act of parliament was obtained, insti- 
tuting a separate jnry court in Scotland, in which 
he was appointed lord chief commissioner, with 
two of the judges of the court of session as Ids 
colleagues. He accordingly relinquished his situ- 
ation in the exchequer, and continued to apply 
his energies to the duties of the jury court, over- 
coming, by his patience, zeal, and urbanity, the 
many obstacles opposed to the success of such an 
institution. In 1830, when sufficiently organized, 
the jury court was, by another act, transferred 
to the court of session, and on taking his seat on 
the bench of the latter for the first time, addresses 
were presented to him from the Faculty of Advo- 
cates, the Society of Writers to the Signet, and 
the Solicitors before the Supreme Com-ts, thank- 
ing him for the important benefits which the intro- 
duction of trial by jury in civU cases had conferred 
on the country. In 1833 he retired fi-om the 
bench ; and died at his house in Charlotte Square, 
Edinburgh, on the 17th February 1839, in the 
89th year of his age. 

After his appointment to the presidency of the 
jury court, he spent a great part of his time at 
his paternal seat in Kinross-shire. " Here," says 
Lockhart, in his Life of Scott, " about Midsum- 
mer 1816, he received a visit from his near rela- 
tion William Clerk, Adam Fergusson, his heredi- 
tary friend and especial favourite, and their life- 
long intimate, Scott. They remained with him 
for two or three days, in the course of which they 
were all so much delighted with their host, and he 
with them, that it was resolved to re-assemble the 
party witli a few additions, at the same season of 
every following year. This was the origin of the 
Blau'-Adam club, the regular members of which 
were in number nine ; viz., the four already named, 
— the chief commissioner's son, Admiral Sir 
Charles Adam; his son-in-law, the late Mi-. An- 
struther Thomson of Charleton, in Fifeshire ; Mr. 
Thomas Thomson, the deputy register of Scot- 
land; his brother, the Rev. John Thomson, mini- 
ster of Duddingstone, one of the first landscape 
painters of his time; and the Right Hon. Sir Sam- 
uel Shepherd, who became chief baron of the 
lourt of exchequer in Scotland, shortly after the 
third anniversary of this brotherliood. They usu- 
ally contrived to mee'' on a Friday; spent the 


Saturday in a ride to some scene of historical in- 
terest within an easy distance; enjoyed a quiet 
Sunday at home, — ' duly attending divine worship 
at the Ivirk of Cleish (not Cleishbotham)' — gave 
Monday morning to another antiquarian excursion, 
and returned to Edinburgh in time for the courts 
of Tuesday. From 1816 to 1831 inclusive. Sir 
Walter was a constant attendant at these meet- 
ings." It was during one of these visits to Blair- 
Adam that the idea of ' The Abbot' had first arisen 
in Scott's mind, and it was at his suggestion that 
the chief commissioner commenced a little book 
on the improvements which had taken place on his 
estate, which, under the title of 'Blair- Adam, 
from 1733 to 1834,' was privately printed for his 
own family and intimate friends. " It was," says 
the Judge, " on a fine Sunday, lying on the gi-assy 
summit of Beunarty, above its craggy brow, that 
Sir Walter said, looking first at the flat expanse of 
Kinross-shii-e (on the south side of the Ocbils), 
and then at the space which Blair- Adam fills be- 
tween the hill of Drumglow (the highest of the 
Cleish hills) and the valley of Lochore — ' What 
an extraordinary thing it is, that here to the north 
so little appears to have been done, when there are 
so many proprietors to work upon it; and to the 
south, here is a district of country entirely made 
by the efibrts of one family, in three generations, 
and one of them amongst us in the fuU enjoyment ol 
what has been done by his two predecessors and 
himself! Blaii--Adam, as I have always heard, 
had a wild, uncomely, and unhospitable appear- 
ance, before its improvements were begun. It 
would be most curious to record in writing its ori- 
ginal state, and trace its gradual progress to its 
present condition.' " Lockhart adds, " upon this 
suggestion, enforced by tlie approbation of the 
other members present, the president of the Blair- 
Adain club commenced arranging the materials for 
what constitutes a most instructive as well as en- 
tertaining history of the and arbori- 
cultural progress of his domains in the course of a 
hundred years, under his grandfather, his father 
(the celebrated architect), and himself. And Sir 
Walter had only suggested to his friend of Kin- 
ross-shire what he was resolved to put into prac- 
tice with regard to his own improvements on 
T\veodside ; for he began at precisely the same 




period to keep a regular journal of all his rural 
transactions, under the title of ' Sylva Abbotsford- 
iensis.' " (See Lockhait's Life of Scott, eliapter 50.) 

Mr. Adam was a personal friend of George IV., 
and at one period held a confidential office in the 
royal household at Carlton House, when the latter 
was prince regent. He married in 1777 a daugh- 
ter of the tenth Lord Elphinstone, and had a 
family of several sons: viz. John, long at the 
head of the council in India, who died in 182.5; 
Admiral Sir Charles, M.P., one of the lords of 
admiralt}", and governor of Greenwich Hospital ; 
died in 1851; William George, au eminent king's 
counsel, afterwards accountant - general in the 
court of Chancery, who died ICtli I\Iay ISIIO, three 
months after his father ; and the Right Hon. Gen- 
eral Sir Frederick, who distinguished himself in 
the Peninsular war, held a command at Waterloo, 
where he was wounded, was afterwards high com- 
missioner of the Ionian islands, and subsequently 
governor of Madras ; died 17th August 1853. A 
younger son died abroad. 

ADAM, Alexander, an eminent, and 
author of a standard work on ' Roman Antiqui- 
ties,' was born at Coats of Bm-gie, in the parish of 
Rafford, county of Elgin, on the 24tli June, 1741. 
[Coates or Cots, meaning a house or enclosure for 
slieep.) His parents, who rented a small farm, 
were in humble circumstances ; and, like man}' of 
Ills countrymen who have afterwards raised them- 
selves to distinction, he received the tirst part of 
nis education at tlie parish school. His constant 
application to his book induced his father to have 
him taught Latin. Before he was sixteen, he 
had borrowed, from a clergyman in the neigh- 
honrhood, a copy of Livy in the small Elzevir 
edition, and we are told used to read it before 
daybreak, during the mornings of winter, by the 
light of splinters of bogwood dug out of an ad- 
joining moss, not having an opportunity of doing 
so at any other period of the day. In 1757 he 
endeavcmred, but without success, to obtain a 
bursary or exhibition at King's college, Aberdeen 
In 1758, a relative of his mother, the Rev. Mr. 
Watson, one of the ministers of the Canongate, 
Edinburgh, advised him to remove to that city, 
" provided he was prepared to endure evei-y hard- 
ship for a season ;" and hardships of a severe na- 

ture he did endure, but nothing conld deter him 
from the pursuit of knowledge. Through Mr. 
Watson's iniluenee he obtained free admission to 
the lectures of the different profi'ssors, with, o( 
course, access to the college library ; and while 
attending the classes, it appears that all his income 
was only the sum of one guinea per quarter, which 
he received from Mr. Alan Maconochie, afterwards 
Lord ISIeadowbank, for being his tutor. At this 
time he lodged in a small room at Restalrig, for 
which he paid fonrpence a-week. ^is breakfast 
consisted of oatmeal porridge with small beer, and 
his dinner was often no more than a penny loaf 
and a drink of water. After about eighteen 
months of close study, at the early age of nineteen 
he was fortiniate in being elected, on a compara- 
tive trial of candidates, head master of Watson's 
Hospital, where he continued to improve himself 
in classical knowledge, by a carefid jierusal of the 
best authors. Three years afterwards he resigned 
this office, on becoming private tutor to the son of 
Mr. Kincaid, subsequently lord provost of Edin- 
burgh. In April 17G5 he was, by that gentleman's 
influence, appointed assistant to Mr. Matheson, 
rector of the high school, whose increasing infir- 
mities compelled him to retire, on a small annuity, 
paid principally from the class-fees; and on the 
8th June 1768 he succeeded him as rector. He 
now devoted himself assiduously to the duties ol 
his school, and to those literary and classical re- 
searches for which he was so peculiarly qualified. 
To him the high school of Edinburgh owes much 
of its reputation, and is entirely indebted for the 
introduction of Greek, which he efiocted in 1772, 
in spite of the opposition of the Senatus Academi- 
cus of the university, who, considering it an en- 
croachment on the Greek chair, presented a peti- 
tion and remonstrance against it to the town 
council, but without success. Having introduced 
into his class a new Latin grammar of his own 
compiling, and recommended its adoption in the 
other classes, instead of Ruddiman's which had 
been heretofore in use, a dispute arose between 
him and the under masters, and the matter waa 
referred by the magistrates of Edinburgh, the pa- 
trons of the school, to Dr. Robertson, the historian, 
principal of the university, who decided in favour 
of Ruddiman's. The magistrates, in consequence. 




issued an order in 1786 prohibiting the use of any 
otlier gi-ammav of the Latin htnguage ; but tliis, 
and a subsequent order to the same effect, Dr. 
Adam disregarded, and continued to use his own 
rules, without being further interfered with. In 
1772 lie had published the work in question, under 
the title of ' The Principles of Latin and English 
Grammar ;' the chief object of which was to com- 
bine the study of English and Latin grammar, so 
that they might illustrate each other, in order to 
avoid the inconvenience to pupils of learning Latin 
from a Latin grammar, before they understood 
the language. One of the most active opponents 
of the new grammar was Dr. Gilbert Stuart, who 
was related to Kuddiman, and who inserted sev- 
eral squibs in the papers of the day against Adam 
and his work, to the author's great annoyance. 

In 1780 the degree of LL.D. was coufereed upon 
Mr Adam by the college of Edinburgh, chiefly at 
the suggestion of Principal Robertson ; and before 
his death, he had the satisfaction of seeing his 
grammar adopted in his own seminary. Among 
the more celebrated of his pupils was Sir Walter 
Scott, who joined the rector's class at the high 
school in 1782. It was from Dr. Adam^ he says, 
that he first learned the value of the knowledge 
he had till then considered only as a burdensome 
task. As he gained some distinction by his poetical 
versions from Horace and Virgil, the rector took 
much notice of Scott, and when he began afterwards 
to be celebrated in the literaiy world. Dr. Adam 
never failed to remind him of his obligations to 
him. "The good old Doctor," says Sii- Walter, 
" plumed himself upon the success of his scholars 
in life, all of which he never failed (and often 
justly) to claim as the creation, or at least the 
fruits, of his early instructions. He remembered 
the fate of every boy at his school, during the fifty 
years he had superintended it, and always traced 
their success or misfortunes, entirely to their 
attention or negligence when under his care." 
One of the under-masters at the high school, a 
person of the name of William Nicol, the hero of 
Burns' famous drinking song of " O Willie brew'd 
a peck o' niaut," is said to have been encouraged 
by the magistrates of Edinburgh to insult the 
person and authority of Dr. Adam, at the time 
of the famous dispute with him about his grammar. 

" This man," says Sir Walter Scott, " was an ex- 
cellent classical scholar, and an admirable convivial 
humorist (which latter quality recommended him 
to the fi-iendshlp of Bm-ns); but worthless, dnmken, 
and inhumanly cruel to the boys under his charge 
He earned his feud against the rector within an 
inch of assassination, for he waylaid, and knocked 
him down in the dark," one night in the High 
School WjTid. The rector's scholars, at the in- 
stigation of the future author of Waverley, took a 
schoolboy's revenge. Exasperated at the outrage, 
the next time that Nicol went to teach the rec- 
tor's class, they resolved on humbling him. " Th^ 
task," says Mi'. James Mitchell, Sh' Walter's tutor 
at this time, " which the class had prescribed to 
them was that passage in the Jineid of Virgil, 
where the queen of Carthage interrogates the 
court as to the stranger that had come to her Iia- 
bitation — 

' Quis novus hie hospea successit sedibus nostris?' 

Master Walter having taken a piece of paper, in- 
scribed upon it these words, substituting vantis foi 
novus, and pinned it to the tail of the masters 
coat, and turned him into ridicule by raising the 
laugh of the whole school against him." \_Lochhart'i 
Life ofScott.l 

Dr. Adam's principal work was the ' Roman 
Antiquities,' or, an account of the manners and 
customs of the Romans, published in 1791, which 
was translated into various foreign languages, and 
which is now used as a class-book in many of the 
English schools. For this work he got £600. In 
1794 appeared his ' Summary of Geography and 
History,' in one thick volume of 900 pages, having 
increased to this size fi'om a small treatise on the 
same subject, printed, for the use of his pupils, in 
1784. The least popular of his works is the ' Clas- 
sical Biography,' published in 1800; and the last 
of his laborious and useful compilations was an 
abridged Latin Dictionary, entitled ' Lexicon Lin- 
gua Latinte Compendiarum,' 8vo., which was 
published in 1805, and intended for the use of 
schools. Dr. Adam's books are valuable auxilia 
ries to the student, fi'om the mass of useful and 
classical information which they contain. He had 
commenced a larger dictionary than the one pub- 
lished, but did not live to complete it. 




Having been seized in the high scliool with an 
apoplectic attack, he was coiuliictcd home, and put 
to bed, where lie languished for five days, and, as 
death was approaching, fancj'ing himself, durhig 
the wanderings of his mind, with his pupils, he said, 
" But it grows dark, boys, you may go!" and al- 
most immediately expired, on the 18th of Decem- 
ber, 1809, at the age of 68. Possessed of an 
ardent and independent mind, and liberal in the 
extreme in politics, he took a great interest in the 
progress of the French Revolution, believing it to 
be the cause of liberty, and even went so far as to 
introduce political matters into his school, for 
which he was much censured at the time, auu that 
b}' many of his friends; but after the first excite- 
ment had passed away, he soon regained the re- 
spect even of those who had been most embittered 
against him. He was universally regretted, and 
the magistrates of Ediubm-gh honoured his mem- 
ory by a public funeral. His portrait by Rae- 
burii, taken shoi'tly before his death at the desire 
of some of his old pupils, was placed in the libra- 
ry of the high school. Annexed is a woodcut of it. 

" His features," says his biographer, " were 
regular and manly, and he was above the middle 
size." He was twice married, and left a widow, 

two daughtei's, and a son. One of his danghtcra 
married a Dr. Prout, and at one time resided in 
SackviUe Street, London. His son. Dr. Adam, for 
many years resided in Edinburgh. — Uaidertun't 
Life of Dr. Atlam; Eilin. Monlhlij May. 1810. 
The following is a list of his works: 

The Principles of Latin and English Grammar. Edin 
1772, 8vo. 7th Kdit. improved, 1809, 12mo. 

A Summary of Geography and History, both Ancient and 
Modern, designed chiefly to unite tlie Study of Cla-ssical 
Learning with that of General Knowledge Edin. 1784, 8vo. 

1794, 8vo. 1809, 8vo. 

Koman Antiquities, or an Account of the Manner* and 
Customs of the Rom.ana, their Government, I>aws, Keligion, 
&c. Edin. 1791, 8vo. 2d edit, enlarged. 1792, 8»o. 
1807, 8vo. 

Geogi-aphieal Index, containing the Latin Names of the 
principal Countries, Cities, Rivcre, and Moimtains, mentioned 
in the Greek and llonian Classics, with the Alodcrn Names 
subjoined; also, the Latin Names of the Inhabitants, being a 
.Suiiunary of the Ancient and Modem Geography. Edin 

1795, 8vo. 

Classical Biography; exhibiting alphabetically the proper 
Names, i\'ith a short Account of the several Deities, Heroes. 
&.C. mentioned in the ancient Classic Authors; aiul a more 
particular Description of the most Distinguished Cliaractera 
among the Romans, the whole being interspersed with Occa- 
sional Explanations of Words and Phrases, designed chiefly 
to contribute to the Illustration of the Latin Classics. Edin. 
1800, 8vo. 

Dictionaiy of the Latin Tongue. Edin. 1805, 8vo. 2d edit, 
greatly improved and enlai-ged. Edin. 1815, 8vo. 

ADAM, Robert, the Rev., B.A. author o( 
' The Religious World Displayed,' ^^•as born in the 
parish of Udny, Aberdeenshire, of poor but re- 
spectable parents, about the year 1770. He was 
educated and took his degree of M. A. at Aber- 
deen. He was afterwards sent, "hy some persons 
interested in his welfare, to St. Edmund Hall, 
Oxford, where he took the degree of bachelor of 
arts. Subsequently he was ordained deacon and 
priest by Dr. Beilby Porteiis, bishop of London. 
About the year 1801 he was appointed assistant 
to Dr. Abernethy Drummond of Hawthorndeu, 
titular bishop of Glasgow, whom he succeeded as 
minister of Blackfriars' Wynd episcopal chapel, 
Edinburgh. He was also chaplain to the earl of 
Kellie. In 1809 he published an elaborate and 
comprehensive work in three volumes, entitled 
' The Religious World Displayed, or a View of the 
Four Grand Systems of Religion, Judaism, Pagan- 
ism, Christianity, and Mahomedanism, and of the 
Various Denominations, Sects, and Parties in the 
Christian World : to wliicli is subjoined, a View 




of Deism and Atheism ;' wliich he inscribed to the 
memory of Bishop Drummond, formerly senior 
minister of his congregation. He was subsequently 
appointed to a church in the Danish island of St. 
Croix, where he was much annoyed by the Dan- 
ish authorities, and ultimately ordered to leave the 
island. His conduct met with the full approbation 
of our own goveniment, and he proceeded to Den- 
mark to procure redi-ess, which it appears he never 
obtained. After his return from Copenhagen to 
London, he accompanied the newly appointed 
bishop of Barbadoes to the West Indies in 1825, 
and was appointed interim pastor of the island of 
Tobago, where he died on the 2d July 1826. 

ADAJNI, ScoTus, one of the doctors of the Sor- 
bonne, and a canon regular of the order of Pre- 
monstratenses, flourished in the twelfth century. 
He was born in Scotland, and educated in the 
monastery of Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, in the 
county of Durham. He afterwards went to Paris 
and taught school divinity in the Sorbonne. In 
his latter years he became one of " the monks of 
Meli-ose." He afterwards retu-ed to the Abbey 
of Durham, where he wi-ote the Lives of St. Co- 
lumbanus, and of some other monks of the sixth 
centuiy, and also of David I. king of Scotland. 
He died in 1195. His works were printed at 
Antwei-p in folio, in 1659. — Biog. Die. 

ADAMSON, Henry, a poet of the seventeenth 
century, was the son of James Adamson, dean of 
guild in Perth in 1600, the year of the Gowrie 
conspiracy, and provost of that city in 1610 and 
1611. He was educated for the church, and is 
stated to have been a good classical scholar. He 
wrote some Latm poems which are described as 
being far above mediocrity. In 1638 he published a 
poem, in 4to, entitled ' Muses Threnodie, or MLi-thful 
Mournings on the Death of Mi'.Gall, with a descrip- 
tion of Perth, and an account of the Gowry conspi- 
racy,' &c. He was honoured with the approbation 
of Drummond of Hawthornden, and appears, from 
the complimentary verses prefixed to his poems, 
to have been much respected for his talents and 
worth. It was at the request of Drummond that 
Adamson published his ' Muses Threnodie,' after 
having resisted the solicitations of his fi'iends to 
print it. The letter which the poet of Hawthorn- 
den wrote to him on the occasion, is dated Edin- 

burgh, 12th July 1637. It was inserted in tlie 
introductory address to the reader, prefixed to the 
first edition, and contains the following passage: 
" Happie hath Perth been in such a citizen, not 
so other townes of this kingdome, by want of so 
diligent a searcher and preserver of their fame 
from oblivion. Some Muses, neither to them- 
selves nor to others, do good, nor delighting nor 
instructing. Yours inform both, and longer to 
conceal them, will be, to wrong your Perth of her 
due honom-s, who deserveth no less of you than 
that she should be thus blazoned and registrate to 
posterity, and to defraud yourself of a monument 
which, after you have left this transitory world, 
shall keep your name and memory to after times 
This shall be preserved by the towne of Perth, foi 
her own sake fii'st, and after for yours ; for to her 
it hath been no little glory that she hath brought 
forth such a citizen, so eminent in love to her, so 
dear to the Muses." Adamson died unmarried in 
1639. A new edition of his poem was published in 
1774, with illustrative notes, by James Cant, in 2 
vols. 12mo. The book is now scarce. — CampbeW 
hitroduction to the History of Poetry in Seotland. 

ADAMSON, Patrick, an eminent prelate and 
Latin poet, was born at Perth, March 15, 1537. His 
parents are said to have been poor, but he received 
a sufficiently liberal education, first at the gram- 
mar school of his native town, and afterwards at 
the university of St. Andrews, where he studied 
philosophy, and took his degree of master of arts. 
His name first appears in the diaries and church 
records of the period, not as Adamson, but under 
the varieties of Coustaine, Coasting, Constan, Con- 
stant, and Constantine. [See Bannatyne's Joui/ial, 
p. 323; James Melville^s Diary, pp. 25 and 42: 
Calderwood, vol. ii. p. 46 ; and The Booke oj 
the Universall Kirk of Scotland, pp. 2 and 23.] 
His biographers state that on quitting the univer- 
sity he became a schoolmaster at a vOlage in Fife, 
but on the meeting of the first General Assembly, 
in December 1560, he was, under the name of Pa- 
ti-ick Constan, among those who were appointed 
in St. Andi'ews, " for ministering and teaching." 
[Calderwood, vol. ii. p. 46.] Under the same 
name he was, in 1563, minister of Ceres, in Fife, 
and was appointed a commissioner '• to plant kirka 
from Dee to Ethan." [Ibid. p. 245.] In the sev- 




enth General Assembly, lield at Edinburgh in 
June 156-1, he preferred a request to be allowed 
to pass to France and otlier countries, " for aufr 
menting of his knowledge for a time;" but tlie 
Assembly nuanimously refused liis application, 
and ordained that he sliould not leave his congre- 
gation, " without speciall licence of the haill kirk." 
[^Buoke of the Universall Kirk of Scotland, p. 23.] 
Early in I.5G6, on the invitation of Sir James MnU - 
gill of Rankeillor, clerk-register, he acconipunieil liis 
eldest son, as tutor, to France, where the latter mms 
going to study the civil law, on winch occasion lie 
appears to have demitted himself of the oflBce of the 
ministry. On the 19tli of June of that year, Mary 
queen of Scots was delivered of a prince, after- 
wards James the Sixth, on which occasion Con- 
stant or Ad.amson, then at Paris, wrote a Latin 
poem, styling the infant " Prince of Scotland, 
England, France, and Ireland," which so offended 
the French government that he was imprisoned for 
six months. Queen Mary herself, and several of 
the nobility, interceded for his liberation. On 
regaining liis freedom he proceeded with his pupil 
to the universities of Poitiers and Padua, where 
he applied himself to the study of the civil and 
canon laws. On their return from Italy, they 
visited Geneva ; and here, from his intercourse 
with Beza, he imbibed the Calvinistic doctrines 
of theology. Some time before their return to 
Scotland they revisited Paris. As well-known 
Protestants, however, they found it dangerous to 
remain in the capital, and retired to Bourges, 
where Constant concealed himself for seven 
months in an inn, the master of which, an old 
man 70 years of age, was, for harbouring heretics, 
thrown from the roof of his own house and killed 
on the spot. In this sepulchre, as he called it, he 
employed his time in composing a Latin poetical 
version of the Book of Job, and in writing in the 
same language a piece called the Tragedy of He- 
rod — the latter of which has never been publislied. 
Before leaving France he was bold enough to pub- 
lish a Latin translation of the Confession of Faith, 
for which he obtained great credit. 

At what period Constant retm-ned to Scotland 
does not appear, but it must have been previous 
to 5th March 1571, for the Assembly which met 
a: Ediuburgli at that time earnestly desired him, | 

in consideration of the lack of niinistcrg, to re- 
enter the ministry. He craved time till next As- 
sonilily, whicli met on 6tli August thereafter, to 
which he sent a written answer, complying with 
their request. He liad previously man-icd tlio 
daughter of a lawyer. 

On the election of Mr. John Douglas, rector of 
the university of St. Andrews, to the archbishop- 
ric of that diocese, on the 8th of February 1572, 
Constant is mentioned as having preached a ser- 
mon, and John Kunx the discourse before the 
installation. \_Baniiatijtie.'] On this occasion ho 
was not, as afterwards alleged by his enemies, a 
candidate for that see. iMost of his biographers 
represent him to have been in France at the period 
of the massacre of St. Bartholomew, which occurred 
on the 2-lth August of this year (1572), but he had 
certainly returned to Scotland more than a year 
before that event, and no mention is made of a 
second visit to that country. Constant appears at 
this time to h.ave enjoyed the friendship of Andrew 
Melville and of many of the ministers of Edin- 
burgh. He had been api)ointed minister of Pais- 
ley, and through his influence with the regent 
IMorton the valuable living of Govan, near Glas- 
gow, was in the year 1575 annexed to the univer- 
sity of that city, " the only good thing," says the 
spiteful James Melville, " he or Morton were ever 
known to have done." [Z)/a7-y, p. 42.] In the same 
year he was named one of the commissioners of 
the General Assembly, for settling the polity and 
jurisdiction of the church, which, at that period of 
ecclesiastical transition, was cpiscop.alian in its 
s])irit and form, although the supreme authority 
in spiritual matters was placed in the General 
Assembly. About this time he appears to have 
dropped the name of Constant, as he is ever after- 
wards called Adamson by contemporary writers. 

In the course of 157G Adamson was nominated, 
with John Kow and David Linds.iy, to report 
the proceedings of the commissioners to the re- 
gent Morton, who .appointed him one of his chap- 
lains. In the same year, on the death of Douglas, 
archbishop of St. Andrews, Adamson, on the pre- 
sentation and recommendation of Morton, was 
advanced to the vacant archbishopric. His eleva- 
tion to the archiepiscopal sec became the origin of 
all his misfortunes. The General Assembly, having 




generally acceded to the new views which Melville 
introduced from Geneva as to the Presbyterian 
form of government for the church, sought to im- 
pose limitations on his powers, which were con- 
trary to the previous usage of the church and to the 
laws of the kingdom ; to which restrictions, how- 
ever, Adamson from the outset and even before 
his installation declared, when qnestioned by that 
court, that he would not submit. From the period 
of his instalment, therefore, he was engaged, for 
several years, in almost perpetual altercation with 
the General Assembly. " Adamson, " says Bishop 
Keith, " did not receive, for what we know, any 
ecclesiastical consecration. " This, however, is 
incorrect. From the acts of the General Assembly 
threatening proceedings against his inaugm-ators, 
the chapter of St. Andrews, we infer that he was 
installed by a form of consecration similar to that 
of his predecessor; which, as formally settled by 
the General Assembly with reference to that cere- 
mony, was the same as that of the superintendents, 
and of which Bannatyne details the formula, (p. 

In the General Assembly, which met at Edin- 
burgh in April, 1577, Adamson was cited to answer 
before some commissioners who had been appointed 
to examine him ; and, in the interim, it was or- 
dered that he should be discharged from exercis- 
ing his episcopal functions " till he should be ad- 
mitted by the Assembly." \_Calderwood^s History, 
vol. iii. p. 379.] The same year he published a 
translation of the Catechism of Calvin in Latin 
verse, for the use of the young prince (James VI.), 
which was much commended in England, France, 
and the Netherlands, where he was already well 
known by his translation of the Confession of 
Faith. In 1578 he was induced to submit himself 
to the General Assembly, but this did not long 
secure his tranquillity ; for in the year following 
he was exposed to fresh troubles. In the record 
of the 38th General Assembly, which met at Stir- 
ling, 11 June 1578, as printed in 'The Booke of 
the Universal! Kirk of Scotland,' there are five 
pages blank, supposed, as marked in an old hand 
on the copy transcribed, " to be pairt of that which 
was torn out by Adamson B. of St. Andrews." 
Some after blanks are also pointed out. [B. of 
Vnivcrsall Kirk, pp. 180, 183, 203, 207, 338, foot- 

notes.] This, however, is as likely to have been 
done by another. The General Assembly which 
met at Edinbm'gh 7th July 1579, summoned him to 
answer to five several charges, three of which were 
for voting in parliament without a commission 
from the Assembly, for giving collation of the vi- 
carage of Bolton, and for opposing the policy ol 
the church in his place in parliament. Finding it 
expedient to I'etire for a time to the castle of St. 
Andrews, where he lived, as James Melville ex- 
presses it, " like a tod in his hole," he was, in the 
year 1582, attacked with a grievous chronic dis- 
temper, from which, as he could get no relief from 
his physicians, he had recourse to a simple reme- 
dy, administered by an old woman named AlisOD 
Pearson, which completely cm-ed him. His ene- 
mies now accused him of dealing with a witch, 
and applying to an emissaiy of the devil for means 
whereby to save his life. The old woman herself 
was committed to the castle of St. Andrews for 
execution, but by the connivance of the archbish- 
op she contrived to make her escape. Four years 
thereafter, however, she was again apprehended, 
and burnt for witchcraft. 

In the year 1583, King James visited St. An- 
drews, when Archbishop Adamson preached before 
him with great approbation. In his sermon, he 
inveighed, as Calderwood expresses it, against 
the Presbyterian clergj', the lords reformers, and 
all then- proceedings. [Calderwood' s History, vol. 
iii. p. 716.] The doctrines which the archbishop 
avowed on this occasion recommended him to the 
favour of the king, who sent him as his ambassa- 
dor to the com't of Queen Elizabeth, where his 
object was twofold, namely, to recommend the 
king his master to the nobility and gentry of Eng- 
land, and to obtain support to the tottering cause 
of episcopacy in Scotland. His eloquent sermons 
and address attracted such nimierous auditories, 
and excited such a high idea of the young king, 
that Queen Elizabeth's jealousy was kindled, and 
she prohibited him from preaching while he re- 
mained in England. In 1584 he was recalled, 
and on his return to Edinburgh, he exerted him- 
self strenuously in support of King James' viewa 
in favour of episcopacy. He sat in the parliament 
held at Edinburgh in the month of August of that 
year, and concurred in several laws which were 




anacted for establisliing the king's siipi-oiiiacy in 
ecclesiastical matters. In the following year he 
was appointed to vindicate these acts of parlia- 
ment, and his apology is nisertcd in Holinshcd's 
English Chronicle. Wr. Janies Jlclvillc gives a 
full copy of what he styles " a Bull which the 
archbishoD of St. Andrews got of the king as su- 
preme governor of the kirk, whereby he has power 
and authority to use his archiepiscopal office with- 
in the kirk and his diocese." [Diarxj, p. 182.] 

In April 1586, the provincial synod of Fife met 
at St. Andrews, when Mr. James Melville, a§ mo- 
derator of the previous meeting, preached the 
opening sermon, in the course of which he de- 
nounced the archbishop to his face, and demanded 
that he should be cut of}', for having devised and 
procured the passing of the late acts of p.arliamont 
in 1684, which were subversive of the Presbyte- 
rian discipline. In his defence Adamson said that 
the acts were none of his devising, although they 
nad his support as good and lawful statutes. lie 
then declined the jurisdiction of the court, and 
appealed from it to the king and parliament, but 
nevertheless was formall}' excommuuicated by 
the synod. In return, he next day ordered Mi-. 
Samuel Cunningham, one of his servants, to pro- 
nounce the archiepiscopal excommunication against 
Andrew Melville, James Melville, and others, 
tvitli Andrew Hunter, minister of Carnbee, who 
bad denounced the anathema of the synod against 
the archbishop. The proceedings of the synod 
being manifestly informal, the General Assembly, 
which met at Edinburgh in the following month, 
annulled the sentence of excommunication against 
him, and reponed him to the same position which 
he had held before the meeting of the provincial 
synod of Fife. The Melvilles being summoned 
before the king for their conduct in this harsh and 
vindictive transaction, were ordered to confine 
themselves, Andrew to his native place during the 
king's will, and James to bis college. \_i\Ielvi/le\i 
Diary, p. 165.] The archbishop, besides his usual 
tlerical duties, was required to teach public lessons 
in Latin within the Old college, and the whole uni- 
versity commanded to attend the same. \_Hnd. 
p. 166.] As archbishop of St. Andrews he was 
ex officio chancellor of the university. 

About the end of June 1587, M. Du Baitas, the 

famous French jioct, being in Scotland as ambas- 
sador from the king of Navarre, afterwards Ilcnrj- 
IV. of France, accompanied King James to St. 
Andrews. His majesty, desirous of hearing a 
lecture from Mr. Andrew Melville, principal of St. 
Mary's college, gave him an hour's notice of hia 
wish. Melville endeavoured to excuse him.self, 
but his majesty insisting, he delivered an cxtcni- 
liore discourse, upon the government of the church 
of Christ, when he refuted the whole acts of par- 
liament which had been passed against the pres- 
byterian discipline. On the following day an en- 
tertainment was given by the archbishop to the 
king and the French envoy, when Adamson took 
occasion to pronounce a lecture, to counteract that 
of Melville, his pi'incipal topics being the pre- 
eminence of bishops and the supremacy of kings. 
Melville was present and took notes, and had no 
sooner returned to his college than he caused the 
bell to be rung, and an intimation to be conveyed 
to the king that he intended to deliver another 
lecture after an inteiTal of two hours. On this 
occasion, besides the king, Uu Bartas and Adam- 
son were present. Avoiding all formal reference 
to the previous speech of the archbishop, Melville 
dexterously quoted from popish books, which ho 
had brought with him, all his leading positions 
and arguments in favour of episcopacy, ■\^'hen 
he had sliowu them to be plain popery, he pro- 
ceeded to refute them with such force of reason that 
Adamson remained silent, although he had pre- 
viously requested permission from the king to de- 
fend his own doctrines. The king, however, 
spoke for him, and after making some learned 
and scholastic distinctions, he concluded with 
commanding them all to respect and obey the 
archbishop. The whole of this narrative, how- 
ever, rests upon the authority of James Melville, 
which, besides being that of a prejudiced oppon- 
ent, is unfortunately in other matters relative to 
Adamson found to be opposed to facta recorded 
in the proceedings of the Church. 

By the act of annexation passed in 1587 the see 
of St. Andrews, with all the other church bene- 
fices in the kingdom, was annexed to the crown. 
The revenues of the archbishopric were thereafter 
bestowed on the duke of Lennox, by James VI., 
excepting only a small pittance, reserved for tli« 




subsistence of Ai-chbishop Adamson. In the fol- 
lowing year he was exposed to a fresh prosecu- 
tion by the church, having been summoned for 
having, contrary to an inhibition of the presbytery 
of Edinburgh, married the Catholic earl of Huntly 
to the king's cousin, the sister of the duke of Len- 
nox, without requu-ing the earl to subscribe the 
Confession of Faith, although he had already sub- 
scribed certain articles which were required of him 
previous to the proclapiation of the bans. Adam- 
son on this occasion appeared by his procurator, 
Mr. Thomas Wilson, (very likely his son-in-law,) 
who produced a testimonial of his sickness, sub- 
scribed by the doctor who attended him and two 
bailies, but the memorial was not admitted as suf- 
ficient. The presbytery of St. Andrews proceeded 
against him in absence, deprived him of all office 
in the church, aud threatened him with excom- 
munication. The Assembly ratified the sentence 
of the presbytery, aud for this and other alleged 
crimes he was deposed aud again excommunicated. 
In the beginning of 1689 he published the La- 
mentations of Jeremiah, in Latin verse, which he 
dedicated to the king in an address, complaining 
of the harsh treatment he had received. The 
same year he also published a Latin poetical 
translation of the Apocalypse, and addressed a 
copy of Latin verses to his majesty, deploring his 
distress. The unfortunate prelate had at one period 
stood so high in the royal favour that James had 
condescended to compose a sonnet in commenda- 
tion of his paraphrase of the Book of Job ; but 
times were altered, and the king paid no atteution 
to his appeals. In his need Adamson is said to 
have addressed a letter to his former opponent, 
Mr. Andrew Melville, with whom he at one pe- 
riod lived on terms of good neighbourhood, but 
opposite views in church government had long not 
only driven them asunder, but rendered them bit- 
ter antagonists. On receipt of his letter contain- 
ing the sad disclosure of his destitute situation, 
Melville hastened to pay the archbishop a visit, 
and besides procuring contributions on his behalf 
fi-ora his brethren of the presbytery of St. Andrews, 
continued for several months to support him from 
his own private purse. Reduced by poverty and 
disease, the unfortunate prelate, in the year 1591, 
sent to the Presbytery of St. Andrews a paper 

expressive of his regret at the course he had pur- 
sued, and desiring to be restored into the church. 
This is not the same paper which afterwards ap- 
peared under the title of 'The Recantation of 
Maister Patrick Adamsone,' aud which was prub- 
lished as a pamphlet in 1598. Some of the Epis- 
copal writers are disposed to deny the genuine- 
ness of the latter, and it is to be regretted that 
the proofs of its genuineness are not more com- 
plete. Adamson died on the 19th February 1592, 
and his death was speedily followed by the resto- 
ration of the presbyterian form of church govern- 
ment in Scotland. A collection of his Latin poeti- 
cal translations from the Scriptures was published 
in a quarto volume in London in 1619, with his 
Life by his son-in-law, Thomas Wilson, an advo- 
cate, under the title of Poemata Sacra. Several 
of his other poems are to be found in the Delitiie 
Poetarum Scotorum, tome i., and in the Poetarum 
Scotorum Musce Sacrw, tome ii. 

Adamson's character has been much traduced 
by contemporary writers, but by none more so 
than by Robert Semple, a minor poet of that day, 
who wrote a gross and scurrilous work professing 
to be his life, which he styled ' A Legend of the 
Bischop of St. Androis' Life.' It is thought that 
this ' legend' had an effect on the king's mind unfa- 
vourable to Adamson, but he fell more into dis- 
grace with his majesty after having been "put to 
the horn," in 1587, and "denounced rebel," for 
withholding then- stipends from several ministers 
in his diocese, and " for not furnishing of two gal- 
lons of wine to the communion." 

The following address to his departing soul, 
written by Adamson in Latin poetr}', in which he 
so much excelled, is, saj's Dr. Irving, " as much 
superior to that of Adrian as Christianity is supe 
rior to Paganism •" 

animal assiduia vitjej aetata procellis, 
Exilii, pert^sa gravis, nunc lubrica, tempua 
Regna tibi, et mundi invisas contemnere sordes : 
Quippe parens reram cjeco te corpore clemens 
Evocat, ct verbi cruciftxi gratia, coeli 
Pandit iter, patrioque beatam limine sistet. 
Pi'Ogenies Jovis, quo te coelestis origo 
Invitat, felis perge, cetemumque quiesce. 
Exuviae camis, cognato in pulvere vocem 
Angelicam expectent, souitu quo putro cadaver 
Exiliet redivivum, et totum me tibi reddet 




Ecce beata dies ! nos ngni dcxtersi ligno 
Fulseiites cruris, ct radiantcs sanguine vivo 
Excipiet: quam firnia iUic, qnam certa caresses 
Gaudia, felices inter novus incola civcs ! 
Alme Deus! Deus alme! ct non eliabilc numcn! 
Ad te uuum ct tnnum, luoribundo pcctoro anlielo. 

Besides the poems and translations already nipu- 
tioned, Archbisliop Adanison wrote many thing's 
which were never published, among which may 
be mentioned Six books on the Hebrew Republic, 
various translations of the Proi)hcts into Latin 
verse. Prelections on St. Paul's Epistles to Timo- 
thy, various apologetical and funeral orations, and 
.1 very candid history of his own times: 
The following is a list of his published works: 

Catcchismus Latino Carmine Redditus, et in libros quatuor 
(ligestus. Edin. 15S1. 12mo. 

roiimata Sacra, cum aliis Opusculis. et cum Vita ejus; a 
T. Voluseno. Lend. 1619, 4to. 

De Sacro Pastoris JIunere Tractatus: cum Vita Auctoris, 
per Til. Volusenum. Lond. 1G19, 4to. 8vo. 

Refutatio LibcUi de Regimine Ecclesiae Scoticance. Load. 
1620, 8vo. 

Adamsoni Vita et Palinodia. 1G20, 4to. 

Genetldiacon Jacobi VI. Regis Scotia;, Anglia; I. Carmine. 
Amst. 1637, 8vo. Inter Poiit. Scot. vol. i. p. 13. 

Recantation of ]klr. P.atrick Adamson, sometime Archbishop 
of St. Andi-ews in Scotlande. To which is added, his Life in 
(.atin. 1598, 8vo. 

Sermons. 1623, 8to. 

Agxew, the name of an ancient family in Wigtonshire, the 
liead of which was constable of the castle of Luchnaw, and 
iiereditai-)" sherifl' of that county. See Lochnaw. 

AIDAN, the greatest of all the kings of the 
Scots of DaMad, a kingdom which formed what is 
now Argyleshh-e, was the son of Gabran, or Gav- 
ran, and succeeded to the throne in 575, on the 
death of his cousin, Conal I. He reigned twenty- 
four years, according to tlie celebrated Duan, a 
Gaelic poem supposed to have been written by the 
court-bard of Malcolm the third ; or thirty-four by 
the old lists. Duncan the son of Conal seems to 
have contested the kingdom with him, but he was 
defeated and slain in battle at a place called Loro 
in Kintyre. Pinkerton thinks that the Duan dates 
the commencement of his reign from his unction 
as king, which Columba long deferred, having a 
preference for Aidan's bi'otlier Eogenan or Eugain. 
The Duan calls him "Aidan of the extended ter- 
ritories," and he certainly carried the Dalriadic 
power to a height from which it ever after declined, 
►ill Kenneth II. ascended the Pictish tlirone, in 

8;5(), and united the Picts and the Scots. In 67tl 
the battle of Ouc against Aidan is mentioned in 
the annals of Ulster, and in 581 the battle of Ma- 
nan, (O'Flahcrty says, the Isle of Mann,) in which 
he was victor. He also con(iuered in the liattlc o( 
Miathoruni, or Lethrigh, in 589. In the folluwing 
year he was at the famous council of Drumkcat in 
the diocese of Dcrry in Ulster, consisting of kings, 
peers, and clergy, summoned by Aid, king of Ire- 
land, in which council Aidan procured the remis- 
sion of all homage due by the kings of Dalriad to 
those of Ireland. In u'Jl Aidan's brother Eugain 
died. In 603, Aidan. who is styled by Bede, " the 
king of the Scots who inhabited Britain," marcheil 
against Ethelfriil, king of Northumbria, " with an 
immense and strong army," but was conquered. 
and fled with a few. " Forasmucli as," says Bede, 
"in the most famous place which is called Degsa- 
stone, almost all his army was cut to pieces: In 
which fight also Theobold, brother of Ethelfrid, 
W'ith all that army which he himself commanded. 
was killed." The place where this disastrous bat- 
tle was fought is now unknown, but it is conjec- 
tured by Bishop Gibson to have been Dalston near 
Carlisle, or as Bishop Nicolson supposes, Dawston 
near Jedburgh. Aidan died in G05, in Kintyre, 
at an advanced age, and was bm-icd at Kilchcran, 
where no king was ever buried before. If the 
date of his death be correct, he reigned just thirty 
years. He was succeeded by his son Achy, oi 
Achaius, or Eochoid-buidhe (Eochy the yellow) 
who reigned for seventeen years. Another son, 
Conan, was drowned in 622. He had several 
younger sons. His brother Brandubius was king 
of Leinster. — See Pinherlon's Enquiry, vol. 2. page 
113, and Jtitson's Annals of the Caledonians, Picts, 
and Scots, vol. 2, page 39. 

AIDAN, bishop of Lindisfarnc, or Holy Island, 
in the seventh century, was originally a monk in 
the monastery of lona, and is said by some to 
have been a native of Ireland. By his zeal, a 
large portion of the northern part of England was 
converted to Christianity. In 634, when Oswald 
became king of the Angli of Northumberland, he 
sent to Scotland for a missionary, to instruct his 
subjects in the doctrines and duties of Christianity. 
Aidan was accordingly consecrated a bishoj), and 
sent to the court of Oswald, and by liis advice. 




the episcopal see was removed from York, where 
it had been fixed by Gregory the Great, to Lin- 
disfarne, a peninsula adjoining the Northumbrian 
soast, by a narrow isthmus, called also Holy 
Island, because it was chiefly inhabited by monks. 
Here Aidan exercised an extensive jurisdiction, 
and preached the gospel with great success ; de- 
riving encouragement and assistance in his labour 
from the condescending services of the king him- 
self. On Oswald being killed in battle, Aidan 
continued to govern the church of Northumber- 
land under his successors, Oswin and Oswy, who 
reigned jointly. The following extraordinary in- 
stance of the bishop's liberality to the poor is re- 
lated. Having received a present from ICing Os- 
win of a fine horse and rich housings, he met with 
a beggar, and dismounting, gave him the horse 
thus caparisoned. When the king expressed some 
displeasure at this singular act of humanity, and 
the slight put upon his favour, Aidan quaintly but 
forcibly asked, " Which do you value most, the 
son of a mare, or the son of God?" — the king fell 
upon his knees and entreated the bishop's forgive- 
ness. The death of Oswin so mnch affected him, 
tliat he survived him only twelve days, and died 
in August 1651. He was buried in the church of 

AiKMAN, a surname, being the same as Oahnan. An 
o.ik tree was carried in the arms of persons of this surname, 
and the family of Aikman of Cairney had for crest an oak 
tree proper. 

AIKMAN, William, an eminent painter, the 

son of William Aikrnan of Cairney, advocate, by 
Margaret, third sister of Sir John Clerk, of Penny- 
cuik. Baronet, was born 24th October 1682. He 
was intended by his father for the law, but the 
bent of his own mind early led him to painting as 
a profession. In 1707, after selling off his pater- 
nal estate, he went to Rome, where he spent three 
years in studying the great masters, and returned 
to his native country in 1712, having also visited 
Constantinople and Smyrna. At first his man- 
ner was cold, but it afterwards became soft and 
easy. He was particularly happy in giving grace- 
ful airs and genteel likenesses to the ladies whose 
portraits he painted. In 1723, being patronized 
by John, duke of Argyle, he was induced to settle 
is a portrait -painter in London, where he further 

improved his colouring by the study of Sir Godfrey 
Kueller's works. His taste and genius introduced 
him to the acquaintance and friendship of the duke 
of Devonshire, the earl of Burlington, Sir Robert 
Walpole, Sir Godfrey Kneller, and others. For 
the earl of Burlington, he painted a large picture 
of the royal family, which his death prevented 
him from finishing. It is now in possession of the 
duke of Devonshire. Aikman married Marion, 
daughter of Mr. Lawson of Cairnmuir, county o! 
Peebles, by whom he had an only son, John. He 
died 4th June, O. S. 1731, in his 49th year. His 
remains, with those of his son, who predeceased 
him about six months, were removed to Edinburgh, 
and interred together in the Greyfriars' church- 
yard. An epitaph, by his friend Mallet the poet, 
was inscribed on his tomb. Several of his portraits 
are in the possession of the dukes of Hamilton, 
Ai-gyle, Devonshue, and others. He numbered 
among his friends Allan Ramsay, who wrote a 
pastoral farewell to him on his departure for Lon- 
don, Somerville, the author of the Chase, and 
Thomson, the author of the Seasons, who, as well 
as his friend Mallet, wrote elegiac verses on his 
death. Mallet's epitaph has been long effaced. 
Thomson's poem on his death closes with the fol 
lowing lines- 

" A friend, when dead, is but remov'd from sight, 
Sunk in the lustre of eternal night; 
And when the parting storms of life are o'er, 
M.ay yet rejoin us on a happier shore. 
As those we love decay, we die in part, 
Stiing after string is severed from the heart. 
Till loosen'd life, at last but breathing claj , 
Without one pang is glad to fall away. 
Unhappy he who latest feels the blow 
Whose eyes have wept o'er every friend laid low , 
Dragg'd ling'ring on from partial death to death. 
Till dying, all he can resign is breath." 

Aikman was also intimate with Pope, Swift, 
Arbuthnot, Gay, and most of the wits of Queeu 
Anne's days. His style bears a close resemblance 
to that of Kneller. In the duke of Tuscany's col- 
lection of the portraits of painters done by their 
own hands, will be found that of Aikman, in the 
ducal galleiy at Florence. — Cunningliani's Lives of 

AiLSA, marquis of, a title borne by the ancient family o! 
Kennedy, earls of Cassillis, confen-ed in 1831, and tnkcn from 




the " craggy ocean pyramid," Ailsa Craig, in the mouth of the 
frith of Clyde, which is tlio property of that family See 
CASSIL.LIS, earl of, .ind Kennkmy 

AINSLIE, Robert, writer to tlip sipriipt, tlie 
frii'iul ami correspondent of Robert Burns, was 
born inth January ITGO. lie was tlie eldest son 
of Mr. Aiuslie of Darnchcstcr, residing at Berry- 
well, near Dunse, the land agent for Lord Douglas 
Ml Berwicksliirc. He served his apprenticeship 
with Mr. Samuel Mitchelsoii, in Carrubber's close, 
Edinburgh, who was a great musical amateur, 
and in whose house occurred the fanions " Ilajr^'is 
scene " described by Smollett in Humphrey Clink- 
er. In the spring of 1787, when he had just com- 
pleted his twentieth year, Burns being at that 
time in Edinburgh, he was fortunate enough to 
make his acquaintance, and in May of that year, 
he and the poet went upon an excursion together 
into Berwickshire and Teviotdale, when he intro- 
duced Burns at his fether's house, and the recep- 
tion he received from the family is pleasantly re- 
ferred to, in his gifted companion's memoranda on 
this tour. In 1789 Ainslie passed writer to the 
signet. He afterwards visited Burns at Ellisland, 
when the poet gave him a manuscript copy of Tarn 
O'Shanter, which he presented to Sir Walter Scott. 
He married a lady named Cunningham, the daugh- 
ter of a colonel in the Scots Brigade in the Dutch 
service, by whom he had a numerous family, of 
whom only two daughters survived him. He had 
j two brothers, and one sister, the latter of whom, 
whose beauty was highly spoken of by Bums, died 
before him. One of his brothers, Douglas, suc- 
ceeded his father as land agent ; and the other, 
Sir Whitelaw Ainslie, is known as the author of an 
elaborate book on the Materia Medica of India, 
where he for many years held the situation of medi- 
cal superintendent of the southern division of India, 
for which work he was knighted by William IV. 
Mr. Ainslie died on the 11th April 183S. lie was 
the author of two religious little works, 'A Father's 
Gift to his Children,' and 'Reasons for the Hope 
that is in Us,' the latter comprising many of the 
evidences for the truth of Christianity. He was 
also a contributor to the Edinburgh Magazine, and 
others of the periodicals, for forty years previous 
to his death. His disposition was kind and bene- 
volent, his m.inners affable and frank, and liis 

conversation cheerful and abounding in anecdote. 
Many of Burns' letters to him will be found in the 
poet's printed correspondence. — Obiluaty at l/u 
time. — Personal recollections. 

Anti.iE, earl of, a title possessed by a family of the name 
of Ogilvy, lineally descended from Gilbert, third son of the 
fii-st thnne of Angus, who fought at the battle of the Standard 
in 1138, .and obtained from William the Lion the lands ol 
Powric, Ogilvy, and Kyneitljin, when, as Kim customary in 
those days, he a,ssumed the name of Ogilvy from his barony. 

In 1392 Sir Walter Ogilvy of Wester PoHTie and Auchter- 
house, sheriff of Angus, w.ts shiin with 8i.\ty of his fullowcrs, 
at Cisklune near Ulairgowric, in endeavouring to repel an in- 
cursion of the clan Donnochy, or sons of Duncan (the clan 
now called Kobertson) wlio had burst down upon the low 
country from the Grampian mountains. 

Among the shiin at the battle of Harlaw in l-Ill, was his 
eldest son, "the brave lord Ogilvy, of Angus shcriif-principal." 
See Ogiiat, surname of. 

Sir Walter Ogilvy, knight, the second son, was in 1425 
constituted lord high trea.surer of Scotland. In 1430, he 
became master of the royal household. In the following year 
he appointed a commissioner for renewing the truce with 
England. In 1434 he attended the princess Margaret into 
France, on her marriage with the dauphin. By an order from 
the king he erected the tower or fortalice of Eroly or Airly 
in Forfai-shire, into a royal castle, lie miuricd Isabel de 
DiuTv-ird, heiress of Lintrathen, by wbom he acquired that 
barony. He died in 1440, Icanng two sons. From .Sir W' .alter, 
the younger, sprang the earls of Findlater and Seafield, and 
the lords of Banff; see Banff, Fi.ndi.atkr, .and Sf.akield. 

The elder son, Sir .John Ogilvy, knight, of Lintrathen, was 
succeeded by his eldest son Sir James Ogilvy of Airlie, am- 
bassador from Scotland to Denmark in 1491. By .Tames IV. 
lie was created, 2Sth April of that year, a peer of parliament 
by the title of lord Ogilvy of Airlie. James, the seventh lord 
Ogilvy, for his loy.alty and faithful services to Ch.arles I., was 
on the 2d April, 1639, created earl of AiuLIF., Altth, and Lin- 
Ti'.ATHEN. He distinguished himself in the campaigns of the 
marquis of Montrose, in particular at the battle of Kilsyth in 
Ifilo. Ninimo, in his history of Stirlingshire, states, that at 
the commencement of that engagement, a thousand High- 
landers in Montrose's army, without waiting for orders, 
marched up the hill to attack the enemy. Though displeased 
with their r.ashness. Montrose despatched a strong detachment 
to their assistance, under the command of the earl of Airlie, 
whose arrival not only presented this resolute corps from be- 
ing overpowered by a superior force, but obliged the Covenant- 
ers to retreat. This was the most complete victory Montrose 
ever gained. The loss on his side was sm.ali, only seven or 
eight persons luaving been slain, three of whom were Ogilvics, 
relations of the family of Airlie. 

James, the second earl, was taken pnsoner at Philiphangh, 
and sentenced to death, but e.-^eaped from the castle of St. 
.•\ndrews, the night before the day of his intended execution, 
in the clothes of his si.ster. 

Davnd the third carl had two sons; the eldest, Jamefl, 
lord (Ogilvy, having engaged in the rebellion of 1715, was 
attainted of high treason. He afterwards pardnnttl, 
but, dying witliont issue, he waa succeeded by his brother, 
,Iohn, fourth carl. His son Darid, lord Ogilvy, Joined Princf 
Charles Edward Stuart, at Edinburgh, in 1745, with six hun- 
dred men, chiefly of his own name and family. He also wiu 
attainted of high treason, but escaped to France, where he 




had the command of a Scotch regiment m the semce of the 
Krench king, called Ogilvy's regiment. Ha\'in£; ohtaiued a 
free pardon, he returned to Scotland in 1783, and died in 1803. 

The title was for some time in abeyance. Walter Ogilvy, 
Esq. of Airlie, Lord Ogilvy's son, styled the seventh earl, as- 
sumed the title in 1812, but it was not restored till May 
26, 1S2G, when his son David was confiimed in it by act of par- 

David. 6. December 16, 17S5, siicceeded his father as e:fflith earl 
in 1819. He m., October 7, 1812, Clementina, only child and 
heiress of Gavin Drummond, Esq., 3rd son of James Druraraond, 
Esq., of Keltic, by Clementina, sister and co-heiress of Alexander 
Graham, of Duntriine, male heir of Claverliouse, Viscoimt 
Dundee, and had issue 1 son, David Graham Drmnmond Ogilvy, 
and 4 daughters. Her ladyship died September 1, 1S3.5, and the 
eiirl 771., 2dly, November 15, 183y, Margaret, only child of William 
Bnice, Esq., of Cowden, and by her has issue 4 sons. He died 
August 20, 1849, and was succeeded by his eldest son. Sir David 
Graham Drummond Ogilvy, K.T., ninth earl, b, .May 4, 1826, TTt, 
September 23, 1851, Henrietta Blanche, second daughter of 
Edward John, scond lord Stanley, of Alderley, and had 2 sons 
and 4 daughters. He is twenty-eighth in descent from the 
lirst thane of Angus David Wilham Stanley, Lord Ogilvy, was 
born January 20, 1866. The modern house of Airhe. erected 
upon the ruins of the old castle, is a beautiful mansion, most 
jiicturesquely situated upon a peninsulated rock, at the point 
where the river Jlelgam fomis a jimction with the Isla. A frag- 
ment of the old castle remains, consisting of an old strong gate- 
way and part of a tower. 

AiRTH, a dormant earldom m the peerage of Scotland, for- 
merly possessed by a branch of the noble family of Gr.aham, 
conferred in 1633 on William, seventh earl of Menteith, de- 
scended fi-om Sii- Patrick Graham of Kincardine, the brother of 
Sir John the Graham, the faithful companion and "right 
hand " of Wallace, who was slain at the battle of Falkirk. 
Sir Patrick had preWously fallen at Dunbar. The gr.andson 
of the latter, Sii" David Graham, styled in a royal charter, 
witnessed by him in 13C0, of Old Montrose, was the ancestor 
of the dukes of Montrose of the name of See Mon- 
TRnsK, dukes of. and Graham, surname of. His only son. 
Sir Patrick Graham, styled Donivms de Dundaff et Kincardine, 
.acted a distinguished part in the reigns of D.a^■id Bruce and 
Robeit II. The eldest son of the latter, by a second mar- 
riage. Sir Patrick Graham of Elieston .and Kilpont, married 
Eupheme, the sole heiress of Prince David Stewart, e.irl of 
Strathearn, and acquired that title. He was killed near Crieff 
in 1413, by the steward of Strathearn, Sir John Drummond, 
of Concraig. His son Malise was by James I. in Sept. 1427 
created earl of Menteith or Monteith in lieu of Str.atheam. 
His descend.ant and representative William, seventh earl of 
this line, having attempted to resume the earldom of Strath- 
earn, was by Charles I. deprived both of it and the earldom 
of Menteith ; but to compensate him for the loss, he created 
him earl of Airth, as already mentioned, with precedence to what he had enjoyed as earl of Menteith, in which 
earldom he was afterwards reinstated. Kilpont was the ba- 
ronial title of the family. It seems to have been selected as 
marking their descent from the stem of Kincardine, subse- 
quently Montrose. The tower of Airth, in Stuiingshire, is 
famous for an assault made upon it by Sir William W.allace, 
when held by an Enghsh g.arrison, whom he put to the sword. 
The square tower which makes a part of the present house of 
.\irth, upon the west, is s.aid to be the same in which that 
bloody exploit was performed. [A^^77^7«,o's Bistoi-y of Stir- 
lingshire — Stirling's edition, 1817, page 170.] The title of 
earl of Airth has been dormant since the death of \\'iUi.ara, 
second ear. of Airtb and Menteith in 1634. It was claimed by 

Mrs Margaret Barclay Allardice, heir of hue of the 1st earl of Airth, 
which claim is now (1876) before the House of Lords. SeeilEHiKliH. 

AITKEN, John, for some time editor of Con- 
stable's Miscellany, was born on 25th March 1793, 
in the village of Camelon, Stirlingshire. His first 
situation was in the East Lothian bank, and soon 
after he was sent to the banking oifice of Mr. Park, 
Selkirk, brother of Mungo Park the traveller, 
where he remained for several years. He was 
afterwards appointed teller in the East Lothian 
bank, where he had formerly been. He sub- 
sequently removed to Edinburgh, and became a 
bookseller. Having early displayed a predilection 
for literature, he now resolved to follow the bent 
of his mind, and commenced editing 'The Cabi- 
net,' an elegant selection of pieces in prose and 
verse, three volumes of which were published. 
The taste and judgment evinced in this pnblica • 
tion recommended him to Mr. Archibald Consta- 
ble, as the fittest person to undertake the editor- 
ship of his Miscellany ; and though for a time 
the failure of Messrs. Constable and Company 
postponed the publication, when the work at last 
appeared, it was under 'Mr. Aitken's manage- 
ment. On tlie death of IMr. Constable, he, in con- 
junction with IMr. Henry Constable and Jlessrs 
Hurst, Chance, and Company, London, purchased 
the work, and continued editor till 1831, when 
some new arrangements rendered his retirement 
necessary. He afterwards became a printer on 
his own account, with some prospect of success ; 
but having caught cold, which produced erysipelas 
in the head, he died on the 15th of February 1833, 
in the 39th year of his age, leaving a widow and 
four children. Mr. Aitken wrote a few pieces of 
poetry of uncommon beauty and sensibility ; of 
these, perhaps the most touching is the address to 
his chiklren, prefixed to the third series of the 
Cabinet. — Obihtary at the time. 

ArrON, — for the origin of the name of Alton, see Atton. 

AITON, William, styled the Scottish Linnaeus, 
was bom in 1731, at a village near Hamilton. 
Going to England in 1754, he was employed as an 
assistant in the Physic gardens at Chelsea, under 
Philip Miller, the superintendent, on whose recom- 
mendation he was in 1759 appointed head gar- 
dener to the Royal botanical garden at Kew, and 
became a great favourite with George IH. Ir 




1783 he obtaiued also the aiipoiiitineut of supcr- 
intendent of the pleasure-grounds at Kew. He 
introduced a number of improvements into the 
Royal gardens, and formed there one of the best 
collections of rare exotic plants then known, a 
catalogue of which, with the title, Ilortiis Ketrcitsis, 
was published iu 1789 in 3 vols. 8vo, containing 
an enumeration of between five and six thousand 
species, with thirteen plates. He died in 1703, 
of a schirrus in the liver, and his son, William 
Townsend Alton, was nominated by the king him- 
self his successor. 
Mr. .lUton's publications are . 

Hortus Kewcnsis: or a Catalogue of tlie Plants cultiv.itcd 
in the Royal Bot;inic Gardens at Kew, illustrated witli En- 
p'avings. Lond. 1789, 3 vols. 8vo. 

New Edition enlarged. Lond. 1810-13, ~i vols. 8vo. 

An Epitome of •2d. edit. Lond. 1814, 8vo. 

At-baxy, duke of. a title fonnerly given to a prince of the of Scotland, — Albany, Albion, or Albinn, being 
the ancient Gaelic name of North Brit.ain, and until the 
time of Cassar the original appellation of the whole island. 
The Scottish Highlanders denominate themselves ' G.ael Al- 
binn,' or Albinnich, or Albainach. The name Albany is evi- 
dently derived from the Pictish word Alban^ " the superior 
height," and is now applied to the extensive mount.ainous dis- 
trict comprising Appin and Glennrchy in Argyleshire, Athol 
and Breadalbane in Perthshu-e, and a part of Lochaber in 
Invemess-shire. The title of duke of Albany was iii-st con- 
fen'ed on the regent Robert, earl of Fife, son of Robert II. 
Since the Union, it has .always been borne by the Icing's sec- 
ond son, by creation, .and was last held, as a secondary title, 
by the late duke of York, son of George III. The history 
of Scotland mentions foiu- dukes of Alb.any who made a 
figure in then: time; whom, in consequence of their relation 
to the royal family of ScotLand, we insert here, rather than 
under the family name of Stuai-t. 

ALBANY, Robert, first duke of, the third 
son of Robert U. the first of the Stuarts, by his 
firet wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Su- Adam Mure 
of Rowallan in Ayrshire. He was born in 1339. 
He obtained the earldom of Menteith by his mar- 
riage with Margaret, countess of Menteith, and 
afterwards in 1371 that of Fife, on the resignation 
of that earldom into the king's liands in his favour 
by Isobel, countess of Fife, the widow of his eld- 
est brother Walter, who had died young, without 
issue. He was accordingly thereafter styled earl 
of Fife and Menteith. In the years 1371 and 1372, 
lie presided at the courts of redress for settling 
differences on the marches. In 1383 he was 
appointed chamberlain of Scotland, wliicli 
.iKce he resigned in 1408, in favour of his son 

John, earl of Buclian. In 1385, acconipnnicd by 
the earl of Douglas, and John de Vicunc, admini. 

of France, who was then in Scothind, and a body 
of Frendi au.xiliaries, he niarclicd with an army 
of 30,000 men towards Roxburgh, at that time in 
the hands of the English. Proceeding into Enj;- 
laud they took the castle of Wark in Northuniber- 
land, and ravaged the countiy from Berwick to 
Newcastle ; but on the approach of the duke of 
Lancaster, they resolved to return to Scothind. 
On their way back, they sat down before Rox- 
burgh, but were obliged soon to raise tlic siege. 
On the invasion of Scotland by the English, the 
earls of Fife and Douglas, and Archibald lord of 
Galloway, made an incursion on the west borders, 
as far as Cockermouth, spoiling the rich counti7 
between the Fells of Cumberland and the sea, and 
returned with several prisoners and abundance of 
plunder. The talents of the earl of Fife, it is 
stated, were so highly prized, that the principal 
youth of Scotland flocked eagerly to his standard. 
In the summer of 1388, when Douglas invaded 
England on the east, and fell at Otterbourne, the 
earl of Fife, with his brother tlic earl of Strathearn, 
entered that kingiKira on the west, and after pass- 
ing towards Carlisle, returned by Solway, without 
sustaining any loss. 

In 1389, in consequence of the advauced age of 
the king his father, and the bodily infirmity of his 
elder brother, the earl of Canick, afterwards Ro- 
bert III., who had been rendered lame in early 
youth by the kick of a horse, the earl of Fife was, 
by the three estates of the realm, appointed gov- 
ernor of the kingdom. Desirous of signalizing 
the commencement of his administration, he raised 
an army, and advanced against the carl of Not- 
tingham, marshal of England, warden of the east 
marches, who, after the battle of Otterbourne, had 
boasted that he hoped to conquer the Scots, even 
though opposed ^y a force double his own num- 
bers. On the approach of the regent and the new 
earl of Douglas, however, instead of giving battle, 
he posted his men in a secure and inaccessible 
place, and refused to stand the hazard of a fight; 
and the Scots army, after waiting half-a-day, with 
banners displayed in sight of the foe, returned 
liciiiie, wasting and destroying the country. A 
truce was agreed to the same year, 1389 In 




April of the following year his father died, and his 
older brother John succeeded to the throne, when 
he took the name of Robert III., that of John 
being considered inauspicious. The new king, 
besides being lame, was of a quiet disposition and 
had no strength of mind, and the management of 
public afFau'S was continued in the hands of the 
earl of Fife. His nephew, however. Prince David, 
earl of Carrick, conceiving that, as heir-apparent 
to the crown, he was entitled, in preference to 'his 
uncle, to be at the head of the administration, had 
the address to compel his retirement from the 
office of governor, and to get himself named regent 
in his place, under the condition that he should 
act by the advice of a council, of whom his uucle 
was the principal. In March 1398 Albany and 
his nephew Prince David had a meeting at a place 
called Ilaudenstank, with John of Gaunt, duke of 
Lancaster, and other English commissioners, for 
settling mutual differences; and it is supposed that, 
on this occasion, Lancaster, from his superior title 
of duke, claimed some precedence not relished by 
the priuce and his uncle ; for this year the first 
introduction of the ducal title into Scotland took 
place, the earl of Carrick, the king's son, being 
created duke of Rothesay, and the earl of Fife, the 
king's brother, duke of Albany. According to For- 
dun, these titles were conferred in a solemn council 
held at Scone, April 28, 1398. In 1400, when Henry 
IV. of England invaded Scotland, Albany assem- 
bled an army to oppose that monarch. Henry took 
Haddington and Leith, aud laid siege to the castle 
of Edinburgh, at which time WilUam Napier of 
Wrightshouses was constable of the castle. With 
the aid of Archibald, earl of Douglas, and the duke 
of Rothesay, at this time governor of the king- 
dom, he maintained that important fortress against 
the whole English army, which was numerous and 
well appointed. In accordance with the chivalrous 
eustom of the times, Rothesay, who was not want- 
ing in courage, though frequently charged with im- 
prudence, sent King Henry a knightly challenge to 
meet him where he pleased, with a hundred nobles 
on each side, and so to determine the quarrel, but 
the English king was not disposed to give him this 
advantage, and sent back an equivocating verbal 
reply. He then sat down with his numerous host 
before the castle, till cold and rain, and the want of 

provisions, as the inhabitants had, as usual iu thost 
daj'S, taken care to remove everj' thing that the 
invaders could lay then- hands on from their reach, 
compelled him to raise the siege and hastily re- 
cross the Border, without his visit being produc- 
tive of much injury either in his progress or retreat. 
On his part the duke of Albany, whose ambition 
was equal to his ability, desu-ous of having the gov- 
ernment to himself, permitted the enemy to with- 
draw without molestation, and obtained much 
praise from them for his clemency to all who sur- 

Two years afterwards occurred the tragic death 
of the duke of Rothesay, which loft a dark clouc' 
of suspicion on his uncle's name, and the mys- 
tery attendant on which has never been satisfac- 
torily cleared up. The circumstances of his deatl 
are related by Boece, who attaches the guilt oi 
mui'der distinctly to Albany, but the love of the 
marvellous which is so prominent in this writer as 
to make even Tytler call him the most apocryjihal 
of Scottish historians, may be supposed to have led 
him to give a high colouring to his narrative, whicli 
the subsequent unpopularity of Albany and the dis- 
favour into which his memory fell with the Scot 
tish com-t, would not diminish. After mentioning 
the death of the yoimg duke's mother. Queen An- 
nabella Drummond, his narrative thus proceeds : 
" Be quhais deith, succedit gi'et displeseir to hir son, 
David, duk of Rothesay; for, during hir life, he 
wes haldin in virtews and honest occupatioun, eftir 
hu- deith, he began to rage in all manor of inso- 
lence; and fulyeit virginis, matronis, and nunnis, 
be his unbridillit lust. At last, King Robert, in- 
formit of his young and insolent maneris, send 
letteris to his brothir, the duk of Albany, to inter- 
tene his said son, the duk of Rothesay, and to leii- 
[learn] him honest and civiU maneris. The duk 
of Albany, glaid of thir writtingis, tuk the duk of 
Rothesay betwixt Dunde and Sanct Androis, and 
brocht him to Falkland, and inclusit [enclosed] 
him in the tour thairof, but [without] ony meit or 
drink. It is said, ane woman, havand commisera- 
tionn on this duk, leit meill fall down throw the 
loftis of the toure ; be quilkis, his life wes certane 
dayis savit. This woman, fra it wes knawin, wes 
put to deith. On the same maner, ane othir wo- 
man gaif him milk of hh- paup, throw ane lang 




reid ; and wes slane with grct cnielte, fi-a it wcs 
kiiawin. Tlian wcs the duk destitute of all mor- 
tall supplie ; and broclit, finalie, to sa miserable 
and hungi-y-appctite, that he cit, nocht allaueilie 
[not only] the filth of the tourc quhare he wes, 
bot his awin fingaiis ; to his great niaricrdome. 
Ilis body wcs beryit in Linuloi'is, and kithit niira- 
klis mony ycris cftii'; quhil [till], at last King 
James the First began to punis his slayeris ; and 
fra that time furtli, the miraclis coissit." The 
melancholy death of the dnke of Rothesay forms 
one of the most effective incidents in Sir Walter 
Scott's popnlar novel of 'The Fair JIaid of Perth,' 
iu which the characters of the young prince, of 
nis weak-minded father Robert the Third, and of 
his uncle the regent duke of Albany, are drawn 
with great faithfulness and power. 

It would appear that the duke of Rothesay, 
who was of a wild and thoughtless disposition, 
and little qualified for a charge so important as 
that of regent of the kingdom, had alienated the 
affections of all whom he ought to have courted 
and conciliated. He had in early life been affi- 
anced to his own cousin, the beautiful Eupuemia 
do Lindsay, sister of Sir '\\'illiam de Lindsay of 
Rossie and of David earl of Crawford, — ^he slighted 
her for Elizabeth Dunbar, sister of the earl of 
March and Dunbar, to whom he was solemnly 
contracted, — and her again for Maijory Douglas 
daughter of the brave but unfortunate Archibald 
earl of Douglas surnamed the Tineman, — whom he 
ultimately married. The consequence was the 
deadly enmity of the earl of March and Sir Wil- 
liam Rossie, the latter — in absence of the earl of 
Crawford in Spain — the representative of the house 
of Lindsay. More recently he had offended his 
father-in-law, the earl of Douglas, by personal 
affronts and neglect of his daughter, and by his 
shameful debaucheries and vicious courses with 
other women. He had disgusted and insulted one 
of his own immediate followers, Sir W^illiam Ra- 
morgny, a man of highly polished manners, but 
of a revengeful heart. He conceived a strong 
desire to eft'ect the overthrow of Albany, which 
he was at no pains to conceal, and was guilty 
of repeated excesses which rendered his being 
placed under some restraint a matter of neces- 

On his suspension from the ollice of governor, 
it was suggested by Sir William Lindsay and Ra- 
morgny to the prince, in order to facilitate his cap- 
ture, that he should ride toSt. Andrew.s — the bishop 
of which had just died, — and keep the castle for tho 
king's interest. He set off with a small train, but 
was intercepted by them, and conveyed a prisoner 
to the castle. Albany, and his fatlier-in-law 
Douglas, then at Culross, presently arrived, and 
after holding a council of the regency, it was de- 
cided to transport the unfortunate prince to Falk- 
land, where ho was placed under the custody of 
two individuals called Wright and Selkirk. The 
rest of the story we have given in the words of 
Boece. The tale contains matter that is fabulous 
and untrue as well as revolting and improbable. 
All the parties named by the tradition as the mur- 
derers in chief we know to have died a natural 
death, except the gallant Douglas, who fell at the 
battle of Verneuil. If the remains of the prince 
could have wrought miracles at all, there was 
no truth therefore in the reason assigned why 
the faculty had ceased. After a life so dissipated, 
it is not improbable that the account given by 
Bower, the continuator of Fordun, may have had 
foundation, namely, that the young prince really 
died of dysentery, and to this view of the case 
the filthy details of Boece would rather seem to 
give some countenance. It is singular that Wyn 
toun, the earliest narrator of the event, says no- 
thing whatever of the alleged murder. At the 
time of his death, he was in his 29th year, having 
been born in 1373. — See Rothesay, duke of. 

The mysterious death of the heir to the crown 
having excited great attention, a parliament met 
at Edinburgh on the 16th May after, to investigate 
the matter, when Albany and the earl of Douglas 
acknowledged having imprisoned the duke of Rothe- 
say, but denied being guilty of his death, attribut- 
ing it to diviue providence. These statements 
appear to have Induced the parliament to de- 
clare him innocent of the murder, while at the 
same time ho sought to make himself legally se- 
cure by taking out a remission under the great 
seal for the imprisonment, both for himself and for 
Douglas. This rcmi.-;sion, which is in Latin, was 
first printed by Lord Hailes, but it does not follow 
from the concluding remai'k of his commcat, as 




Pinkerton says, that he considered the prince as 
having been murdered; namely, "The duke of 
Albany and the earl of Douglas obtained a remis- 
sion in terms as ample as if they had actnally 
murdered the heir apparent." On the capital of 
the pillar of the old chapel of St. Giles' cathedral 
at Edinburgh are still to be seen sculptured the 
arms of Robert duke of Albany, and those of 
Archibald, fourth eai-1 of Douglas, the father-in- 
law of Rothesay, the former on the south and tlfe 
latter on the north side, and the author of ' Me- 
morials of Edinburgh in the Olden Time ' infers 
from this fact that this chapel had been founded 
and endowed by them, as an expiatory offering 
for the murder of the duke of Rothesay, and its 
chaplain probably appointed to say masses for 
their victim's soul. \_Wilson's Memorials of Edin- 
burgh, vol. ii. page 168.] The friendship which 
subsisted between Albany and Douglas seems a 
more likely reason why their arms should have 
been thus placed together, than any thing in con- 
nection with the death of the young and wilful 
prince, that could be imputed to either of them. 

Soon after the death of Rothesay, Albany, in 
order to turn the attention of the nation into 
another channel, gave his consent for the renewal 
of hostile operations against England. Two Scot- 
tish armies were successively marched across the 
Borders, but both were defeated and dispersed, 
the first at the battle of Nesbit Moor, fought on 
the 22d June 1402, and the other at Homeldon 
hill, on the 14th September of that year, when the 
celebrated Hotspur gained the victory. In the 
latter the leaders of the Scots, Murdoch earl of 
Fife, eldest son of the regent Albany, with the 
eai'l of Douglas, his friend and supposed accom- 
plice in the death of Rothesay, and eighty knights, 
and a crowd of esquires and pages, were taken 
prisoners, while not only among those slain but 
m the list of the captives, were many of that party 
which supported the king and his young son Prince 
James, against the encroaching power of Albanj', 
whom they believed to be the murderer of his 
nephew the duke of Rothesay. Soon after the 
battle of Homeldon, the Percies, who by this time 
had become dissatisfied with the monarch whom 
they had placed upon the English throne, began to 
organize that famous rebellion which terminated 

with the defeat and death of Hotspur in the battle 
of Shrewsbury, in which they were aided by their 
prisoner the earl of Douglas. As a pretext for 
assembling an army they pretended an invasion 
of Scotland, and the duke of Albany, influenced 
probably by the example and advice of Douglas, 
and hoping that the kingdom would benefit by 
their sei-vices, readily gave in to their designs 
At the head of a large army Percy advanced 
across the Border, but had only marched a few 
miles into Scotland, when he commanded his 
forces to halt before the insignificant border- tower 
of Cocklaws, but the officer commanding the tower 
having entered into an agreement to capitulate in 
six weeks if not relieved, the whole English army 
retired. On receiving information of this, Albany 
assembled the principal of tlie nobility, and hav- 
ing explained to them the circumstances, advised 
an immediate expedition into England. The 
Scottish barons, who had been amazed at Al- 
bany's former lukewarmness and inactivity, when 
the capital had been invaded by Henry IV. in 
person and the principal castle of the kingdom 
was in danger of falling into his hands, were now 
overwhelmed with astonishment at the sudden 
blaze of bravery which seemed to animate his 
breast when a paltry Border fortress was threat- 
ened by the English. " All were of opinion," 
says Bower, " without a single dissentient voice, 
that, upon so trivial an occasion it would be ab- 
surd to peril the welfare of the kingdom ; but Al- 
bany starting up, and pointing to his page, who 
held his horse at a little distance ; ' You, my 
lords,' said he, ' may sit still at home ; but I vow 
to God and St. Fillan that I shall be at Cocklaws 
on the appointed day, though no one but Pate 
Kinbuck, the boy yonder, should accompany me.' " 
The warlike resolution of the governor was hailed 
with gi-eat joy. "Never," says the historian, 
"did men more joyfully proceed to a feast, than 
they to collect then- vassals." At the head of an 
immense army, Albany advanced to the Borders, 
but on his march, a messenger fi'om England 
brought the intelligence of the result of the battle 
of Shrewsbury and the termination of the rebel 
lion in England. This, however, did not detei 
him fi-om pushing on to Cocklaws, and sun'onnd- 
ing the fortalice with his troops, and after causing 




it to be proclaimed by a herald that the Percies 
had boon utterly defeated, and so relieved the 
fortress, he returned, without entering En;:land, 
with his army, which ho inimodiatolv (li.<baudod. 

In the meantime, the afflicted monarch, Robert 
[11., resolved to send his second son James, 
tlien in his eleventh year, to France for greater 
security; but the vessel in which bo .sailod Iiav- 
iiig been driven by a storm on the coast of lOng- 
land, was taken by an English cruiser, and the 
youthful prince, although there was a truce at the 
time between the two kingdoms, was ungenerously 
detained a prisoner by Henry IV. for uincteon 

Robert III. died of a broken heart, 4tli April, 
140C, and the duke of Albany, in the absence of 
James, was, by a parliament wliicli mot at Perth, 
confirmed in the regencj'. He was then ap- 
proaching his seventieth year, but vigorous, poli- 
tic, and ambitious as ever. During his regency 
occurred tlie famous battle of Harlaw, which 
was fought in 1411, between his nephew Alexan- 
der, earl of Mar, and Donald lord of the Isles, 
the cause of which was ostensibly the earldom of 
Ross, to which the lord of the Isles laid claim in 
right of his wife, but there can be no doubt that 
this claim and his subsequent invasion of the 
district of Ross, formed merely a pretext, which 
was intended to conceal his ulterior views on the 
throne itself It appears that the male line of the 
possessors of this earldom had become extinct, 
and the succession had devolved upon a female, 
Euphemia Ross, the wife of Sir A^'alter Lesley, by 
whom she had a son, Alexander, who succeeded 
as earl of Ross, and a daughter, Margaret, married 
to Donald of the Isles. The countess of Ross, on 
tlie death of her husband, married Alexander earl 
of Buehan, fourth son of King Robert 11. Her 
son by her first marriage, Alexander earl of Ross, 
married Lady Isabel Stewart, eldest daughter of 
the regent Albany, and the only issue of this mar- 
riage was a daughter, also named Eujihemia, 
countess of Ross, at her father's death. This lady 
became a nun, and committed the government of 
her earldom to Albany, with the intention, as it 
is conjectured, of resigning it in favour of her un- 
cle, John Stewart, earl of Buehan, the second son 
of the regent. As the countess Euphemia, b}' bo- 

coming a mm, was regarded as dead in law, her 
next heir was lier aunt Margaret, the only sister 

of the decca.sod Alexander, earl of Ross, and the 
wife of Donald lord of the Lslos. That chieftain 
accordingly asserted her right to the earldom, and 
demanded to be put in possession of it. The claim 
and the demand were both rejected by the i-egciit, 
" whose principal object," says Skene, " appears 
to have boon to |)revont the acces.sion of so exten- 
sive a district to the torritorios of the lord of the 
Isles, already too powerful for the security of the 
government, and whose conduct was more actu- 
ated by principles of oxpcdioncy than of justice." 
ll/istori/ of the Highlanders, vol. ii. p. 72.] Re- 
solved to maintain his claims by force of arms, 
and show his scorn of the authority of the regent, 
Donald formed an alliance with 1 loiny IV. of Eng- 
land, and at the head of ten thousand men, which 
he had raised in the Hebrides and in the earldom 
of Ross itself, suddenly invaded the district in 
dispute, by the inhabitants of which he was not 
op])osed, and .speedily obtained jiossession of the 
earldom. On his arrival at Dingwall, however, 
he was encountered by Angus Dow Mackay of 
Farr, or Black Angus, as he was called, at the 
head of a large body of men from Sutherland. 
After a fierce attack the Mackays were completely 
routed, and tlieir leader taken prisoner, while An- 
gus' brother Roderick was killed. Donald took 
possession of the castle of Dingwall, and seized 
theisIaudofSkye, contiguous to his own extensive 
territories. Flushed with success, he now re- 
solved, in accordance with his secret design o( 
overturning the government, to cany into execu- 
linn a threat he had often made to burn the town 
of Aberdeen. He ordered the army to assemble 
at Inverness, and gathering as he proceeded all 
tlie men capable of bearing arms to his standard, 
he swe|)t through Moray without opposition, and 
penetrated into Aberdeenshire. In Strathbogie, 
and in the district of Garioch, which belonged to 
the earl of Mar, he committed gi-eat excesses. 
To arrest his progress, the earl of Mas, the ne- 
phew of the regent, and Sir Alexander Ogilvy, 
the sheriff of Angus, hastily raised as many forces 
as they could collect in the counties north of the 
Tay, consisting of most of the retainer of the an- 
cient families of these counties, the Ogilvies. the 





Lyons, the Maules, the Carnegies, the Lindsays, 
tlie Leslies, the JIun-ays, the Straitous, the Ir- 
vings, the Arbuthnots, the Leiths, the Burnets, 
and others, led by their respective chiefs. The 
two armies met at the village of Harlaw, in the 
parish of Chapel of Garioch, upwards of fifteen 
miles from Aberdeen. Although the earl of Mar's 
army was inferior in point of numbers to that of 
the lord of the Isles, it was composed of Low- 
land gentlemen, better armed and disciplined 
than the wild and disorderly hordes that followed 
Donald, who was assisted by Mackintosh and 
Maclean, and other Highland chiefs, all bearing 
the most deadly hatred to their Saxon foes. This 
memorable battle was fought on the 2-tth July, 
1411, "upon the issue of which," says Sliene, 
"seemed to depend the question of whether the 
Gaelic or Teutonic part of the population of Scot- 
land were in future to have the supremacy." 
[History of the Higlilanders, vol. ii. page 73.] The 
disastrous result of this battle was one of the 
greatest misfortunes which had ever happened to 
the numerous respectable families in Angus and 
the Mearns. The earl of Mar lost five hundred 
men, among whom were several gentlemen of dis- 
tinction. Besides Sir James Scrymgeoiu', consta- 
ble of Dundee, Su- Alexander Ogilvy, the sheriff 
of Angns, with his eldest son, George Ogilvy, SLi- 
Thomas Murray, Sir Robert Maule of Panmure, 
SLi- Alexander L'ving of Drum, Sii' William Aber- 
nethy of Saltoun, Sir Alexander Straiten of Lau- 
rieston, Sir Robert Davidson, provost of Aberdeen, 
and a number of the inhabitants of that city, were 
among the slain. A gentleman, named Leslie 
of Balquhain, whose residence was in the neigh- 
bourhood of the field of battle, with six of his sons, 
was killed. On the side of the lord of the Isles 
nine hundred men were slain, including the chiefs 
of Maclean and Mackintosh. Neither party gained 
the victory, and each, on reckoning its loss, con- 
sidered itself vanquished, but the lord of the Isles 
felt himself so much weakened that he was com- 
pelled to abandon the contest. The earl of Mar 
and those of his companions who survived were so 
much exhausted with fatigue that they passed the 
night on the field of battle, expecting a renewal of 
the attack next morning, but at daydawn they dis- 
covered that Donald and the remains of his force 

had retired during the darkness, witliout molesta 
tion, retreating first to Ross, and then to the Isles 
Immediately after the battle, the regent, anxious 
to follow up the check which the Highland force 
liad received, collected an army, and marched to 
the castle of Dingwall, which he took and garri- 
soned towards the end of autumn. In the follow- 
ing summer he sent tliree separate forces to invade 
the ten-itories of Donald. The haughty lord of 
the Isles was obliged to relinquish his claims to 
the earldom of Ross, to make personal submis- 
sion, and to give hostages for indemnification 
and for the future observance of peace. The in- 
strument by which the earldom of Ross was re- 
signed by Euphemia the nun in favom- of her 
gi'andfather is dated in 1415, just four years after 
the battle of Harlaw. The battle itself, as has 
been well remarked, " from the ferocity with which 
it was contested, and the dismal spectacle of civil 
war and bloodshed exhibited to the connti-y, ap- 
pears to have made a deep impression on the na- 
tional mind. It fixed itself in the music and the 
poetry of Scotland ; a march, caUed ' The Battle 
of Harlaw,' continued to be a popular air down to 
the time of Drummond of Hawthomden, and a 
spirited ballad on the same event is still repeated 
in our age, describing the meeting of the armies, 
and the deaths of the chiefs, in no ignoble strain." 
[Lahiff's Early Metrical Tales, page 229.] For a 
long time after, it was customary for schoolboys 
to arrange themselves into opposite parties, and 
fight tlie battle of Harlaw over again, for recrea- 
tion. The ballad of the Battle thus concludes : 

There was not, sin' King Kenneth's dajs, 

Sic strange intestine cruel strife 
In Scotlande seen, as ilk man says, 

Where monie likelie lost their life ; 

WTiilk made divorce tween man and wife, 
And mome children fatherless, 

Whilk in this realm has been full rife ; 
Lord help these lands ! our wrangs redress I 

In July, on Saint James his evm, 

That four-and-twenty dismal day, 
Twelve hundred, ten score, and eleven 

Of years sin' Christ, the soothe to say ; 

Men will remember, as they may, 
When thus the veritie they knaw ; 

And monie a ane %vill momne lor aye 
The brim battle of the Harlaw 




lu the year last mentioned, namely 1415, the 
regent obtained from Henry V. tlio liberation of 
his son Jlurdoch, in exchange for Henry Percy, 
the son of Hotspnr. In 1416 he sent his second 
son, John carl of Buchan, ambassador to England, 
to endeavonr to procure the release of James I. 
from the captivity in which he was held by the 
English monarch. Witli a strange perversity, the 
writers of Scottish liistory have almost unani- 
mously charged the regent Albany with " being in 
no hurry to obtain the release of his nephew," as 
Sir Walter Scott gently phrases it — nay, they even 
go farther, and accuse him of treasonably intrigu- 
ing with the English king to retain his sovereign 
in prison, that his own power might not be inter- 
rupted ; but here is one instance where Alban}' 
intrusted his son, the earl of Buthan, one of the 
bravest and most accomplished knights of his age, 
with a mission to England to endeavour to procure 
the liberation of James. lu 1417, when King 
Henry V. was in France, prosecuting his wars there, 
the regent, with a large army invaded England, 
and after beginning the siege of Roxburgh, im- 
mediately retreated in aU haste on learning that 
an English force, under the dukes of Bedford and 
Exeter, was on the way to meet him. This was 
long popularly remembered as the "Foul Raid." 
In 1419 he despatched his son, the earl of Buchan, 
with a chosen army of 7,000 men, into France, 
to assist the danphin against the English king. 
Neither this invasion of England, nor this assist- 
ance sent to France, would have taken place had 
Albany desn'cd to keep on those good terms with 
Henry which implied a mutual understanding as 
to the retention of James fi-om his kingdom. This 
son, the earl of Buchan, was the oftspring of Al- 
bany's second marriage with Sluriella, the daugh- 
ter of Sir William Keith, marshal of Scotland. 
He was born about 1380. When his father be- 
came regent in 1406, after the death of his brother 
Robert III., he resigned, in favom- of his son, the 
office of gi-eat chamberlain. In 1408 Albaii}', as 
regent, created him carl of Buchan. Five years 
afterwards Buchau mairied Lady Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Archibald earl of Douglas. AVhile engaged 
on the dauphin's side against the English in 
France, the earl of Buchan, on the 22d March 
1421, defeated the duke of Clarence, the brother 

of Henry V., at Bauge In Anjou, and slew liim 
with a battle axe, after he had been i)ierced witli 
a spear by Sir William Swiuton. To recompense 
this signal victory the dauphin conferred upon him 
the high office of constabK; of France. In 1422 
he revisited Scotland, with the view of inducing 
his father-in-law, the earl of Douglas, to join his 
arms. Douglas consented, and was created duke 
of Touraine in France by the dauphin. Both 
Douglas and the earl of Buchau, constable oi 
France, were slain at the battle of Vcrneuil in 
Normandy, 17th August 1424. A portrait of this 
illustrious wai-rior is given on page 43, at the end 
of the memoir. 

The duke of Albany continued to administer the 
affairs of the kingdom till his death, which took 
place at Stirling castle, on the 3d of September 
1420, at the age of 81. His body was interred 
in the Abbey church of Dunfermline. Our his- 
torians generally have given a very unfair view 
of Albany's character. Pinkerton thus depicts 
it : " His person was tall and majestic ; his coun- 
tenance amiable. Temperance, affiibility, elo- 
quence, real generosity, apparent benignity, a 
degree of cool prudence, bordering upon wisdom, 
may be reckoned among his virtues. But the 
shades of his vices are deeper ; an insatiate ambi- 
tion, unrelenting cruelty, and its attendant cow- 
ardice, or, at least, an absolute defect of military 
fiime, a contempt of the best human affections, a 
long practice in all the dark paths of art and dis- 
simulation. His adn\inistration he studied to re- 
commend, not b}' promoting the public good, but 
by sharing the spoils of the monarchy with the 
nobles, by a patient connivance at their enormi- 
ties, by a dazzling pomp of expenditure, in the 
pleasures of the feast, and in the conciliation ul 
magnificence. As fortune preserved his govern- 
ment from any signal nnsuccess, so it would be 
an abuse of teinis to bestow upon a wary man- 
agement which only regarded his own interest the 
praise of political wisdom." In this same strain 
all our historians follow one another in their esti- 
mate of Albany's character, but I am not disposed 
to agree with them entirely. Nothing could be 
wiser or more calculated for the public good, than 
his resistance to Donald of the Isles, whose object 
was by the aid of England to destroy the Scottisli 




kingdom to his own aggrandisement; and wliat- 
ever may be tlie motives imputed to Albany, or 
tbe objects assigned as the moving springs of his 
administration, surely it cannot be denied that the 
public good was indeed promoted by his policy, and 
by his judicious and vigorous measures on all occa- 
sions. During his regency justice was regularly 
administered. He took great care not to lay 
any taxes on the people, and especially he steadily 
and successfully opposed the levying of a tax of 
two pennies on every hearth in the kingdom, 
which had been proposed in parliament for the 
purpose of defraying the expense of demolishing 
Jedburgh castle. "Even in his time," says Sir 
Walter Scott, " it would seem that the extent of 
writings used for the transference of property, had 
become a subject of complaint. M'hen upon this 
subject, Albany used often to praise the simpli- 
city and beauty of an ancient charter bj' King 
Athelstan, a Saxon monarch. It had been granted 
to the ancient Northumbrian family called Rod- 
dam of Roddam, and had fallen into the hands of 
the Scots on some of theii- plundering excursions." 
The duke of Albany, it is quite certain, was one 
of the most popular and most able governors that 
the kingdom ever possessed. He enjoyed to a high 
degree the confidence of both king and nobles, 
while the people placed the utmost reliance on 
the justice and firmness of his government. The 
following is an impression of his seal, taken from 
the Diplomata Scotim: 

Robert duke of Albany was twice married : first 
to Margaret, countess of IMeuteith ; and secondly 
to Muriella, eldest daughter of Sir William Keith, 
great marischal of Scotlan'd, and had issue by both 
marriages. — Dotiglas' Peerage, vol. i. — Pmkerton\ 
History of Scotland, vol. i. p. 85. 

ALBANY, Murdoch, second duke of, son of 
the preceding, succeeded him both as duke and 
regent. At first he bore the title of earl of Fife. 
He had a grant from Robert III. in tlie third 
j-ear of his reign, of a hundred merks sterling an- 
nually from the customs of Aberdeen. He was 
Justiciary of Scotland benorth the Forth, and 
designed of Kinclevyne wlien taken prisoner at 
the battle of Homeldon in 1402. Heury IV. 
presented him in fidl parliament on 20th Octo- 
ber, and he was allowed to be at large on his 
parole of honour. By a letter from his father to 
Henry the Fourth, dated Falkland, June 2, 1405, 
he seems to have received much kindness from tliat 
monarch during his stay in England, as he thanks 
him for his good treatment of his son Blurdoch, 
and the favourable audience given to Rothesay 
herald. In 1415 he was exchanged for Henry 
Percy of Northumberland, the son of Hotspur, 
who, since the battle of Shrewsbury, had remained 
in Scotland. He does not appear to have pos- 
sessed the same degree of energy as his father, but 
the accounts of him given by our historians are 
manifestly partial and exaggerated. It is stated 
that on his father's death in 1419, he assumed 
the oiBce of governor of Scotland, just as if he 
had naturally and legitimately succeeded to it as 
a matter of hereditary right, and that he did not 
think it necessaiy even to obtain the sanction of 
parliament, but supported by the feudal nobility 
at once usm-ped the government. This is not 
likely to have been the conduct of a person of the 
indolent, incapable, and unambitious character 
whicli Duke Murdoch's is universally represented 
to have been. In the commission preserved in 
the chapter of Westminster, and of which a copy 
is given in Anderson's Diplomata, No. 64, it is 
expressly stated that the parties therein named, 
being the bishop of Glasgow, chancellor of Scot- 
land, James Douglas of Balvany, brother-in-law 
of Duke ISIurdoch, the earl of March, the abbot 
of Balmerinoch and others, empowered to ne- 




potiate for the deliverance of James from his cap- 
tivit}' in England, were so appointed with the 
knowledge and by the deliberate council of the 
three estates of the realm (ex certa scientia et 
deliberato concilia truim statmim regni), which 
must have been assembled at the time, and pro- 
bably for the purpose. This document bears date 
19th August 1-123, and is stated to have been 
passed in the tliird year of Murdoch's government. 
As, however, his father died in 1419, it is impos- 
sible that it could have been so expressed had he 
t/teit assumed the government ; for it would, in 
that case, have been stated to have been done in 
the fourth and not the third year of his regency ; 
and it is but reasonable to infer that the post of 
governor remained vacant after the death of his 
father, till it could be legitimately conferred- on 
Murdoch by an act of some parliament, of the 
proceedings of which, as well as of the one referred 
to in the commission, no trace is now to be found 
in history. It is said that Slurdoch's conduct as 
regent created so much dissatisfaction in the na- 
tion that some persons refused to accept of the 
most profitable offices, and others resigned theirs ; 
while the loss of place was accounted a proof of 
men's honour and integrity. But in the com- 
mission referred to, men of the highest rank and 
character are mentioned as being in possession of 
some of the chief offices in the kingdom. It is 
certain, however, that during Murdoch's govern- 
ment, the affections of the people became more 
intensely fixed upon their absent sovereign ; and 
the greatest desire was manifested for his return ; 
to which Murdoch was induced to accede. A tra- 
ditionary stoiy, in which we place no faith, is re- 
lated that he was driven to this by his sou Walter 
having savagely wrung the neck of a favourite fal- 
con which he coveted, on its being refused to him, 
as Murdoch set out one day to enjoy the recreation 
of hawking. Provoked by his conduct, the regent 
said to the youth, " Since thou canst not find in 
thy heart to obey me, I will bring in another whom 
both of us shall be forced to obey." Ambassadors 
being despatched to negociate with tlve 
com't, after some delay the duke of Bedford, then 
protector of England, agi-eed to deliver up the 
King of Scotland, on payment of £40,000, within 
six years by half-yearly payments, hostages be- 

ing given for payment of tlie same. The am- 
bassadors who went to England, to conceit mea- 
sures abont the payment of this sum, were tlie 
bishops of Aberdeen and Dunblane and Mr. Tlio- 
nias MjTCton. The arrangement for the release of 
the king was finally adjusteil by the Scotti.sli com- 
missioners, who proceeded to London for that 
purpose, on the 9th of March, 1424. In the fol- 
lowing April James returned to Scotland, after 
having married the Lady Jane Beaufort, a daugh- 
ter of the earl of Somerset, of the blood royal of 
England. At his coronation, Murdoch, duke of 
Albany, as earl of Fife, performed the ceremony 
of installing the sovereign on the throne, and 
amidst the rejoicings on the occasion, the kin;; 
confeiTed the honour of knighthood on Alexandrr 
Stewart, the second son of the duke of Albany, 
and twenty-four others of his principal nobility 
and barons. An act had been passed in the first 
]iarlianipnt after James' return, ordering the she- 
rifl's to enquire what lands had belonged to the 
crown during the three preceding reigns, and em- 
powering the king to summon the holders to show 
their chartcis. There had, probably, been some 
demur, which roused James to adopt vigorous 
measures, and to have recourse to the cruel expe- 
dient of cutting off his own cousin and his family 
as the authors of it. He first ordered the arrest 
of Walter, eldest son of Murdoch, duke of Al- 
bany, the late regent, with that of Malcolm Flem- 
ing of Cumbernauld, and Thomas Boyd of Kil- 
marnock; and in a parliament held at Perth, 
2.')th March 1425, he ordered the arrest of Jlur- 
doch himself, his second son. Sir Alexander 
Stewart, the earls of Douglas, Angus, and Marcli, 
and twenty other gentlemen of note. His view, 
it is probable, in arresting so many was to pre- 
vent an insurrection. Murdoch was committed a 
close prisoner to Cacrlaverock castle, while hi.s 
duchess, Isabella, was sent to Tantallan, and the 
king immediately took possession of Albany's 
ca.-stles of Falkland in Fife, and Douuc in Jlcn- 
tcith. Immediately after the arrest of the duke 
of Albany and the other nobles, the king ad- 
journed the parliament for two months. It re- 
assembled in the palace of Stirling, on the 24th of 
May, when the king presided in person, at the 
trial of Duke Murdoch, his two sons, and bu | 




fatlier-in-law, the aged earl of Lennox. No 
kuo^vii record specifies their crime, and our histo- 
rians have conjectured that the charge was one of 
high treason, for the alleged usui-pation of the 
government on tlie part of Albany. Walter Stew- 
art, the eldest son, was first tried, on the 24th 
of May, and being found guilty was instantly be- 
headed in front of the castle. On the following day, 
the duke of Albany, Alexander his second son, and 
the earl of Lennox, were tried by the same jury, 
and being convicted were immediately executed. 
None of the noblemen and others arrested with 
them were brought to punishment. Seven of 
them even sat on the jury of twenty-six persons 
who found the duke and his companions guilty on 
their trial. Alexander, lord of the Isles, who suc- 
ceeded Donald, whom Duke Mm'doch's father had 
humbled (see p. 37), was also one of the jury, 
whose verdict sent him and his sons and liis 
father-in-law to the block. Upon this Alexander 
of the Isles, the earldom of Ross, with extensive 
possessions in the Western Islands, was bestowed 
by James : an impolitic act, which afterwards 
lirought much evil upon the kingdom. The scene 
of the execution was a rising ground in front of the 
castle of Stirling, which is still known by the 
name of the Heading Hill. 

"Amongst the people," says Tytler, "the shed- 
ding of so much noble blood excited a sympathy and 
commiseration for which James was not prepared. 
Albany and his two sons, Walter and Alexander 
Stewart, were men whose appearance and man- 
ners, in a feudal age, were peculiarly fitted to 
command popularity. Their stature was almost 
gigantic; their countenances cast in the mould 
of manly beauty; and their ah- so dignified and 
warlike that when the father and the two sons 
ascended the scaffbld, it was impossible to behold 
the scene without a feeling of involuntary pity 
and admiration. Behind them came the earl of 
Lennox, a venerable nobleman in his eightieth 
year; and, when he laid his head upon the block, 
and his grey hau'S were stained with blood, a 
thrill of hon-or ran through the crowd, which, in 
spite of the respect or terror for the royal name, 
broke out into expressions of indignation at the 
unsparing severity of the vengeance." From the 
place of his execution Duke Murdoch might see in 

the distance the fertile territory of Menteith, which 
formed part of his fjimily estates, and even distin- 
guish the stately castle of Doune, which had been 
his own vice-regal residence. Of this magniflceni 
edifice the following is a wood-cut. 


The title and possessions of the duke ol Albany 
were forfeited, and the latter annexed to the crown. 
To obtain these was, no doubt, the cause of his 
death. A contemporary narrative of the mm-der 
of liing James, preserved in the General Registei 
House, and printed by Pinkerton, represents the 
general impression to have been that " the kyng 
did rather that rigorous execucion upon the lordes 
of his kyne for the covetise of thare possessions 
and goodes, thane for any rightful cause ; althoe 
he fonde colourabill wayes to serve his intent yn 
the contrarye." '[Pinkerion's Hist. vol. i. p. 463.] 
The estates of the earl of Lennox, his father-in- 
law, were allowed to remain unforfeited. Duke 
Murdoch's marriage to Isabella, the eldest daughter 
of Duncan, earl of Lennox, who had been left a 
widower without male issue, took place in 1391. 
By the marriage contract, it was agreed that 
should the earl of Lennox many again, and have 
an heh- male, the latter should marry Duke Mur- 
doch's sister. 

The earl did not marry again, and Iiad no heir 



TIllUl) DIKK Ol' 

male of his body wlio miglit fulfil the coiiditiou of 
a marriage witli the n.',i;ont's (laii.;,'htor. Of the 
marriage of Muriioch and Isabella, four sous were 
ooru, Kobcrt, who died early, Walter, Alexauder, 
and James. The latter, >vlio was the fourth son, 
when his father, grandfather, and two brothers were 
seized and executed, was the only male member 
of the family who escaped. Resolving to succour 
his kindred or avenge their fiite, with a body of 
armed followers, as desperate as himself, he car- 
ried fire and sword into the town of Dumbarton, 
and put to death the king's nncle, John Stewart, 
called the Red Stewart of Dundonald, with thirty- 
two others of inferior note. The king pursued 
him with such determined animosity that he was 
compelled to Hy with his abettor, the bishop of Ar- 
gyle, to Ireland. — See Avandale, lord, p. 169. 
[Napier's Histori/ of the Partition of the Lennox, p. 
10.] Duke Murdoch's widow was allowed to re- 
tain her estates and titles, and to reside till her 
lleath npon her earldom of Lennox. She lived 
in the ca,stle of Inchmurrin on Loch Lomond, the 
chief messuage of the earldom, and there granted 
charters to vassals as countess of Lennox. She 
survived to hear of the assassination of him whose 
inflexible sentence had cut off her father, her hus- 
band, and her two sons. On one of the pillars of 
St. Giles' church, Edinburgh, are the arms of Isa- 
bella, duchess of Albany and countess of Lennox, 
who, in 1460, founded the collegiate church of 
Dumbarton and largely endowed other religious 
foundations. She died about 1460. See Lennox, 
family of. \_Douglns' Peerage. — Tytler's Lives of 
Scottish Worthies, Life of James /.] 

The physical strength and imposing appear- 
ance of the descendants of Robert the first duke 
of Albany have been frequently mentioned by 
historians. Murdoch's half-brother, the earl of 
Buchan, constable of France, slain at Verneuil in 
Normandy, in 1424 (see ante, page 39,) of whom 
.11 portrait is extant, seems to have possessed all 
the qualities of his race in this respect. Of this 
portrait, which was discovered about the middle 
of the last centurv by Sir George Seton of Garlc- 
ton, of the noble family of Winton, in the gallery 
of M. Fiebet, at his seat near Chambord in France, 
an engraving is given in Pinkerton's Portrait Gal- 
lery. A woodcut of it is annexed. 

ALBANY, Alexander, third duke of, was tnc 
second son of King James II. His first titles were 
earl of March and lord of Annandale, but he was 
about 1456 created duke of Albany, a title which 
had been forfeited to the crown when Duke 
Murdoch was beheaded. Having been sent to 
France to complete his education, he was in 14G4, 
on his voyage homeward from his uncle, the duke 
of Gueldrcs, towards Scotland, cajitured by the 
English, but soon released, a herald having been 
sent to England to declare war in case of his being 
detained. In February 1478 Ids brother James 
III., a prince of a weak and irresolute temper, and 
fond of mean favourites, on the sinister informa- 
tion of some of these, ordered his arrest, and im- 
jnisoned him in Edinburgh castle. Soon after, his 
yoimger brother, the earl of Mar, was also ar- 
rested by the king's orders. Both of these princes 
were popular with the nubility and people, and 
had incurred the king's suspicion and the hatred 
of his favourites. As lord warden of the east 
frontiers, Albany had besides restrained and dis- 
obliged the Homes and Hcpburns and others of 
the Border clans, and in revenge they bribed 
Cochrane, the king's principal adviser, to set the 
king against him. Marr was taken out of his bed 




and sent prisoner to Craigmillar castle, and shortly 
thereafter, being accused by the king's favourites 
of consulting with sorcerers and witches to take 
the king's life, he was sentenced to have a vein 
hi his leg opened, and in a bath to bleed to death, 
which was exccntcd in tne Canongate in 1479. 
[Balfour's Annals, vol. 1. p. 203.] Albany was 
committed prisoner to the castle of Edinburgh, 
out effected his escape, and proceeded to his 
castle of Dunbar, from whence, after victualling 
and providing it with all manner of munitions of 
war, he sailed for France. [Ibid. vol. i. p. 202.] 
He was forfeited 4th October 1479, and troops 
were sent to besiege his castle of Dunbar, which 
soon yielded, the garrison escaping in boats to 
England. On arriving at Paris, the duke met 
with an honourable reception from Louis XI. He 
remained in France till 1482, when he proceeded 
to England, and entered into an agreement wath 
Edward IV., by which the English king obliged 
liimself to aid him iu invading Scotland, and to 
place him on the throne; in return for which he 
consented to surrender Berwick, to acknowledge 
himself the vassal of England, to renounce all 
alliance with Louis of France, and to marry one 
of Edward's daughters. In consequence of this 
.Albany assumed the title of king, declaring his 
brother to be a bastard. An English army 
amounting to 40,000 men, under the duke of Glou- 
cester, afterwards Richard HI., accompanied by 
Albany, marched to Berwick, and invested that 
town. The town speedily surrendered, but the 
castle held out. In the meantime King James 
having assembled his nobility, marched towards 
the Borders to meet the enemy. As he lay en- 
camped near Lauder, his nobles, highly exasper- 
ated at their sovereign's conduct, headed by Ar- 
chibald Douglas, earl of Angus, commonly called, 
after this event, " Bell-the-Cat," after securing 
llie chief favom-ite Robert Cochrane, burst into the 
royal tent during the uight, and seized the rest 
of the king's minions, all of whom, with Cochrane, 
they hanged over the bridge of Lauder. They then 
carried the king to Edinburgh, and shut him up 
in the castle, under the care of his uncles the earls 
of Athol and Buchan. llie road to the capital 
was now open, and the dukes of Gloucester and 
Albanj', with their forces, advanced, in the mouth 

of July, towards Edinburgh. The archbishop ol 
St. Andrews, the bishop of Dunkeld, with Lord 
Avandale, the chancellor, and the earl of Argyle. 
hastily collected a small army, and posted them 
selves at Haddington, to impede the advance of 
the enemy. At the same time they entered into 
iiegociations with Albany, and on the 2d of August 
a treaty of peace was concluded. Albany en- 
gaged to be a true and faithful subject to King 
James, on his titles and estates, \\ith Dunbar 
castle, and the possessions of the late earl of 
Mar, his brother, being i-estored to him, and the 
office of king's lieutenant of the realm being con- 
ferred on hira. Two heralds were commanded to 
pass to the castle to charge the captain to open the 
gates and set the king at liberty. In Balfour's 
Annals of Scotland, (vol. i. p. 207,) it is stated 
that the duke of Albany and the lord chancellor 
then governed all the realm, and that with several 
of the nobility Albany went to Stirling to visit the 
queen and prince, and after his return he laid siege 
to Edinburgh castle, which he took, when the king 
and such servants as were with him were set at 
liberty. According to Lindsay of Pitscottie, (vol 
i. p. 200), the king, on recovering his freedom, 
"lap on a hacknej' to ride down to the abbay 
but he would not ride forward, till the duik of Al 
banie his brother lap on behind him; and so they 
went down the geat to the abbey of Hallyraid hous, 
quliair they remained ane lang time in great mirri- 
nes;" and, as Abercromby adds, he " would needs 
make him a partner in his bed, and a comrade at his 
table," that being considered iu those days the best 
proof of a perfect reconciliation. Albany immedi- 
ately concluded a truce with the duke of Glouces- 
ter, and on the 23d of August 1482 sun-endered 
to him the fortress of Berwick, after it had been 
in possession of the Scots for twenty -one years. 
Notwithstanding the favour which was now shown 
to him by the king, Albany, in the following year, 
engaged in another secret treaty with Edward 
IV., for depriving his brother of the throne, and 
securing it to himself. His designs being detected 
by the nobles, he was obliged to fly to England, 
having previously placed his castle of Dunbar in 
the hands of the English. In consequence of this 
traitorous proceeding, he was formally accused of 
treason, and summoned to stand his trial; bu( 




failing to appear, lie was condemiiftd to death as a 
traitor and to have his estates coufiscatod. Hav- 
ing assembled a small force, he joined the carl of 
Douglas, who was likewise an exile in England, 
and made an inroad into his native country, but 
nas routed near Lochmabcn, 22d July 1484, when 
Douglas was taken prisoner, but Albany escaped 
by the fleetness of his horse. A truce for three 
years was then agi'ecd upon between the two 
countries, and Albany, finding that he could ob- 
tain no farther protection in England, retired to 
France, where he was well received by Charles 
VIII. He was accidentally killed at Paris in 
November 1485, by the splinter of a lance, while 
an onlooker at a tournament between the duke 
of Orleans find another knight, and, by act of 
parliament 1st October 1487, all his lauds and 
possessions in Scotland were annexed to the crown. 
According to the description given of him by an 
ancient Scottish author, the duke of Albany was 
.veil-proportioned, and tall in stature, and comely 
in his countenance; that is to say, broad-faced, 
red-nosed, large-eared, and having a very awful 
countenance when displeased. Like his younger 
brother, the unfortunate earl of Slar, who was of 
a milder temper and manners, he excelled in the 
military exercises of tilting, huntiug, hawking, 
and other personal accomplishments, for which his 
brother James III. had no taste. He had married 
first Lady Catherine Sinclair, eldest daughter of 
William earl of Orkney and Caithness, but a divorce 
took place, 2d March 1478, on account of propin- 
quity of blood. By her he had one son, Alexander, 
who was declared illegitimate by act of parliament, 
13 November 1516, and who was made bishop of 
Moray and abbot of Scone, in 1527. He married, 
secondly, in February 1480, Anne de la Tour, 
third daughter of Bertrand, Count d'Auvergne 
and de Bouillon, and by her he had one son, 
Duke John, the subject of the following notice. — 
Douglas'' Peerage. — Histories of the Period. 

ALBANY, JoHjf, fourth duke of, son of the 
preceding, was born about 1481. In 1505, he 
married his cousin, Anne, or Agnes, de la Tour, 
countess d'Auvergne aud de Laiu-ajais, by whom 
he got large possessions. On the death of James 
rv , in 1513, his son James V. being then only 
in his second year, the queen mother was ap- 

pointed regent of tlic kingdom, but at a con- 
vention of the estates held soon after at IVrlh, 
it was agi-ced, at the urgent suggestion of the 
venerable Elphinslon, bisliop of Aberdeen, se- 
conded by the ].ord Home, tliat the duke of 
Albany, then in France, and who after the infant 
king was next heir to tlie throne, should be invited 
to Scotland to be governor of the kingdom, during 
James' minority. This election was ratified by a 
public meeting of the estates held at Edinburgh 
soon after, and Lyon king at arms, with Sir Patrick 
Hamilton, was sent to France to notify the ap- 
pointment to the duke. In the meantime, Ilie 
sentence of forfeiture which had excluded liiiii 
from the enjoyment of his rank and estates in 
Scotland was annulled, and his arrival impatiently 
looked for by the people, as the queen mother had 
married the earl of Angus, and, being opposed by 
the nobility, nothing but anarchy aud disorder pre- 
vailed in the kingdom. On the 18th May, 1515, 
the duke arrived at Dumbarton, Balfour says at 
Ayr, with a squadron of eight ships ; and soon after 
he was installed into the office of regent. " He wes 
ressaueit," says a chronicler of the period, " with 
greit honour, and convoyit to Edinburgh with ane 
greit cumpany, with greit blytluics, and glore, and 
thair wes constitute and nuiid governonr of this 
roalme ; and sone thairefter held ane parliament, 
and ress.aiiit the homage of the lordis and thio 
estaittis ; quhair tluiir wes niony things done for 
the Weill of this countrey." His inauguration into 
the regency was attended with great splendour. 
A sword was delivered to him, aud a crown placed 
upon his head, while the peers made solemn obei- 
sance. He was declared governor of the kingdom 
till the king attained the age of eighteen j-ears. 
The duke took up his residence at Holj'rood, and 
seems to have immediately proceeded with the en- 
largement of the palace, in continuation of the 
works which James IV., the late king, had carried 
on till near the close of his life. 

Albany, unfortunately, was ignorant not only 
of the constitution, the laws and the manners, but 
even of the language of Scotland. He was In 
fact more French than Scotch. His mother was a 
Frenchwoman, and so was liis wife. His chief 
estates were in France, where the greater part of 
Ids life had been spent, and his loyalty to the 




Frencli king was so undisguised that he constantly 
styled him master. AVhen it is added to this that 
his temper was passionate, that every corner of the 
kingdom was filled with spies and agents in the 
pay of England, and that the powerful houses of 
Home and Douglas swayed the faction that were 
opposed to him, it was hardly to be expected that 
he would be successful in restoring peace to the 
country. The infant king and his brother were 
still under the care of the queen-mother ; and a 
parliameut which assembled at Edinburgh, nomi- 
nated eight lords, four of whom were to be chosen 
by lot, and from these four the queen-mother was 
to select three who were to have the charge of the 
two infant princes. The queen, however, was not 
disposed to part with her childi'en, and when the 
peers proceeded to the castle of Edinburgh, to 
notify to her the commands of parliament, her 
majesty, who was then no more than twenty-four 
years of age, and in the full bloom of her beauty, 
was seen standing under the archway at the en- 
trance, with the little king at her side, holding 
her hand, while a nurse stood behind with his in- 
fant brother, the duke of Ross, in her arms. 
In a loud voice, and with a dignified ah-, she 
desired them to stand and declare what they 
wanted. They answered that they came in the 
name of the parliament to receive their sover- 
eign and his brother, on which the queen com- 
manded the warder to drop the portcullis, and 
this being instantly done, she thus addressed the 
astonished lords : " I hold this castle by the gift 
of my late husband, your sovereign, noi- shall I 
yield it to any person whatsoever ; but I respect 
the parliament, and require six days to consider 
their mandate, for most important is my charge ; 
and my councillors, alas ! are now few." Ap- 
prehensive, however, that she would not be able 
to hold the castle of Edinburgh against the for- 
ces of the parliament, she soon removed, with 
the young king and his brother, to Stu-ling castle. 
Albany immediately collected an armed force, and 
proceeded in person to Stu-ling, where the queen 
finding her adherents deserting her, was soon 
obliged to surrender. The young princes were then 
committed to the care of the earl ISIarshal and the 
lords Fleming and Borthwick, while the queen 
was conducted with every mark of respect to Ed- 

inbuigh, where she took up her residence in the 
castle. On the success of the regent, Lord Home, 
one of the queen's principal adherents, at once 
commenced to intrigue with England, and con- 
certed measures with Lord Dacre, the English 
warden, of resistance and revenge. Albany sum- 
moned the whole force of the kingdom to the aid 
of the government, and transmitted proposals to 
the queen-mother, offering her a complete restora- 
tion of all the rights and revenues which she had 
not forfeited by her marriage, if she would accede 
to the wishes of the parliament, and renounce al 
secret correspondence with England. These pro- 
posals she indignantly rejected, whereupon Albany 
proceeded against the insurgents, and took the 
castle of Home. The queen sent Albany's pro- 
posals privately to Lord Dacre, while Home re- 
quested the assistance of an English army, and 
retook the castle of Home. He also secured the 
strong tower of Blackater, situated within the Scot- 
tish border, about five miles from Berwick, to which 
place the queen immediately fled. The regenf 
followed her with a considerable army, and surpris- 
ing Home in the house to which he had hastened 
for refuge, made him prisoner, and committed him 
to the custody of the earl of Arran, governor of 
the castle of Edinburgh. Arran disliked Albany 
and his measm-es, and was easily persuaded by 
Home to retire with him to the Borders, where 
they actively commenced hostilities. Home and 
his brother were again proclaimed rebels, and Ai'- 
ran was reqtiired to surrender himself within fif- 
teen days. At the same time the regent, at the 
head of a select body of troops, and a small train 
of artillery, proceeded to invest the castle of Cad- 
zow, near Hamilton, Arran's principal fortress. 
Arran's mother, who was the daughter of James 
the Second, at that time resided there, and order- 
ing the gates to be opened, she came out to meet 
the regent, and as she was his aunt by the father's 
side, and greatly respected by him, he was easily 
prevailed upon to listen to her solicitations in fa- 
vour of her son. Terms of accommodation were 
soon agreed to, and Arran was allowed to retm-n 
and resume possession of his estates. 

In the meantime Home had fled to England, 
whither he was soon followed by the queen and 
her husband Angus. Negotiations for peace be- 



twcen the two countries were set ou foot, ami 
Angus, to wliom the queen had recently, at Har- 
bottle castle in England, borne a daughter, the 
Lady Margaret Douglas, the mother of Darn- 
ley, husband of jMary Queen of Scots, withdrew 
from his wife, who lay dangerously ill at ]\Ior- 
peth, and with Home returned into Scotland. 
They both made their peace with the regent, who 
restored them to theii- hereditary possessions, and 
for a time they abstained from disturbing the gov- 
ernment. Queen Margaret on her recovery pro- 
ceeded to the court of her brother Henry VIII., 
where she inveighed bitterly against both Angus 
and Albany, but especially the latter, whom she 
accused of having poisoned her second son, the 
duke of Ross, who had died, at Stirling, of 'one 
of the many diseases incident to childhood. Henr}', 
anxious to have Arran regent, directed a letter to 
be wTitten to the three estates of Scotland, com- 
manding them to expel the regent Albany from the 
kingdom, as, from his being the nearest heir of the 
throne, he was the most dangerous person to have 
Ma charge of the young king, his nephew. The 
Scottish parliament, which assembled at Edin- 
burgh on the first of July 1516, replied with be- 
coming spirit. They reminded the English king 
that they themselves had elected Albany to the 
office of regent, to which he had a right as nearest 
relative to theii' infant king, that he had fulfilled 
its duties with much talent and integrity, and that 
the person of their infant sovereign was intrusted 
to the keeping of the same lords to whose care he 
had been committed by the queen-mother. They 
concluded by assuring Henry of their determina- 
tion to resist to the death any attempt to disturb 
the peace of their country, or to overthrow the 
existing government. Notwithstanding this spir- 
ited reply, the intrigues of Henry's minister. Lord 
Dacre, soon succeeded in creating distrust and dis- 
turbance, and once more reinstating in its strength 
the English faction in Scotland. On the 23d Au- 
gust Dacre wrote from Kirkoswald to Cardinal 
Wolsey, informing him that he had in his pay four 
hundred Scots, whose chief emploj-ment was to 
distract the government of Albany, by exciting 
popular tumults, encouraging private quarrels, and 
rekindling the jealousy of the feudal nobility. In 
Scotland at this time Albany's administration was 

rather popular than othcrwiso. He wna "siip- 
liorted," says Tytler, " by the affection and confi- 
dence of the middle classes, and the great body o( 
the nation ; but their influence was counteracted, 
and his ett'orts completely paralysed by the selfish 
rapacity of the clergy, and the in.solent ambition 
of the aristocracy." A new insurrection soon 
broKe out, headed by the earl of Arran, who 
associated himself with the earls of Glencairn, 
Lennox, Mure of Caldwell, and the majority of 
the noblemen and gentlemen of the west. They 
met at Glasgow to the number of 12,000 men, 
and seized on the royal magazines there. Under- 
standing that some French shii)s, with supplies of 
arms and ammunition for Albany, had appeared in 
the Clyde, they sent a body of troops to take po.s- 
sessiou of them. The vessels, however, had sailed 
before their arrival, but they seized a quantity of 
gunpowder and other anunuuition which had been 
lauded, and which they conveyed to Glasgov/. 
Lest it might fall into the hands of their enemies 
the powder was thrown into a drawwell. By a 
stratagem Arran made himself master of the cas- 
tle of Dumbarton, and expelled Lord Erskine the 
governor. In the meantime the regent having 
collected an army, advanced upon Glasgow, when 
an accommodation was once more brought about, 
chiefly through the means of Beaton, archbishop 
of Glasgow, who was high in favour with the regent. 
Lord Home, (see vol. ii. p. 473,) on his part, soon 
violated the conditions on which the regent had 
consented to pardon him. He renewed his treason- 
able correspondence with Dacre, and employed 
bands of marauders to break across the border and 
ravage the country. Determined to put an end to 
the anarchy created by the rebellious proceedings 
of this fierce opposer of his govcniment, the regent 
allured the earl, who held the office of lord cham- 
berlain, and his brother Alexander, to the court at 
Holyrood, where they were instantly arrested. 
They were immediately tried, on a charge of 
treason, for having excited the late commotions 
against the regent, of having been accessory to 
the defeat at .Flodden, and being concerned in 
the assassination of James IV. after the battle. 
Being found guilty, they were both beheaded, on 
the 8th of October 1516, and their heads placed 
above tho tolbooth of Edinburgh. Soon after the 




lake of Alb;ui3', in a convention of the estates of 
the realm lield at Edinbui-gh, was declared heir 
apparent to the crown. 

Anxious to procure assistance from the French 
king, and to revisit his estates in France, the re- 
gL'nt, in the parliament which assembled in No- 
vember 1516, requested leave of absence for a 
short period. The parliament accorded an unwill- 
ing cou.seut for four months, and in June 1517 he 
embarked at Dumbarton, leaving the government 
in the hands of a council, consisting of the arch- 
bishops of St. Andrews and Glasgow, the earls of 
Huntly, Argyle, Angus, and Ai-ran, and carrying 
with him the eldest sons of many of the great 
barons as hostages for the peace of the country. 
To each of the six persons mentioned was assigned 
the charge of that part of the country contiguous 
to liiij own estates, while to a brave and accom- 
plished French knight, whose real name was An- 
thony D'Arcie, but whose handsome person pro- 
cured for him the distinguishing title of Seigneur 
de la Beaute (absurdly called de la Bastie in all 
our histories) was intrusted the government of the 
eastern and middle marches, with the command of 
the important castles of Home and Dunbar. The 
young king was brought from Stirling to Edin- 
burgh castle, and placed under the charge of Lord 
Erskine, the earl Marshal, and the lords Borth- 
wick and Ruthven. Fresh tumults broke out on 
the borders, and the vassals of the late Lord Home, 
out of revenge at his fate, surprised and mui'dered 
the Sieur de la Beaute, who had distinguished 
himself by the activity and diligence with which 
he punished and repressed disorder. Sir David 
Home of Wedderburn, whose wife was the sister 
of Angus, the husband of the queen-mother, gal- 
loped into the town of Duuse, with the head of 
the unfortunate Frenchman knit to his saddlebow, 
by the fine long hair which he wore iu accordance 
with the fashion of the age, and after fixing it on 
the mai'ket-cross, took shelter in his strong castle 
of Edington, on the banks of the ^Miiteadder. For 
this outrage the estates of the laird of Wedderburn 
and his associates were forfeited. 

After this the kingdom became a scene of disor- 
der, anarchy, and confusion, the rival factions of 
Douglas and Hamilton everywhere contending for 
the mastery. The earl of Arran had been elected 

by the council of regency their president, and at 
this time had the chief du'ection of affairs, but he 
was, upon all occasions, opposed by the earl of 
Angus, who still had great influence, and the pri- 
vate animosity which subsisted between these two 
powerful noblemen kept the country in a continual 
state of excitement and distm'bance. As soon as 
the queen-mother heard of Albany's departure, 
she returned to Scotland. Her arrival was at a 
time of such universal confusion and strife that 
even Albany himself, unwilling to leave France, 
wrote to her, advising her that, if she could unite 
the factions, she should resume the regency 
Margaret, however, wished to have the office of 
regent conferred on her husband, the earl of 
Angus, to whom she had been lately reconciled, 
but this neither the council nor the majority of the 
nobles would agree to. Her jealousy, however, 
soon caused a fresh quarrel with her husband, and 
as her brother Henry VIII. took the part of 
Angus, she forsook the English interests, and 
entered into a coiTespondence with the duke of 
Albany, urging him to return and take the regency 
once more into his own hands. During Albany's 
absence the famous street battle at Edinburgh, 
between the rival factions of the Douglasses and 
the Hamiltons, commemorated under the name of 
" Cleanse-the-Causeway," was fought 30th April 
1520, the result of which was that the Hamiltona 
were defeated, and the earl of Angus got posses- 
sion of the capital. 

The next year Albany returned to Scotland 
after an absence of five years. He arrived in 
the Gai-eloch on the third of December 1521, 
and was met at Stirling by the queen-mother, 
accompanied by several lords and gentlemen. 
It is stated that Margaret, who was very change- 
able in her affections, and by no means careful 
of her conduct, received him with transports of 
joy, and with such familiarity as excited scanda- 
lous rumours. Lord Dacre, in a letter to his sov- 
ereign. King Henry, says that, not satisfied with 
being with him during the day, she was closeted 
the greater part of the night with Albany, taking 
no heed of appearances. The earl of Arran and 
others of the nobility hastened to Stu-ling to wel- 
come his arrival, and on the 9th he entered the 
capital, accompanied by the queen and the chan 




cellor and a mimerous attendaiKC of pecre and 
gentlemen. Proceeding to the castle, he was ad- 
mitted to an inteiTiew with the young king, on 
which occasion the captain delivered the kej's of 
the fortress into his hands. Tliese the regent laid 
at the feet of the queen-mother, and she again 
presented them to Albany, saying that she con- 
sidered him the person to whose tried fidelity the 
care of the monarcli ought to be intrusted. On 
the regent's approach the earl of Angus and liis 
party precipitately left the city, and lied to the 
Border. In a parliament held at Edinburgh, on 
the 26th day of December, Angus and his adhe- 
rents were cited to appear before it, to answer for 
various crimes and misdemeanours, but they paid 
no attention to the summons, and had already re- 
newed theii- negotiations with the English king. 
The regent now endeavoured to reconcile the fac- 
tions, and to procure a peace with England. But 
it did not suit the ambitious projects of the Eng- 
lish court that Albany should continue at the head 
of affau's, or that peace and order should be re- 
stored to Scotland. Lord Dacre, Henry's unscru- 
pulous agent, in the letters which he wrote to 
Henry, repiesented that the life of the young king 
was in danger, and that his mother was anxious 
to obtain a divorce from Angus, that she might 
marry Albany, who, on his nephew's death, would 
become king. He distributed money among the 
factious nobles, and did every thing that he could 
to stir up war between the two countries. Henry, 
on his part, as he had done once before, addressed 
a letter to the Scottish estates, demanding the 
dismissal of Albany, and received a similar answer 
to the former, being sharply told by the Scottish 
parliament that they had themselves freely chosen 
Albany to the regency, and would not dismiss him 
at the request of his grace, the king of England, 
or of any other sovereign prince whatever. Upon 
this Henry, in the spring of 1622, sent the earl of 
Shrewsbury with a large force to invade Scotland. 
He advanced as far as Kelso, giving up the country 
everywhere to havoc' and spoliation, until he was 
encountered and driven back into England, with 
considerable loss, by the bold borderers of Teviot- 
dale and the Merse. Albany having, with consent 
of parliament, declared war, and mustered the 
whole force of the kingdom for an invasion of 

England, at the head of eighty thousand men, 
and with a formidable train of artillery, advanced 
towards the English borders, and encamped at 
Annan. The queen-mother at this time, with 
lier characteristic fickleness, had cooled in her at- 
tachment to the regent, and not only intrigued 
»iih a party of the Scottish nobles to support her 
views, but betraycil all Albany's secrets and plana 
to the English warden, Lord Dacre. The regent, 
ignorant of this, with his large array crossed the 
borders and advanced to Carlisle. When within 
five miles of that city Dacre opened negotiations 
with him, and succeeded in prevailing upon him to 
agree to a cessation of hostilities for a month, in 
order that ambassadors might treat for peace. As 
the English king, then engaged in a war with 
France, had wisely departed from his demand for 
Albany's dismissal from the regency, the nobles 
who had joined in the expedition saw no further 
cause for continuing in anns, and Albany himself, 
desii-ous of peace with England, disbanded hia 
ai-my, and returned to Edinburgh, without strik- 
ing a blow. 

Finding the dilBculties of his situation increase, 
with the view of soliciting assistance from the 
French king, Albany, in October 1522, retii-ed for 
the second time to Fi-ance, after appointing a 
council of regency, consisting of the earls of Huntly, 
Ai-rau, and Argyle, to whom he added Gonzolles, 
a French knight, in whom he had much confi 
deuce. He promised to return in ten months on 
pain of forfeiting his office. During his absence, 
in the spring of 1523, the English renewed the 
war by a vast inroad into Scotland. The earl of 
Surrey, the victor of Flodden, at the head of 
10,000 men, broke into the Jlerse, reduced its 
places of strength, and advancing to Jedburgh, 
burnt that town, and left its beautiful abbey a 
heap of ruins. Lord Dacre, after reducing the 
castle of Ker of Femihurst, and taking that cele- 
brated border chief prisoner, sacked and depopu- 
lated Kelso and the adjoining villages, while tho 
marquis of Dorset, the warden of the east marches, 
made an incursion into Teviotdale, giving its vil- 
lages to the (lames, and carrying otf its grain and 
beeves. Albany returned from Franco in Septem- 
ber 1523, with a fleet of eighty-seven small ves- 
sels, and a force of four thousand foot, five hun 




tired men at arms, a thousand liagbutteers, six 
hundred horse, and a fine train of artillery, which 
had been fiuniished to him by the French. He 
lauded in the island of Arran, Balfour says " at 
Kerkubright," having eluded the enemy's fleet, 
which was sent out to intercept him, and imme- 
diately proceeded to Edinburgh. The embarrass- 
ment of his position at this crisis was greater than 
ever. He found that the queen-mother was no 
longer on his side, but deeply engaged in intrigu- 
ing against him. That fickle, passionate, and un- 
principled woman, whose character somewhat re- 
sembled that of her imperious brother, Heuiy 
Vni., was now as anxious to promote the English 
interests as she had formerly been the French, 
and had entered Into negotiations with Surrey and 
Dacre, with the view of recovering the regency to 
herself. Tlie nobles, though willing to assemble 
an army for the defence of the Borders, were to- 
tally averse to an invasion of England, while they 
were jealous of the foreign auxiliaries which the 
regent had brought with him. 

The parliament assembled without delay, and a 
proclamation was issued for a muster of the whole 
force of the kingdom on the 20th of October. Al- 
bany summoned together the principal nobility, 
and nrged them to carry the war into England, to 
avenge the disastrous defeat at Flodden and the 
late excesses on the Borders. He had brought 
with him a large supply of gold from France, and 
as he liberally dispensed it, lie won over some of 
the more venal of the nobles, and even the queen 
herself was so charmed by his presents, that she 
wrote to the earl of Surrey, that unless her bro- 
ther Henry remitted her more money, she might 
be induced to abandon the English interest, and 
co-operate with Albany. On the day appointed a 
force of about 40,000 men assembled on the Bor- 
ough-muir near Edinburgh, at the head of whicn 
the regent set forward towards the Borders. But 
never had general commenced an aggressive march 
under such discouraging circumstances. Most of 
the leaders who had answered the summons to 
arm had taken the gold of England, and bound 
themselves not to cross the Borders, while others, 
such as Aj'gyle, Huntly, and the master of Forbes, 
did not appear at all at the muster. The expedi- 
tion was nationally unpopular, and as the Scots 

soldiers did not conceal their dislike of the for 
eign auxiliaries, indications of disorganization 
soon became but too evident. Added to this, the 
season was now far advanced, and much time was 
lost in dragging the cumbersome artillery over the 
rude and difficult roads of those days, which had 
been rendered still more wretched by recent falls 
of snow and rain. Albany arrived at Melrose on 
the 28th of October. When he reached the wooden 
bridge at that place, a large portion of his army 
refused to cross the Tweed, and those divisions ol 
the troops which had already passed over, tm-ned 
back, and in spite of all his entreaties and re- 
proaches, recrossed the bridge to the Scottish side. 
The regent remained in the neighbom-hood of 
Melrose two days, after which he marched down 
the Tweed, and arrived at Eccles, on the side 
of the river opposite to Wark. The Scottish army 
encamped near Coldstream, while Albany lodged 
in Home castle. He ordered part of the artillerj 
to be conveyed to Benvick, but afterwards he laid 
siege to Wark castle, chiefly with his foreigr 
troops and artillery. The historian, George Bu- 
chanan, who was a volunteer in his army, gives a 
highly valuable account of his operations in this 
his last campaign in Scotland. An attempt to 
storm the castle was bravely met by the garrison, 
who poured a destructive fire from the rampai'ts 
upon the besiegers, and on the approach of night, 
the latter were compelled to retii-e. It was pro- 
posed, however, to renew the assault next day, bu* 
during the night there was a heavy fall of rain an 
snow, which so flooded the river that all retreat 
was threatened to be cut off. It was known that 
the Earl of Surrey was advancing from Alnwick 
with a formidable force. Under these circum- 
stances Albany, on the 4th of November, with- 
drew his artillery, and the assaulting party re- 
crossed the Tweed, leaving three hundred killed, 
mostly Frenchmen, and once more joined the main 
army. Balfour says that with the latter portioE 
of his troops he had spoiled all Glendale and 
Northumberland to the walls of Alu'n'ick, and re- 
turned with a great booty. [Annals, vol. i, page 
262.] The regent retired to Eccles, and thence 
marched rapidly towards Edinburgh, apprehen- 
sive all the way of being seized by some of the 
lords with him, and delivered up to the English 




His retreat had all the appearance of a flight, the 
disorder of which was increased by a severe siinw- 
storra. On reaching Edinburgli, he assembled a 
parliament, and ascribed the failure of the expe- 
dition to the nobles refusing to mareh into Eng- 
land, while they, on their part, accused him of 
being the cause of the disgrace. Notwithstanding 
the presence of the English army, under Surrey, 
on the Borders, and the inclemency of the season, 
gome of the peers insisted on his instantly dis- 
missing the foreign auxiliaries. Thus compelled 
to embark, the French were by a storm driven out 
of their coui-se, and a considerable number of tliem 
were shipwrecked and dro>vned among the west- 
ern Isles. Soou after, having obtained three 
mouths' leave of absence, Albany, in the end of 
1523, retired in disgust and despair to France, 
after taking an affectionate leave of the young 
king, then at Stu'liug, and returned no more to 

He afterwards, in 1524, attended Fi-ancis I. in 
his unfortunate expedition into Italy ; but before 
the fatal battle of Pavia, fought 24th February 
1525, he was detached with ]iart of the French 
army against Naples. It was the absence of this 
large portion of his troops, amounting to 16,000 
men, which caused Francis to lose the battle, when 
attacked by the emperor Charles. In 1533 Albany 
conducted his wife's niece, Catherine de Medici, 
into France, on her marriage with Henry U. of that 
kingdom. He was governor of the Bourbonuois, 
d'Auvergne, de Forest, and de Beaujolais. He 
died at his castle of Mireileur, 2d June 1536. By 
his duchess he had no issue. By Jean Abernethy, 
a Scotswoman, he had a natural daughter, Eleo- 
nora, who, after being legitimated, was in 1547 
married at Fontainebleau, in presence of the 
French king, to the count de Choisy. 

This duke of Albany was a man of elegant and 
graceful manners and high accomplishments, and 
very gay and sprightly in conversation, — qualities 
which made him a personal favourite witli Fran- 
cis I. of France, but were little apjireciated in 
Scotland, where his vanity, of which he had a 
large share, and evident partiality for French offi- 
cers and confidents, soon disgusted the haughty 
and rapacious nobility. In Pinkerton's Scottish 
Gallery, there is a fine portrait, supposed to be that 

of Albany, of which a woodcut is annexed. It U 
on tlio same engraving with ouo of Queen Margaret. 

The sign manual autograph " Jehan" nnderneatt, 

is from the Cotton MSS. B. vi. fol. 170, in the 

British Museum. 

The title of diiko of Albany was bestowed in 1540 on Ar 
tlmr, second son of James V. and Iris Mary of Guise, 
a prince who died in 1541. It was afterw.^rds given to Henry 
Stewart, lord Daniley, or Deniely, by Queen Mary, shortly 
before their mamage in 15(15. Charles I. was created duko 
of Albany, on his b.aptisra at Dunfermline in 1600, his elder 
brother Henry, who died in 1612, being duke of Rothcs.ay, the 
title of the king's eldest son. The following is a fac simile of 
the autograph and motto of this ill-fated prince, WTitten in 
.an album in the Sloane MSS. No. 3415, as duke of Albany, 
in 1609, before he had completed the ninth year of his age: 

Albany king at arms was one of the secondary heraldi 
in Scotland, when Scotland was an independent kingdom. 
Prince Charles Edward Stuart, iu the latter years of his life, 
styled himself count of Albany. 

ALES, or Alesse, Alexaitoer, sco Hailes, 

ALEXANDER I., king of Scotland, surn.imed 
the Fieice, from his vigour and impetuous character, 
has hitherto been represented as the fifth son of Mal- 
colm in., surnamcd Canmore, or great head, by 




Margaret, daughter of Edward, nephew of Ed- 
ward the Confessor, king of England, but it is 
now admitted that Ethelred, who had been be- 
lieved to be the third, was the youngest son of 
that marriage, and consequently Alexander was 
not the fifth but the fourth son of Malcolm and 
Margaret. It is also placed beyond a doubt that 
by a previous marriage with Ingibiorge, the widow 
of Thorfin, a powerful Norwegian earl, — who for 
thirty years, during the reigns of Alexander's fa- 
ther IMiilcolm and his predecessor Macbeth, niled 
over all Scotland north of the Grampians, and 
part of the present county of Forfar,— Malcolm had 
two sons, Duncan, afterwards king of Scotland, 
and Malcolm, both of whom were alive at the 
time of his death, so that Alexander was in reali- 
ty the sixth of the sons of Malcolm Canmore. 
[See life of Duncan, king of Scotland, post.'\ 
There is no earlier instance in Scottish history 
of the name of Alexander having been bome by 
king or noble, although it afterwards became 
one of the most common and familiar Christian 
names in Scotland. Lord Hailes has supposed 
tliat it was bestowed in honour of Pope Alexan- 
der n. If so, it was given to him after the death 
of that pontiff, which occurred in the year 1073, 
as no calculation from family or other events can 
place the birth of Alexander, of which the pre- 
cise date is unknown, earlier than about the year 

Alexander was educated with great care, not 
only in letters but in religious principles, and the 
solemn injunctions of his excellent mother, on her 
death-bed, to Turgot, prior of Durham, her con- 
fessor and biographer, which have descended to 
us in his interesting memou' of that good queen, 
prove how great was her solicitude in the latter 
respect in regard to all her children. Alexan- 
der partook of those vicissitudes of the family, 
after the death of his father, which are detailed 
in the lives of his uncle Donald B.aue and of his 
brothers Duncan and Edgar, and which serve to 
exhibit, in a strong light, the peculiarities of the 
law of succession to the throne among the Celtic 
or Pictish races of that age, and they no doubt 
contributed to form and give a direction to his 
character and future government, when he became 

On the death of his brother Edgar, 8th January 
1107, Alexander succeeded to the throne, but not 
to the enjoyment of the same extent of possessions 
as Ins predecessor. For the conquest of the west- 
ern portion of the ancient pi'incipality of Cumbria 
— a region extending between the Roman walls of 
Agricola and Antoninus — having sometime previ- 
ous been effected, by David his younger brother, 
with an army of Norman chivalry from England, 
the government of the province was also bestow- 
ed upon him, and Edgar, on his death-bed, be- 
queathed him all those extensive lands in those 
regions held by him and Malcolm his father which 
formed the subject of that homage rendered to the 
Norman conqueror and his son William Rufus so 
frequently refen'ed to in English history. [Lord 
Hailes' Quotatiom from English contemporaiy 
writers, compared with the narrative of the in- 
quisition into the lands of the see of Glasgow, 
and existing chartei's of that epoch.] All Scot- 
tish historians, from the fom'teenth until within 
the present century, have concurred in stating 
that the province of Cumbria corresponded exactly 
in territory with the present English county of 
Cumberland, but charters, and Saxon as well as 
earlier Scottish writers, when correctly understood, 
leave it beyond doubt that the portion of country 
so called comprehended the district extending from 
the Clyde to the Solway, and included all the pre- 
sent Scottish counties of Ayr, Galloway, Wigton, 
Kirkcudbright, and Dumfries, with perhaps part 
of Cumberland ; the district of Lothian, comprising 
the three counties which still bear that name ; and 
the shires of Renfrew and Lanark, with part of 
Lennox now Dumbartonshire. Such distributions 
of the royal possessions amongst the members of 
their family were not uncommon with the mou- 
archs of that age. 

AVTiatever were the motives that led to this 
disjunction from the Scottish crown, it proved a 
fortunate arrangement for the nation. By the 
subsequent death of Alexander without issue, 
and the consequent succession of David to the 
northern throne, the danger of contention be- 
tween rival families for these possessions, and of 
their permanent separation fi-om the ancient king- 
dom, was averted, and a united kingdom was 
afterwards formed, able, witi more or less sue- 




,',ess, to withstand the po\vt>rfiil ueiglibouriiig sou- 
thern state ; wliich, if it Iiail rmitinued disjoined, 
wouIq most probalilj' liavc fallen to it by {)iece- 
Bieal a conipai-ativelj' easy prey. While, on the 
line liand, tlie liappy genius of David for govern- 
Mient, ami for attracting towards himself the love 
aud atlectiou of all classes of people committed to 
his care, enabled liim to introduce amongst them 
order and civilization, and to combine Saxon law 
with Norman refinement, as well as the stiU higher 
blessing of religious instruction, and while his qualities and the accident of his birth en- 
deared through him the family of JIalcolm to the 
Saxon race, so that nearly four hundi-ed years 
afterwards an English writer resident in Scotland 
thus commemorates one of them : 

" Our soverane of Scotland . 
Quliilk sal] be lord and led;ir 
Oer broad Brettane all quliair 
As saint Mergarettes air;" 

[Buke of the Howlat, st. sxix, jyrinUdfor 
the Bannatyne Club.'] 

the sterner rule of Alexander was made available 
to keep under the dissatisfied feelings of the war- 
like tribes of the north, not less averse to that 
deviation from the ancient rule of succession by 
which the descendants of Margaret were placed 
on the throne, than jealous of the innovations of 
Saxon law and Saxon settlements. It was not, 
however, to be expected that to this disposition 
of lands Alexander would at once qiuetly accede. 
On the contrary, he at first disputed its validity, 
and would willingly have annulled it, had he not 
found that the powerful barons of the province in 
question, and of the northern English counties, as 
Gospatrick, Baliol, Bruce, Lindesay, Areskine, and 
others, whose descendants afterwards occupied the 
first rank among the Scottish nobility, and by the 
aid of whose arms his brother Edgar had been placed 
and sustained on the throne, were entirely favour- 
able to this arrangement. He therefore prudently 
desisted from the attempt, and confined himself dur- 
ing the remainder of his reign to the northern por- 
tion of the kingdom. [Speech of Walter TEspec at 
the battle of the Standard, in jJildred.'] It has been 
inferred by modern winters who have recognised 
the foregoing as the territorial limits of Cumbria, 
that David held this government as a fief in sub- 

ordination to Alexander, but tliis does not nppcni 
to have been the case. David seems to have re- 
gulated the atlairs of liis government as an inde- 
pendent prince. The motto of his sea! during hie 
brother's lifetime bears tliat he styled himsell 
'David, Comites Anglornm Regene Fratris, (con- 
tracted into Fris); that is, David the count, bro- 
ther of the Queen of the English. Annexed is a 
representation of David's seal: 
^ -If 

Several of his public instruments, too, after he as 
cended the throne, when relating to matters affect- 
ing the southern districts, are addressed to the 
" Francis et Anglicis," Normans and English, 
[Andersoyi^s Diplomata et Ntimismata, No. 17, 1 
and 2] ; aud at a later period, or when referi-ing 
to matters of more importance, to the " Francis et 
Anglicis, et Scottis et Galwensibus," that is, the 
Normans, English, Scotch, and Galwegians, which 
latter style was uniformly adopted by his successor 
and grandson Malcolm IV., [Idem, plates 19, 23, 
25,] whilst the public instruments of Alexander 
are simply addressed to the Scots and English, 
"Scottis et Anglis" [Idem, page 9], showing that 
he only ruled over the northern portion of the 
kingdom in which these nations lived in the pro- 
portion of the order in which they are placed. 

It was fortunate both for Alexander and David, 
aud for the tranquillity of the government of the 
former, that during the entire period of his reign 
an unbroken peace was maintained with England. 
The marriage of their sister Matildis in 1100, 
during the life of their brother Edgar, with Ilenrj- 




king of England the brother of William Riifus, 
gi-eatly facilitated this harmony, and it was further 
cemented by the union of Alexander with Sybilla, 
natural daughter of that monarch. Such an 
alliance, says Lord Hailes, was not held dishonour- 
able in those days. 

The people of the north were not reconciled to 
the sovereignty of the sons of Malcolm. Accord- 
ing to their notions of the law of succession to the 
throne, both the family of Donald Bane, and that 
of Duncan the eldest son of Malcolm, had a prior 
right to it. Edgar had bestowed upon his cousin 
iMadach, son of Donald Bane, the maormordom 
of Athol, erected by him into an earldom, and on 
his death, towards the end of the reign of David 
the First, it was obtained by Malcolm, the son of 
Duncan, the eldest son of Malcolm Canmore, 
" either," sa}'s Skene, " because the exclusion of 
that family from the throne could not deprive them 
of the original patrimony of the family, or as a 
compensation for the loss of the crown," [^Skene's 
Highlanders, vol. ii. p. 139,] and thus this branch 
ot the rival family were induced to remain in 
quiet, although various attempts were afterwards 
made to recover their rights, not only in the reign 
of Malcolm IV., but for nearly a hundred years 
after they were excluded from it. 

The descendants of Donald Bane appear to have 
enjoyed another portion of the hereditary posses- 
sions of the family in the person of Ladman his son, 
and along with them some title which does not 
appear. Even the descendants of Macbeth seem, 
in the person of Angus the son of the daughter of 
Lulach, Macbeth's stepson, to have got the pos- 
sessions and ancient maormordom of Moray erect- 
ed into an earldom of that name. [Skene's High- 
landers, vol. ii. p. 162.] According to the Annals 
of Ulster about 1116, a descendant of Malpedir, 
maoi-mor of Moern or Garmoran, a district in 
northern Inverness-shire, one of the supporters of 
Donald Bane, and who had mm-dered Duncan, 
eldest son of Malcokn, in 1095, was in possession 
of his father's title and lands, and at the instiga- 
tion of Ladman, in order probably to revenge his 
death, he combined with Angus earl of Moray, 
already referred to as of the family of Macbeth, to 
make an attempt to seize upon the person of Alex- 
ander. At his baptism Alexander had a donation 

made to him of the lands of Blairgowrie and Lifi 
by his godfather, Donald Bane, then probably 
maormor of Athol, and in the first year of his 
reign he began to build a palace or residence in 
the vicinity ; but while engaged on this work the 
Highlanders of Moern (not Mearns, as commonlj 
supposed) and Moray penetrated stealthily from 
their northern abodes to Invergowrie, where Alex 
ander was, and surprised hira by night. Alexan- 
der escaped to the shore, and crossing over the 
Tay to Fife, collected vassals, and followed them 
with surprising activity, through the ' Monthe ' or 
Grampians, across the Spey and over the " Stock- 
furd into Ros." Of this passage Wintoun says, 

" He tuk and slew tbame or he past 
Out of that land, that fewe he left 
To take on band swylk purpose eft." 

And again he adds, 

" Fra that day hys legys all 
Oysid hym Alysandyr the Fere to call." 

So effectually, indeed, did he succeed in cnishiug 
the inhabitants of Moray that they were compelled 
to put to death Ladman, the son of Donald Bane, 
who had instigated them to the attempt on his 
life. \_Skene''s Highlanders, vol. i. p. 130.] The 
story that on this occasion the traitors obtained 
admission to the king's bed-chamber, and that he 
slew six of them with his own hand, is an invention 
of Boece, and like many other of his fables has ob- 
tained cm'rency in Scottish history. Sir James 
Balfour, in his Annals [vol. i. pp. 6, 7.], has the 
following passage on this attempt against the 
king: "The rebells quho besett him in the night 
had doubtesley killed him, had not Alexander 
Carrone priuly carried the king save away, and 
by a small boate salved themselves to Fyfte, and 
the south pau'ts of the kingdome, quher he raissed 
ane armey, and marched against the forsaid rebells, 
quhome he totally ouerthrew and subdued; for 
wich grate mercey and preseruatione, in a thankful! 
retributione to God, he foundit the monastarey of 
Scone, and too it gaue hes first lands of Liffe and 
Innergourey, in A° 1114. About this tyme K. 
Alexander the I. reuardit for hes faithfull seniice 
Alexander Carrone, with the office of standart 
bearir of Scotland, to him and hes heirs for euer. 
He was called Scrimshour, becausse with a drauep 




guord, in a combat, he had strucke the hand from a 
courtier; wich suniaiiic ofScrinscoiire, hes posterity 
to this day have l;cpt." The name sijrnilies a 
hardy fighter. See Sckimgeouk, surname of; 
also, Dundee, earl of. 

During the remaindt-r of the reign of Alexander, 
the Iligldanders acquiesced in his occupation of 
tlie lliroue, he being now, even according to tlie 
Celtic laws, the legitimate lieir of JIalcolni 

Tlie principal feature in Alexander's reign was 
his successful resistance to the efforts made by tlie 
English prelates to assert a supremacy over the 
church in Scotland. In 1109 when he first had 
occasion to nominate a bishop to the see of St. 
Andrews, to which place the primacy had been 
removed from Dnnkeld, Alexander, with the ap- 
probation of his clergy and people, named Turgot, 
the monk of Durham already mentioned as the 
confessor and biographer of his mother the pious 
Queen ILargaret. The consecration of Turgot was, 
however, long delayed. The archbishop of York 
pretended a right of consecrating the bishops of 
St. Andrews, but at this time Thomas, elected 
archbishop of York, had not himself received con- 
secration. In consequence of a report that the 
bishop of Durham, concurring with the Scottish 
bishops and the bishop of the Orkneys, proposed to 
consecrate Turgot, in presence of the archbishop 
elect of York, Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, 
in alann, despatched a letter to the latter, inform- 
ing him that consecration could not be performed 
by an archbishop elect or by any one acting under 
his authority, and requiring him to proceed to 
Canterbury to receive consecration himself. Tlie 
Scottish clerg}- on their part contended that the 
archbishop of York had no right to interfere in 
the consecration of a bishop to the see of St. 
Andrews. AMiile the two archbishops were en- 
gaged in mutual altercations concerniug canoni- 
cal order and the privileges of their respective 
sees, Alexander entered into a negotiation with 
the English king, and an immediate decision 
of the controversy was evaded by an ambiguous 
acknowledgment by all parties, wliicli, confessing 
the independency of the Scottish church to be 
at least doubtful, seemed to prepare the way 
lor its complete vindication at a future time. At 

the request of Alexander, Henry, the English 
king, enjoined the arehliishop of York to conse- 
crate Turgot, bishop of St. Andrews, "saving the 
authority of either churcli." In that form Turgol 
received consecration accordingly. 

In the discharge of his episcopal fiiuclions 
Turgot met with obstacles, which induced him to 
fiiiiii a resolution to repair to Rome to obtain llic 
opinion of tlie pope for ivguhiling his future con- 
duct; a journey which his death soon after pre- 
vented liiiii from carrying into efTect. What the 
nature of those obstacles were, we are not informed. 
but as he perceived tliat he had lost that influence 
which ho formerly enjoyed in the time of Queen 
Margaret, his spirit sunk, and in a desponding 
mood he asked and obtained iiermission to retire to 
his ancient cell at Durham, where he died, 31st 
August 1115. 

A new bisliop of St. Andrews was to be 
appointed, and to avoid any interference on the 
part of the archbishop of York, Alexander, soon 
after the death of Turgot, addressed a con- 
fidential letter to Ralph archbishop of Canterbury, 
who had succeeded Anselm, asking his advice and 
assistance for enabling him to provide a fit suc- 
cessor to Turgot. In this letter he observed, 
"That the bishops of St. Andrews were wont to 
be consecrated only by the Pope or by the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury." " The expression," says 
Lord Ilailes " is flattering and artful. Alexander 
meant to relieve his kingdom from the pretensions 
of the one archbishop without acknowledging tlie 
authority of the other. He therefore left the right 
of consecrating doubtful between tlie Pope and the 
.archbishoji of Canterbuiy, while, at the same 
time, he seemed to place them both on a level." 
Eadmer, a monk of Canterbury, had been fixea 
upon by Alexander to fill the vacant see, but not 
receiving any answer to his proposal from the arch- 
bishop of Canterbuiy, the king allowed the sec of 
St. Andrews, the chief bishopric in his kingdom, to 
remain vacant for many years. At length, in 1120, 
ho despatched a special messenger to the archbishop 
of Canterbury, with a letter requesting the arch- 
bishop 'to set at liberty' Eadmer the monk, that 
he might be placed on the episcopal throne of St. 
Andrews. The archbishop consented that Eadmer 
should have liberty to accept the biahopric, anil 




with that view he asked and obtained the approba- 
tion of the English Idng. In a letter to Alexander 
he said, " I send you the person whom you require 
altogether free,"" and concluded thus, " To prevent 
the inconveniencies wl'ich I foresee and dread, I 
would counsel you immediately to send him bacli 
to be consecrated by me." On his arrival in Scot- 
land, Eadmer received the bishopric of St. Andrews 
on the 29th of June 1120. The election was made 
by the clergy and people, with the permission of 
the king; but on this occasion Eadmer neither 
received the pastoral staff nor the ring from the 
hands of Alexander, nor did he perform homage. 
Next day Alexander held a secret conference with 
him respecting the mode of his consecration, when 
the king expressed his aversion at his being con- 
secrated by the archbishop of York. Eadmer, on 
his part, declared that the church of Canterbury 
had, by ancient right, a pre-eminence over all 
Britain, and he humbly proposed to receive con- 
secration from that metropolitan see. He found, 
however, that Alexander was as much opposed to 
the pretensions of Canterbury as he was to 
those of York, and that he had determined to 
free the Scottish church from dependence on any 
foreign see but that of Rome. At Eadmer's proposal 
Alexander is described as having started from his 
seat with much emotion, and broken off the con- 
ference. He commanded the person, one William 
a monk of St. Edmuudsbury, who had presided in 
the bishopric since the death of Turgot, to resume 
his fimctions. At the expiry of a month, the king, 
at the request of his nobUity, sent for Eadmer, and 
with difficulty obtained his consent to a com- 
promise, by which Eadmer was to receive the ring 
from Alexander, to take the pastoral staff from off 
the altar, as if receiving it of the Lord, and then to 
assume the charge of his diocese. While the king 
was absent with his army quelling some insur- 
rection in the north, as the Highlanders of the 
district of Moray, particularly at this time, gave 
considerable opposition to his government, Eadmer 
was received into the see of St. Andi-ews by the 
queen, clergy, and people. 

Finding, however, that his own sovereign Henry, 
who was then in Normandy, had, at the solicitation 
of the archbishop of York, written to the arch- 
bisliop of Canterbury prohibiting him from con- 

secrating Eadmer, and that Alexander had also 
received three letters fi'om him requiring him not 
to permit the consecration, the new bishop of St. 
Andrews resolved to repair to Canterbmy for 
advice. On hearing of his resolution Alexander 
sent for him, and said, "I received you altogether 
free from Canterbury; wliile I live, I will not 
permit the bishop of St. Andrews to be subjected 
to that see." "For your whole kingdom," 
answered Eadmer, " I would not renounce the 
dignity of a monk of Canterbury." " Then," 
replied the king passionately, " I have done no- 
thing in seeking a bishop out of Canterbury." li 
seems to have been Alexander's design by soliciting 
a bishop from the province of Canterbury, to obtain 
one who would have no partiality for the see ol 
York, and whom he hoped to Aiin over to support 
the independency of the Scottish Church ; but the 
zeal of Eadmer for Canterbury disappointed his 
views. Eadmer himself has given an ample 
account of the contest between him and Alexander; 
and Lord Hailes, in his Annals of Scotland, has 
generally followed his statements. The bishop 
complains that after the last interview with the 
king, the latter became rigorous and unjust, and 
woxdd never afford him a patient hearing. He 
refused to allow Eadmer permission to visit 
Canterbmy " for the counsel and blessing (mean- 
ing no doubt consecration) of the archbishop," 
contending that the church of Scotland owed no 
subjection to Canterbmy, and that Eadmer him- 
self had been freed from all subjection to it. 

Li the anomalous and uncomfortable position in 
which he found himself, Eadmer was induced to 
ask the advice of a friend in England, one Nicho- 
las, whom Lord Hailes conjectures to have been 
an ecclesiastical agent, whose business it was to 
solicit causes at the com't of Rome. This man ad- 
vised him to obtain consecration from the Pope, 
under favour of the Scottish monarch, and in the 
meantime to be generous and hospitable to the 
Scots, as the best means of rendering them tracta- 
ble and com-teous. He concluded his letter thus : 
"I entreat you to let me have as many of the 
fairest pearls as you can procure. In particular, 
I desii'e four of the largest sort. If you cannot 
procure them otherwise, ask them in a present 
from the king, who, I know, has a most abundant 




store" — a remarkable evidence of the wealth and 
magnificence of the Scottisli mouarchs at this 

Eadnier, in his perplexity, also asked the ad- 
vice of John bishop of Glasgow, and of two monks 
of Canterbmy, and the answer which they sent to 
him seems to have determined him npon resigning 
the see. It was in these terms : " If, as a son of 
peace, you desire peace, you must seek it else- 
where than in Scotland. As long as Alexander 
reigns, it will be vain for you to expect any friend- 
ly intercourse with him, or quiet under his gov- 
ernment. We are thoroughly acquainted with his 
dispositions : It is his will to be everything him- 
self in his own kingdom. lie is incensed against 
you, although he knows no reason for his resent- 
ment ; and he will never be perfectly reconciled 
to you, although he should see reason for a recon- 
ciliation. You must, therefore, either abandon 
this country, or, by accommodating yourself to its 
usages, dishonour your character and hazard your 
salvation. Should you choose to depart from 
among us, you will be constrained to restore the 
ring, which you received from the hands of the 
king, and the pastoral staiF which you took from 
off the altar. Without complying with these con- 
ditions you -will not be permitted to depart, nnless 
you could make to yourself wings and fly away." 
Eadmer consented to restore the ring to Alexan- 
der, but with regard to the pastoral staff, he de- 
dared that he would replace it on the altar, 
w Hence he had taken it, ' and leave it to be be- 
stowed by Christ,' and that since force had been 
used against him, he would relinquish the bishop- 
ric, and not reclaim it during the reign of Alexan- 
der, ' unless by the advice of the Pope, the con- 
vent of Canterbury, and the king of England.' 
Having thus, in effect, resigned his see, Eadmer 
was suflFered quietly to leave the kingdom. He 
afterwards addressed a long epistle to Alexander, 
in which, after setting forth his pretensions to the 
bishopric, he added, in a tone of submission which 
would have better become him at an earlier peri- 
od: "I mean not, in any particular, to derogate 
from the fi-eedom and independency of the king- 
dom of Scotland. Should you continue in your 
former sentiments, I will desist from my opposition ; 
for, with respect to the king of England, the arch- 

bishop of Canterbury, and the sacerdotal benedic- 
tion, I had notions, which, as I have since learn- 
ed, were erroneous. They will not separate nic 
from the service of God and your favour. In 
those things I will act according to your inclina- 
tions, if yon only permit me to enjoy the other 
rights belonging to the see of St. Andrews." The 
archbishop of Canterbury, too, wrote Alexander, 
requiring him to recall Eadmer to Scotland ; but 
Alexander would not listen cither to the solicita- 
tions, though humbly enough expressed, of the 
one, or the I'cquisition, however perem])tory, of 
the other, lie was resolved to uphold the inde- 
pendence of the Scottish church ; and the un- 
daunted spirit with which he maintained it throngh- 
out the whole contest, would have been ecjually 
displayed, as Lord Hailes justly remarks, in de- 
fence of the independence of his kingdom, had 
England ever attempted to call it in question dur- 
ing his reign. 

In Januaiy 1123, about a year before Alexan- 
der's death, the i)retensions of the archbishop of 
York were renewed, on the king procuring an 
English monk named Robert, who was prior of 
Scone, to be elected bishop of St. Andrews. The 
latter, however, was not consecrated till the fourth 
year of the reign of David I. about five years af- 
terwards, when Thurstin, archbishop of York, 
performed the ceremony, under reservation of the 
rights of the Scots church. 

While thus successful in his resistance to the 
claims of supremacy on the part of the metropoli- 
tan sees of York and Canterbury, Alexander, 
as was usual in those days, evinced his devotion 
to the church by the ample donations which ho 
made to it. He bestowed upon the see of St. 
Andrews the famous tract of laud called the Cur- 
sus Apri, or Boar's Chase, of which it is not pos- 
sible now to assign the exact limits ; but " so 
called," says Boece, " from a boar of uncommon 
size, which, after having made prodigious havoc 
of men and cattle, and having been fi-cquently 
attacked by the huntsmen unsuccessfully, and to 
the imminent peril of their lives, was at last set 
upon by the whole country up in arms against 
him, and killed while endeavouring to make his 
escape across this tract of gi'ound." The historian 
adds that there were extant in his time manifest 




proofs of the existence of this huge beast ; its two 
tnsks, each sixteen inches long and four thick, 
lieiiig fixed with iron chains to the great altar of 
St. Andrews, having been placed there by the 
above named Bishop Robert, who obtained the 
grant of tlie boar chase from Alexander, although 
not consecrated bishop at the time it was bestowed. 
The legend that this extensive tract of land was 

conferred in 370 by Hungus or Hergustus, a Pict- 
ish king, who is unknown to history, is a monkish 
fiction utterly unworthy of attention. 

In 1123, having narrowly escaped shipwreck 
near the island of jEmona, now called Inchcolm, 
in the Frith of Forth, Alexander built a monas- 
tery on that island, of the ruins of which a wood- 
cut is given underneath. 

The ciixumstances are thus related by Fordun : 
"About the year 1123, Alexander I. having some 
business of state which obliged him to cross over 
at the Queen's feiTy, was overtaken by a terri- 
ble tempest blowing from the south-west, which 
obliged the sailors to make for this island, (.Smo- 
na,) which they reached with the greatest difficulty. 
Here they found a poor hermit, who lived a reli- 
gious life according to the rules of St. Columba, 
and performed service in a small chapel, support- 
ing himself by the milk of one cow, and the shel- 
fish ne could pick up on the shore ; nevertheless, 
on these small means he entertained the king and 
his retinue for three days — the time which they 
were confined here by the wind. During the 
storm, and whilst at sea and in the greatest danger, 
the king made a vow that if St. Columba would 
bring him safe to that island, he would there found 
R, monastery to his honour, which should be an 
asylum and relief to navigators. He was, more- 
over, farther moved to this foundation, by having, 

from his childhood, entertained a particular venera ■ 
tion and honom- for that saint, derived from his 
parents, who were long married without issue, 
until imploring the aid of St. Columba, their 
request was most graciously granted." Tire 
monastery thus founded by Alexander was for 
canons regular of St. Augustine, and was richly 
endowed by the gi-ateful and pious king its founder 
and patron. Being dedicated to St. Colm or 
Columba, the island obtained the name thereafter 
of Inchcolm, which it still retains. The king had 
previously brought a colony of canons regular of 
St. Augustine from the monastery of St. Oswald 
at Nastley, near Pontefract, in Yorkshb-e, and 
established them at Scone, the abbey of which he 
had founded in 1114, and dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity and St. Michael. This famous abbey, it 
is well knowTi, enclosed the celebrated coronation 
stone which was removed to England by Edward 
I., and is stiU used at the coronation of the sove- 
reigns of Great Britain at Westminster. The 




sbbey of Scone, also, thus founded by Alexander, 
xvitnessed the crowning of the later Scoto-Saxon 
kings. By a royal charter he conferred upon the 
monks of this abbey the right of holding their 
own court, and of giving judgment eitlier by 
combat, by iron, or by water; together with all 
privileges pertaining to their court; inclnding the 
right in all persons resident within their territory, 
of refusing to answer except in their own proper 
co<n't. \_Cnrtularii of Scone, p. 16.] This right 
of exclusive jurisdiction was conlirmiMl by four 
successive monarchs. In 1122, on the death of 
his queen, Sybilla. who died suddenly at the castle 
of Loch T.ay, in Perthshire, on the 12th of June <if 
that year, Alexander erected a priory on a small 
island on Loch Tay, for the repose of his soul and 
that of his consort. According to Spottiswood, 
this priory was a cell from the monastery of .Scone, 
and was founded by Queen Sybilla herself, but 
this is evidently a mistake. Some very inconsider- 
able ruins of it still remain. Alexander also 
granted various lands to the monasteiy of Dun- 
fermline which his fother had founded, and is said 
to have finished the church. His queen Sybilla 
also conferred lands on it. 

Notwithstanding the rude condition of the inha- 
bitants of Scotland at that remote period, the per- 
sonal state kept up by Alexander the First is de- 
scribed as having been scarcely, if at all, inferior 
to that of his brother-monarch of the riclier coun- 
try of England. It is well-known that in the 
reign of his father, Malcolm Canmore, an unusual 
splendour was introduced into the Scottish court 
b}' his Saxon consort, the good queen Margaret, 
who not only encouraged the importation and use 
of rich vestments from foreign countries, setting 
the example by being magnificent in her own at- 
tire, but increased the number of attendants on 
the person of the king, and caused him to be 
served at table on plate of gold and silver. [Tur- 
gofs Memoir of Queen Margaret.'] Alexander I. 
seems to have given to his public appearances, as 
sovereign, a degree of splendour till then unknown 
in the northern end of the island. In Ids reign 
there appears to have been a considerable inter- 
course between Scotland and the East, as various 
oriental commodities and articles of Asiatic luxury 
R'ere imported into this country. It is related of 

this monarch, that, not :ontont with endowing tli>» 
church of St. Andrews — which had been fouMk'il 
ill his reign by Turgot, its archbishop — with mi- 
merous lands, and conferring upon it various im- 
munities, as an additional evidence of his devotion 
to the blessed apostle St. Andrew, after whom the 
see was called, he commanded his favourite Am- \ 
bian horse to be led up to the high altar, his sad- ' 
die and bridle being splendidly ornamented, whilo ; 
his housings were of a rich cloth of velvet. Tho ; 
king's body armour, of sujierb Tin-kisli manufac- i 
ture, and studded with jewels, with his spear and 
his shield of silver, were at the same time brought ; 
by a squire ; and these, along with the horse and 
his furniture, the king, in the presence of his pre- i 
lates and barons, solemnly devoted and presented [ 
to the church. The housings and aias were 
sho\vii in the days of tlic historian who has re- 
corded the event. \_Extracf from the Retjister of 
the Priory of St. Andrews, in Pitikerton's Disserta- 
tion, Appendix, vol. i. p. 464. Winton, vol. i. 
p. 286. Sec also Ti/tler's History of Scotland, vol. 
ii. p. 198.] 

The rising commerce of the country in those 
early times was much aided and advanced by the 
settlement, in the districts contiguous to the Bor- 
ders, of numbers of Flemish merchants, who, dur- 
ing the reign of Alexander, gradually spread into 
Scotland, and at a later period, namely, in the 
reign of David the First, were found in all the 
towns along the cast coast, and even in the west- 
ern parts of the kingdom, wherever traffic could 
be safely and jnofitably carried on. The money 
in circulation in Scotland at that period appears 
to have been of silver only. Indeed, down to the 
reign of Robert the Second, the gold coinage of 
England, then current in Scotland, seems to have 
been the only gold money in use. Of the early 
silver moncj' of Scotland, the most ancient speci- 
mens yet found are the pennies of Alexander the 
First, which arc now extremely rare. They are 
described as being of tno same firmness, weight, 
and form as the contemporary English coins of 
the same denomination, and down to the time of 
Robert the First, the money of Scotland was pre- 
cisely of the same value and standard as that of 
England. [See Ritddiman's Introduction to An- 
derson's Diplomata, pp. 64, 55. — Tytler's Hi.sli'Tii 




of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 264.] The annexed en- 
graving of the silver pennies of Alexander I. is 
fiora Anderson's Numismata. 

Annexed is a seal of Alexander I., in which he 
te represented fully cased in the araionr of that 
period : 

Here we find the scaled mail-coat composed of 
mascles, or lozenged pieces of steel, sewed upon a 
tunic of leather, and reaching only to the mid thigh. 
The hood is of one piece with the tunic, and covers 
the head, which is protected with a conical steel 
cap, and a nasal ; the sleeves are loose, so as to 
show the linen tunic worn next the skin, and again 
appearing in graceful folds above the knee; the 

lower leg and foot are protected by a short boot, 
armed with a spur. The king holds in his right 
hand a spear, to which a pennoncelle, or small flag, 
is attached, exactly similar to that worn by Henry 
the First; the saddle is peaked before and behind; 
and the horse on which he rides is ornamented by 
a rich fringe round the chest, but altogether un- 
armed. \_Seal in tJie Diplomata Scotia, plate 7. 
Tytlefs History of Scotland vol. ii. p. 360.] 

Alexander the First died at Stirling on the 27th 
of April 1124, in the seventeenth year of his reigc 
and leaving no issue was succeeded by his young- 
est brother, David. He was interred before the 
high altar at Dunfermline, near to his father. 
During his reign, as during that of his brother and 
predecessor Edgar, the laws, institutions, and 
forms of government, except in the Gaelic poition 
of the kingdom, were purely Saxon ; and to this 
particular epoch in oiu- nation's history, may be 
traced the earliest existence in Scotland of some 
of the great officers of state, who after that period 
discharged some of the more important functions 
of the government, as the chancellor, the consta- 
ble, &c. The former was the most intimate coun- 
sellor of the king, and generally the witness to his 
charters, letters, and proclamations, and the lat- 
ter, an office of undoubted Norman origin, was 
the leader of tlie whole military power of the 
kingdom. The first appearance in Scotland of the 
now ancient office of sheriff is also referred to this 
reign, although the division of the country into 
regular sheriffdoms did not take place till a much 
later period. " During the reigns of Edgar and 
Alexander I.," says .Skene, "the whole of Scot- 
land, with the exception of what had formed the 
kingdom of Thorflnn (during the Norwegian con- 
quest consisting of the Orkneys, the Hebrides, 
and a large portion of the Highlands), exhibited 
the exact countei'part of Saxon England, with its 
earls, thanes, and sheriffs, while the rest of the 
country remained in the possession of the Gaelic 
Maormors, who yielded so far to Saxon influence 
as to assume the Saxon title of earl." \History 
of the Highlanders, vol. i. p. 128.] The personal 
character of Alexander was bold and energetic, 
and his disposition fiery and impetuous. Strenn 
ous in maintaining his authority, he had, early in 
his reign, applied himself to repressing the disor- 




ders and iusurrections which were contimially 
breaking out in the Celtic portion of liis domin- 
ions, and his ardent temper and daring spirit con- 
tribated not a little to his success in overawing 
the turbulent inhabitants of the north, and reduc- 
ing them to submission. The boldest chieftains 
are said to have trembled in his presence, and the 
epithet of 'Fierce' attached to his name seems to 
have arisen from the energy which he at all times 
displayed, and which was necessary for reclaiming 
the Scots fi'om that savage barbarism into which 
they had relapsed under Donald Bane. Although 
terrible to the rest of his people, Alexander is de- 
scribed by Aldred, as being humble and courteous 
to the clergy, " not ignorant of letters," liberal 
even to profusion, and kind and benevolent to the 
poor. — Hailes' Annals of Scotland, vol. i., and the 
authorities quoted in the preceding article. 

ALEXANDER II., king of Scotland, the fourth 
in succession fi'om the subject of the foregoing me- 
moir, to whom he stands in the relation of great 
gi'and-nephew, was born at Haddington 24 Aug., 
1198. He was the only legitimate son of William 
Burnamed the Lion, his predecessor on the throne. 
His mother, Ermangarde, was daughter of Rich- 
ard Viscount de Beaumont, a descendant from 
Henry I. of England, through his mother, a na- 
tural daughter of that monarch. He succeeded 
his father December 4, 1214, being then only six- 
teen years of age, and was crowned at Scone on 
the 20th of the same mouth. 

Some years before the death of William his fa- 
ther, that monarch had been engaged in warlike 
demonstrations against England, followed, (in 
1209,) by a treaty of a singular character, of which 
the provisions have not yet been clearly ascertained. 
It appears that during the troubles in which John 
— the monarch who then sat upon the English 
throne — was involved, (in consequence of disputes 
with the head of the chmxh and the dissatisfaction 
of his barons, which finally resulted in the conces- 
sion by him of Magna Charta,) William — conceiv- 
ing the opportunity to be favom-able — took occa- 
sion to demand that the counties of Northumber- 
land, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, (which 
until about the middle of the reign of Henry II. 
had constituted the county or province of North- 
nmbria, and under that designation had been held 

during the latter part of the reign of his grand- 
father David I., by the eldest sou of that mon- 

arcn, the fatucr of William, a.s a fief of the English 
crown, but on the death of that monarch had bet'n 
resumed by Henry II.,) should be restored to the 
Scottish nation. How far that claim — one of the 
vexed questions of Scottish histoiy — was founded 
in right, does not properly fall to be considered in 
this biography, but will be treated of in that of 
IMalcolm IV., the brother of William, on whose 
accession these counties were restored to Henry, 
and to which therefore we refer. We may, how- 
ever, remark, — unwilling as we are to yield to any 
one in the assertion of the jnst rights of Scotland, — 
that there does not appear in the circumstances 
any warrant for assuming — as William then did, 
and as Scottish writers have hitherto done — that 
the intrusting of the government of these coun- 
ties by Stephen in February 1139 to Prince Hen- 
ry, son of David — as an individual lordship for 
which he rendered homage — can be construed in- 
to permanent cession of their possession from the 
English to the Scottish crown. It may more pro- 
bably be inferred as done in guarantee of the ful- 
filment of the solemn engagement then entered 
into with David by Stephen, that the crown of 
England — usurped by him— should at his death 
descend to Heniy, gi-and-ncphew of David, — son 
of the empress Matilda his sister's daughter the 
rightful heiress, — on whose behalf alone it was 
that that wise and righteous prince had professed 
to take up arms. The retention in his own bands 
by the English king, dm-ing the entire period of 
their government by the heir to the Scottish throne, 
of the commanding strengths of Bamborough, 
Norham, and Newcastle on Tyne, (the two former 
situated near the Scottish border,) and the omission 
of all reference to the circumstance of the supposed 
cession on the part of English historians, gives 
adtlitional probability to this aspect of the trans- 
action. Its resumption, therefore, on the fulfil- 
ment of that stipulation towards the close of the 
icign of David, may in this view of the matter 
have involved no injustice on the part of the 
English monarch, and ap]iears to have been peace- 
fully acquie;Sced in by Malcolm, the then reign- 
ing king. In the history of the two kingdoms oi 
that period, however, it will frequently be found 




that tUe occasion of distraction or civil contest 
oa tlve part of the one was frequently embraced, 
to press to an issue assumed or disputed claims on 
the part of the other, and the fearful state of mat- 
ers wiiich then obtained in England — placed as it 
was onder a papal interdict, the public services of 
reJigion suspended, the rites of interment witli- 
beld, the prelates banished, and the nobles insult- 
ed — presented an opportunity too tempting to be 
vriti^iood by William, for making a demand which, 
if yielded to, would at once aggrandize his king- 
dom, and avenge liis long captivity. Nor is there 
wanting, in the earlier history of that monarch 
himself, more than one incident to illustrate the 
truth of the foregoing remark. 

In order to understand the position of the par- 
ties, however, on the occasion of the conclusion of 
this treaty, it is proper to observe that, according 
to the English historians, John, — notwithstanding 
the dangerous situation in which he stood, and the 
loss of reputation he had sustained by acquiescing 
in the conquest of the English provinces in France, 
— appears, on becoming aware of the military pre- 
parations of William, to have manifested a de- 
gree of energy unusual to him, and to have resolved 
to do some act that woidd give a lustre to his gov- 
ernment. He is represented by them as having 
been successful in his military entei-prises in Scot- 
land, as also in others which he undertook against 
the Lish and Welsh. It was in these circum- 
stances, therefore, that by the treaty in question, 
the king of Scotland bound himself to pay to John 
fifteen thousand merks (supposed to be equivalent 
to one hundred and fifty thousand pounds ster- 
ling of our present money) in two years, by fom- 
equal paj-ments, " for procm-ing his good will 
(bettevolentia), and for fulfilling certain conven- 
tions between them," contained in a charter which 
has not been presei-ved. For the performance of 
this treaty William gave John hostages. He 
likewise delivered his two daughters, Blargaret 
and Isabella, to the king of England to be edu- 
cated at his comt;, and "that they might be pro- 
vided by him in suitable matches," but not to 
be considered as hostages. About thii-ty years 
thereafter it was stated in the EngUsh parliament 
that the conditions of the charter referred to were 
that the two Scottish princesses should be mar- 

ried to king John's two sons, and that the money, 
together with a renunciation of his claim to the 
northern counties, was given by William as their 
marriage portion. Hubert de Biu'gh, the justici- 
ary of England, who married the princess Mar- 
garet, positively denied, however, all knowledge Oi 
any such condition as the former; while some 
Scottish writers subsequently founded on its non- 
fulfilment a supposed claim for the restitution of 
the latter. [See Life of William the Lion, post.J 

Shortly after Alexander came to the throne 
aff'airs in Eugland became involved in a still" 
gi'eater degree of confusion than before. John, 
perfidious and peijured as tyrannical, had violated 
the provisions of Magna Charta, set his barons ai 
defiance, and threatened alike to crush the liber- 
ties of the country and then- power. In this 
emergency, they decided to renounce their allegi- 
ance to him, and sent a deputation to offer the 
crown of England to Louis, son of the king oi 
France. At the same time such of them as held 
possessions in the northern counties applied to 
Alexander, and offered to put him in possession oi 
these districts as the consideration for his aiding 
them against their oppressor. Although so young, 
Alexander was not unwilling to avail himself ol 
the proposal, and an agreement was accordingly 
entered into to that effect. In accordance with 
this agreement, Alexander with an army marched 
iuto Northumberland, and on the 18th of October 
1215, he received the homage of the barons of that 
county at Felton castle. The castle of Norhani 
was besieged by him for forty days, during which 
time Eustace de Vesci, — one of the principal bar- 
ons of the northern counties, who had made him- 
self conspicuous by his opposition to John, — gave 
him investiture of the county of Northumberland 
by livery and sasine. The intelligence of these 
negotiations, however, again stu'red up John to 
unwonted activity, and he resolved to crush the 
northern invasion before Louis should an-ive in 
England. Accordmgly, immediately after Christ- 
mas, whilst a deep fall of snow lay on the ground, 
at the head of a large force, consisting principally 
of foreign mercenaries, he advanced into Yorkshire 
and Northumberland, devastating the estates o! 
the confederated barons, and burning and slaying 
wherever he came. All the castles and towns 




they could take were given to the (lames, King 
John himself setting the example, as he fired with 
his owu hauds iu the morning the house in which 
he had rested the preceding night. 

On the approach northward of Jolin, AlexantU'r 
•■iiiscd the siege of Norham, and retu'ed within his 
OBTi dominions. Tlie English barons accompanied 
him, ajKl those of the northern comities did homage 
to Alexander at the abbey of Meliose on the 15th 
January 1216. [C//ronicfeq/"Jl/e/;osc, p. 190.] John 
with his mixed and savage host of foreign soldiery 
followed, burning, in theu' march, the towns of 
Werk, Morpeth, Alnwick, Mitford, and Koxburgh. 
After storming Berwick they entered Scotland, 
torturing, plundering, and massacring the inha- 
bitants in their way. The towns of Dunbaj- and 
Haddington were likewise burnt to the gi'ound. 
John was detemiLned to have vengeance on Alex- 
ander for the assistance which he had given to the 
patriotic barons who had taken up arms against 
him. "We will smoke," he said, " the little red 
fox out of his covert." From this laconic descrip- 
tion of him we may infer that Alexander the Sec- 
ond was both diminutive in stature and ruddy in 
complexion. John pursued his devastating com-se 
is far as Edinburgh, but was soon obliged to 
ivithdraw from a country which his troops had 
ravaged so completely that it no longer afforded 
them subsistence. In his retreat, his forces burnt 
the priory of Coldingham, which had been found- 
ed in the yeai- 1098 by Edgar king of Scotland, 
and the town of Berwick ; John himself, as was 
his usual practice, giving the example to his bru- 
tal soldiery by setting fire to the house in which 
he had lodged. 

For the priory of Coldingham thus ruthlessly 
consumed by John's savage followers, Alexander, 
like all the rest of the Scottish kings since the 
time of Edgar its founder, had a gi-eat veneration. 
He had not only confirmed the charters which his 
predecessors had granted to it, but exempted tlie 
prior and his monks from a sum of twenty merks 
that they had been in the custom of paying yearly 
to his exchequer, under the name of wattinrja, — a 
tax which appears to have been levied from the 
landholders in Scotland for the purpose of erect- 
ing and maintaining in repair the government fur- 
tresses. He also issued a writ to Robert de Bern- 

hani, the mayor, and to the bailifls of Bcnvick, 
enjoining them to allow free passage to foreign 
merchants, when on their way to the priory to 
purchase the wool and other commodities belong- 
ing to the monks, and prohibiting every one from 
seizing any property, moveable or unmoveable, 
belonging to the convent, within the barony or 
lordship of Cuklingham, for debt on forfeiture. 
Besides these immunities, he, released " the twelfth 
village of Coldinghamshire, or that in which the 
church is founded," from the aids and niilitai'y 
service which had formerly been exacted. It was 
not likely therefore that he would allow John's 
destructive march to (jass >\itliout taking dreadful 

Accordingly, in the month of Fel)ruary fol- 
lowing this inroad, Alexander in his turn wast- 
ed the western marches with fire and sword 
and penetrated into Cumberland. Some of the 
uudiseipliued Scots, bj' which name the monk- 
ish historians distinguish the Highlanders iu his 
anny, plundered and burnt the abbey of Holin- 
cidtram, in revenge for the destruction of the pri- 
ory of Coldingham by the English. These rever- 
end chroniclers relate with apparent delight that 
two thousand of the Scots, on their way home 
with their booty, were drowned in the flooded 
cmTCUt of the river Eden, as a judgment for their 
sacrilegious violation of a holy house. After a 
temporary I'etreat into his own territories, Alex- 
ander invaded Cumberland a second time, in the 
month of July, with all his army, except the 
Highlanders, whom he had chastised and dis- 
missed [Chron. Mel., p. 191], and on the 8th ot 
August, he took possession of the city of Carlisle. 
The castle, however, held out against him. He 
then marched southwards quite through England 
to Dover, to join Louis, the son of the king of 
France, who by this time had arrived in Eugland. 
In his progress Alexander assaulted Bernard cas- 
tle, the seat of the Baliol family, then held by a 
garrison for John. Eustace de Vesci, who had 
given him investiture of Northumberland at Nor- 
ham castle, was slain there. On arriving at Dover 
he found Louis besieging the castle, and as the 
English barons had done, he did homage to that 
prince for all his lands in England, and particularly 
for the counties of Northumberland, CniulicThmd. 




and Westmoreland, which were then granted to 
him by charter. [Rpner's Fccdera, torn. ii. p. 217.] 
This he might very well do, for the French prince 
Louis had not only been offered and had accepted 
the crown of England, but actually had a claim to 
it in right of his wife. On this occasion Louis, on 
his part, swore that he would not conclude a 
separate peace, an .oath which he was soon com- 
pelled to violate. On his return homeward Alex- 
ander met with some obstruction in passing the 
Ti-ent, the bridge at Newark having been broken 
down by the army of King John, who expired at 
the castle of Newark, 19th Oct. 1216. 

Some time before this (May 15, 1213) John had 
been reduced to the unworthy expedient of sur- 
rendering his dominions into the hands of the 
Pope, and of consenting to hold them hencefor- 
ward only as his vassal, as a means of escaping 
from the consequences of the papal interdict, and 
threatened excommunication. When compelled 
by his barons and clergy (June 19, 1215) to sign 
the Great Charter, inwardly resolving to violate 
its provisions, he, as one means of effecting this, 
laid a statement of the matter, with a complaint 
of the violence imposed upon him, before his feu- 
dal lord, the supreme pontiff, who issued a bull, 
absolving him from his oath, annulling the char- 
ter, and prohibiting the barons from exacting the 
observance of it, on pain of excommunication. 
Strange to say, the English primate refused to 
obey the pope in publishing the sentence, and 
though suspended on account of this proceeding, 
and a new and particular sentence of excommuni- 
cation was issued by name against the principal 
barons, — including not only the French prince 
Louis, but Alexander and his whole army, and 
the entire realm of Scotland, — the nobility and 
people, and even the clergy, of both kingdoms 
adhered to the combination against him, and so 
little zeal in the matter was manifested by the 
clergy of Scotland, that nearly a twelvemonth 
elapsed before it was published there. [Chron. 
Melrose, 192. Fordtm, ix. 31.] 

Although Alexander, as ah-eady stated, had 
taken the town of Carlisle, the castle held out, 
and was besieged by him unsuccessfully. While 
engaged in this siege, a portion of the army of 
Prince I.iOuis was entirely defeated in the streets 

of Lincoln, 19th May 1217, the count de Perche, 
its commander-in-chief, being killed, and many 
of the chief commanders taken prisoners. On the 
news of this defeat, Prince Louis, who was still 
occupied w-ith the siege of Dover, proceeded to 
London, where he learned the further defeat of a 
fleet bringing him reinforcements from France, 
and the general defection of the barons, as they 
had by this time become suspicious of his inten- 
tion. In the general tiu'n which men's disposi- 
tions had taken, the excommunication denounced 
by the legate failed not now to produce a mighty 
effect on them, and they were easUy persuaded to 
consider a cause as impious, which had hitherto 
been unfortunate, and for which they had already 
entertained an unsurmountable aversion. Seeing 
his cause to be desperate, Louis now began to be 
anxious for the safety of his person, and entered 
into a negotiation with the earl of Pembroke, pro- 
tector of the realm of England, — Heniy the Thiitl, 
the son and successor of King John, being then a 
minor, — and a peace was concluded, Louis stipu- 
lating for a full indemnity to the English of his 
party — with a restitution of their honours and for- 
tunes, together with the free and equal enjoyment 
of those liberties which that wise noble had guar- 
anteed in the name of the prince to the rest of the 
nation — and formally renouncing his pretensions 
to the crown of England. That Louis might be 
reconciled to the holy see, he did penance by 
walliing barefooted to the legate's tent, in pres- 
ence of both armies. He then departed with all 
his foreign forces to France. 

On receiving intelligence of these events, Alex- 
ander, who was then on his march into England, 
made overtures of peace to the young king Hen- 
ry HI., and after some time spent in negotia- 
tion, a treaty was concluded between them. He 
then yielded up the town of Carlisle to the Eng- 
lish, and in an intenaew which he had with King 
Henry at Northamption, he did homage to him, 
— but for his English possessions only, as Scot- 
tish writers allege, — and returned into Scotland. 
[C/iron. Mel. 192, 194, 195. Fordun ix. 31.] 

Alexander now sought to be reconcQed to the 
Pope, and having procured a safe conduct from 
England, he proceeded to Tweedmouth, on the 
English side of the Border, and there met the 




fticlibisliop of York and the bishop of Diiiliam who 
had been delegated by tlie Pope's legate for the 
pni7>ose, and received absohition from their hands, 
1st December 1217, witliout being called npon to 
pejform tlie ignominious penance which generally 
preceded absohition. Some daj-s thereafter the 
delegates also removed the ban of excomnnniica- 
tion from Alexander's mother, queen Ermengarde. 
Tlie sentence was also removed from tlie whole 
body of the Scottish nation, except the prelates 
and the clergy, who had become obnoxious by 
reason of their reluctance to publish the bull. 

In tlie spring of 1218, William, prior of Dur- 
nam, and Walter de Wisbech, archdeacon of York, 
traversed Scotland, " from Berwick to Aberdeen," 
for the purpose of absolving the Scottish clergy 
from the sentence of excommunication. While 
npon this tour, on arriving at a town they snra- 
moned the clergy to attend them, and having 

required them to swear allegiance to the papal 
legate, and to make a candid confession of all 
nintters concerning which they wore a.sked, they 
absolved them, standing barefoot before the doors 
of their churches and abbeys. The coinniission- 
ers were very sumptuously entertained, and thcii 
favour was courted by large bribes of money, and 
many presents. IRidpat/t's Border History, p 
127.] On their return south they halted at Ihc 
abbey of Lindores, where the prior of Durham 
was nearly suflbcated with smoke, a fire having 
broken out in the chamber where he slept, through 
the carelessness and rioting of tliosc who had the 
charge of the wine, "his chaniberman," as Balfour 
pithily says, " being verey drunke." He died at 
Coldiiigham priory, whicli appears to have been 
partially restored after its burning by King Johi: 
in 1216. The following is a woodcut of the ruin,' 
of this celebrated priory. 

Against these proceedings the king appealed to 
Rome, while tlie clergy themselves sent a deputa- 
tion of three bi.shops to the Pope. Ajudgment was 
obtained in theii- favour, which declared that the 
legate had exceeded his powers, and not only was 

absolution granted by Pope llouurius, luit tlie 
liberties and privileges of the Scottish church were 
confirmed [Fordun a d'oodal, vol. li. pp. 40, 42.] 
For this favour one of the causes mentioned m 
the respect and obedience which Alexander had 





manifested to tlie papal see. This concession on 
liis part in a few years thereafter (in 1225) led to 
one of still greater importance. The Scottish 
clergy having represented to the Pope, that fi-om 
the want of a metropolitan they could not hold a 
provincial council, he authorized them to hold a 
general council of their own authority. Of this 
permission they were not slow to take advantage, 
and having assembled under its sanction, they 
drew up a distinct form of proceeding, by which 
the Scottish provincial councils were in future to 
be held ; instituted the office of Conservator Sta- 
tutorum, and continued to assemble frequent pro- 
vincial councils, unfettered by the intervention of 
any foreign superior. 

By one article of the treaty of peace concluded 
in 1217 between Alexander and Henry, it was 
stipulated that the king of Scotland sliould marry 
the princess Joan, the eldest sister of the king of 
England ; and their nuptials, after some delays, 
occasioned by the detention of the princess in 
France, were celebrated on the 25th of June 1221. 
The princess Joan, on her marriage, was secured 
in a jointure of one thousand pounds of land rent. 
IFcedera, tom. ii. p. 252.] Lord Hailes says, 
" The jointure lands were Jedworth, Lessudden, 
Kinghorn, and Crail. Any deficiencies were to 
be made good out of the castles and castellanys of 
Ayr, Rutherglen, Lanark, and the rents of Clydes- 
dale. Kinghorn and Crail were, at that time, 
part of the jointure lands of the queen-dowager." 

The peace with England and the mamage of 
Alexander to the English king's sister put a stop 
to all hostilities between the two nations for sev- 
eral years, and introduced a friendly intereoui-se 
between the two royal families, now so nearly re- 
lated, which for a long time continued uninterrupt- 
ed. The king and queen of Scotland made fre- 
quent visits to the court of England ; where they 
were nobly entertained, and received many valu- 
able proofs of friendship from King Henry. Tlie 
alliance with England was still farther strength- 
ened by the mamage of Alexander's two sisters, 
the princesses Margaret and Isabella, who had 
been sent to England in the preceding reign, to 
English barons of gi-eat power and influence, 
namely, Margaret, soon after her brother's mar- 
rage in 1221, to the celebrated Hubert de Burgh, 

justiciary of England, and Isabella, in 1225, to 
Roger Bigot, eldest son of Hugh, Earl Bigot. 
[Fordun, ix. 32, 33. Fadera, i. 227, 228, 374. 
Matth. Paris, 216.] For providing portions for 
his sisters, Alexander, in 1224, levied an aid ol 
ten thousand pounds upon the nation. This grant 
is stated by some of our Scottish writers, in the 
loose manner in which they are accustomed to 
write of events which took place at that remote 
period, to have been authorized by Alexander's 
parliament; while, on the contrary, it was imposed 
by the simple order of the king himself, without 
the slightest appearance of a meeting of the three 
estates, or even of the council of the king. Such 
a thing as a parliament was then unknown in 
Scotland. The first meeting, indeed, of what 
may be termed one did not take place till 1289, 
fully sixty-five years later, when, after the death 
of Alexander HI., the estates of the kingdom, 
that is, the five guardians or regents, ten bishops, 
twelve earls, twenty-three abbots, eleven priors, 
and forty-eight barons, calling themselves the 
community of Scotland, although no representa- 
tives of the burghs or of the people were among 
them, met at Brigham, now Birgham, an obscure 
village in Berwickshire, to take into consideration 
the proposal for a nianiage between the prince ol 
Wales, the son of Edward the First of England, 
and the young queen Margaret of Scotland, called 
" the Maiden of Norway." When Fordun (vol. 
ii. p. 34) asserts that Alexander the Second, im- 
mediately after his coronation, held his parliament 
in Edinburgh, in which he confinned to the chan- 
cellor, constable, and chamberlain the same high 
offices which they had filled at his father's death, 
the word parliament so used may be held only to 
mean an assembly of the court, or the council of 
his nobles and great officers of the crown, and 
not a parliament, or even convention of estates, in 
the modern meaning of the word. [See Tytter\ 
History of Scotland, vol. ii. sect. 3.] 

Anciently the barons of the realm, with the 
crown vassals and higher clergy, constituted the 
communitas regni, which formed the parliament, 
as Mr. Skene terms it, of all Teutonic nations. 
To this body, composed of Celtic, Norman, and 
Saxon dignitaries and landholders, belonged the 
duty of counselling the monarch, and expressing 



Die wants and wishes of the nation, without the 
great mass of tlie people having citlicr a voice or 
a will in the matter, the principle of elective re- 
presentation being altogether unknown to them. 
But there was another and even a higher body in 
the state, independent of the communitas, whose 
peculiar privileges were only exercised on great and 
rare occasions, namely, when there was a vacancy 
in the throne. This was the Sepleni Comites Rcgni 
Scotice, "the seven earls of Scotland." Until very 
recently, the existence of such a corporate body 
in the state seems to have been entirely unknown. 
To Sir Francis Palgrave belongs the merit of hav- 
ing made the discovery of a fact of so much im- 
portance to the right understanding of the history 
of Scotland. It is proved, he says in his ' Trea- 
sury Documents illustrative of Scottish History,' 
published in 1837, that " there existed in the an- 
cient kingdom of Scotland, a known and estab- 
lished constitutional body denominated 'the seven 
earls of Scotland,' possessing privileges of singular 
importance as a distinct estate in the realm, sev- 
ered equally ftom the other earls, and from the 
body of the baronage." These seven earls as a 
body derived their functions from the old Celtic 
constitution of the country, ancient Albania, or 
Scotland, north of the friths of Forth and Clyde, be- 
ing divided into seven gi'eat provinces or govern- 
ments. The Pictish names of these provinces 
were Fiv, Cait, Fotla, Fortrein, Circui, Ce, and 
Fidach, corresponding with, according to Geraldus 
Cambrensis, Fife, Caithness, Atholl and Garmo- 
rin, Stratherne and Menteth, Angus and Meanij, 
Moray and Ross, and Marr and Buchan. Three 
of these were provinces of tlie Southern Picts, 
namely, Fife, Stratherne and Blenteth, and Angus 
and Meai-ns ; the other four belonged to the nor- 
thern Picts. These seven provinces formed the 
kingdom of the Picts or Scotland proper, previous 
to the ninth century. The Scottish conquest, in 
843, having added to it Dalriada, which after- 
wards became Argyle, and Caithness having to- 
wards the end of the same century fallen into the 
hands of the Norwegians, the former was after 
that period substituted for the latter, and the carl 
of Argyle instead of the earl of Caithness was 
numbered among •' the seven earls." The Pictish 
nation consisted of a confederacy of fourteen tribes 

spread over the seven provinces named, in each 
of which one of the seven superior chiefs ruled 
under the Celtic name of maormor. In the reign 
of Edgar they assumed the Sa.\on title of earl, 
and their territories were exactly the same with 
the earldoms into which the north of Scotland was 
afterwards divided. 

In the appendix to the first volume of Mr. 
Skene's valuable 'History of the Highlanders,' 
will be found a clear account of the ' seven ancient 
provinces of Scotland,' over which the seven carls 
presided. It was the privilege of these seven 
superior chiefs, by immemorial custom, as a 
peculiar estate in the realm, to appoint a king, 
wlieuevcr there was a vacancy, and to invest him 
with the royal authority, a right which they appear 
to have exercised after the Pictish kingdom had 
ceased to exist. Among the other documents 
preserved in the Treasury, illustrative of Scottish 
history, which the researches of Sir Francis 
Palgrave have brought to light, is a roll contain- 
ing the appeal of the seven earls in 1290 to the 
authority and protection of Edward I. and tht 
English crown, against William Eraser, Bishop of 
St. Andrews, and John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, 
the Scottish regents, during the interregnum that 
succeeded the death of the Maid of Norway, on 
the ground that the regents were infringing or in- 
tending to infringe this their constitutional fran- 
chise ; which appeal, it is now understood, led to 
the famous summons of the English monarch 
that the Scottish nobility and clergy should meet 
him at Norham in the English territories, on the 
10th of INLiy 1291, to decide upon the claims of 
the various competitors to the Scottish crown. 
Having given this explanation, which will form a 
key to much of what would be otherwise unintel- 
ligible or obscure in the early history of Scotland, 
we resume the regular narrative. 

The external tranquillity which Scotland en- 
joyed after the peace with England and the mar- 
riage of Alexander to the sister of the English 
king, allowed Alexander leisure to suppress somn 
dangerous insurrections that had broken out at 
home. In 1221, Somerled, a grandson of the 
celebrated lord of the Isles of that name, pos- 
sessed the whole district of Argyle, which waa 
then much more extensive than the modem Ar- 




g}-lesliu-e, and having that year risen in rebellion, 
the king collected an army in Lothian and Gallo- 
way, and sailed for Argyle, intending to disembark 
Ills force, and penetrate into the interior of the 
country, but his ships were di-iven back by a tem- 
pest, and forced to take refuge in the Clyde. Al- 
exander, however, was not discouraged, but re- 
solved to proceed into Argyle by land. With a 
large army, which he had summoned from every 
quarter of his dominions, he made himself master 
of the whole of the insm-gent district, and compel- 
led Somerled to flee to the Isles, where, about 
eight years afterwards, he met a violent death. 
■\Vinton says, 

" De king that yliere Argyle wan 
Dat rebell wes till hym befor than 
For wythe hys Ost thare in wes he 
And Athe' tuk of thare Fewte, 
Wythe thare serwys and their Homage 
Dat of hym wald hald thare Herytage, 
But of the Ethchetys of the lave 
To the Lordies of that land he gave." 

The estates of those who fled were bestowed on 
the principal men of the king's army as a reward 
for their having joined the expedition; but wher- 
ever the former vassals of Somerled submitted and 
were received into favour, they became crown 
vassals, and held their lands in chief of the crown. 
The district in which the forfeited estates were, was 
farther brought under the direct jurisdiction of the 
government, by being, according to the invariable 
policy of Alexander n., erected into a sheriffdom 
by the name of Argyle, the first sherift'dom bearing 
that name, while the ancestor of the Campbells 
was made hereditary sheriff of the new sheriffdom. 
[Skene's History of the Highlanders, vol. ii. p. 46.] 
The whole of the then northern Argyle, now part 
of Inverness-shire, was bestowed on the earl of 
Ross, as a reward for the assistance which he had 
rendered to the king on this and a former occasion. 

Besides suppressing this insun-ection in Arg3'le, 
Alexander was about the same time called upon to 
punish some disturbances of an alarming kind 
which had broken out in Caithness. In 1222, 
Adam bishop of Caithness was '■ruelly burnt to 
death in his own palace. He had proved himself 
extremely rigorous in enforcing the demand for 
tithes, leading the poor people's corn, as Balfoiu- 

says, " too avariciously," and when the people of 
his diocese had assembled to consider what was to 
be done under the circumstances, one of them 
exclaimed, " short rede, good rede, slay we the 
bishop," meaning, " Few words are best, let us kill 
the bishop." The persons assembled unfortunately 
were too excited to pause or reflect — they followed 
the cruel advice, thus rashly given, but too literally. 
Rushing with eagerness to the bishop's house, they 
furiously assaulted it, set it on fire, and burnt the 
unhappy prelate in the flames of his own palace, 
with a monk who attended him, named Serlo. 
Some of the bishop's servants applied to the earl 
of Orkney and Caithness to protect their master 
from the fmy of the mob; he answered that ii 
the bishop came to him he would be sure of pro- 
tection, but did not oft'er to go to his assistance. 
Alexander received intelligence of this cruel action 
when he was upon a jouniey towards England. 
He immediately turned back, marched into Caith- 
ness with an army, and put to death four hundi-ed 
of those who had been concerned in the murder of 
the bishop. The earl of Orkney who might have 
prevented the catastrophe but did not, was believed 
to have favoured the conspiracy, but him the king 
pardoned, as he had no actual hand in the crime. 
He had to pay, however, a large sum of money, 
and give up the thii-d part of his estate. Balfour 
says that in the following year, w-hile Alexander 
was keeping his birth-day at Forfar, the eai'l of 
Orkney with a good sum of ready money redeemed 
the thu-d part of his estate from the king, but on 
his return home he was murdered in his own 
castle, which was afterwards burnt, in imitation 
and revenge of the bishop's fate. This event, 
however, according to the chronicle of Melrose 
(p. 201) quoted by Lord Hailes, did not take 
place tiU 1231. 

In the life of Alexander I. allusion has been 
made to the peculiar law of succession which pre- 
vailed amongst the Pictish or Gaelic tribes. [See 
p. 54, ante.'] This law of Tanistry, as it was callea, 
provided that on the death of a chief, the brother, 
or " he of the blood who was nearest," succeeded 
to the chiefship, to the exclusion of females and 
even sons, the brother being considered one degree 
nearer the original founder or patriarch of the 
race than the son, and if the person who ought to 




succeed wa.s muler fcmrteen yc.irs of age, — tlie nii- 
cieut Iliglilaud period of ninjorit}-, — his nearest 
male relation became cliief, and continued so dur- 
ing his life, the proper heir inheriting tlie eluel'sliip 
only at his death. [S/wiie's llistonj of the High- 
landers, vol. i. pp. 1(50, IGl.] The establishment 
of such a law originated jirimarily, there cannot 
be a donbt, in the natnral anxiety to avoid mino- 
rities in a tribe or elan, so that it niiglit always 
have a conijietent leader in war, a princijile «hieli, 
however much opposed to the feudal notions of 
later times, flowed naturally from the patriarchal 
constitution of society in the Highlands, being 
peculiarly adapted to the circumstances of a peo- 
ple whose warlike habits and love of military en- 
terprise, as well as addiction to armed [iredatory 
expeditions, demanded at all times a chief of full 
age and every way qualified to act as their leader 
and commander. 

As, however, the Highlanders adhered strictly 
to succession in the male line and according to the 
lineal descent from the common ancestor, or found- 
er of the tribe, an)' infraction of this rule was of- 
ten productive of the most serious outbreaks and 
insurrections. This was remarkably the case in 
the old maormordom or province of Moray, which, 
at the period when Alexander the Second ascended 
the throne, included not only what now forms the 
counties of Elgin and Nairn, but a considerable 
part of Banffshire and nearly the half of Inver- 
ness-shire. This was always one of the most re- 
bellious portions of the kingdom ; and although 
the tribes of Moray, in common with the I'est of 
the Highlanders, recognised in Alexander I. and 
his successor David I. the legitimate heirs of Jlal- 
colm Canmore, they were never without a pretext 
for disturbing the country. After the suppression 
of their attempt at insurrection early in the reign 
of the former, when Angus refeiTed to (p. 54) as 
of the family of l\Iacbeth, — whom Skene with rea- 
son supposes to be the same with Head or Heth, 
whose name with Comes attached to it appears as 
witness in numerous charters of David I., Head 
or Heth being the surname of the family, — w.os in 
in possession of the earldom, they remained quiet 
till 1130, Alexander's successor David I. being 
then on the throne. In that year, an Angus earl 
rf Moray, — either the individua' referred to above, 

who escaped confiscation by causing his acconi- 
liliee I. adman, younger son of Donald Unnc, tr. 
be ]iut to death, or a descendant of tho same 
name, — taking advantag(^ of David's absence at 
the English court, broke out into rebellion, and 
after having obtained possession of the northern 
districts of Scotland, advanced at the head of a 
numerous army, into Forfarshire; bnt Edward, .son 
of Siward, earl of Northumberland, led an army into 
Scotland, with which he defeated and slew the oarl 
at Strickathrow. Twelve years thereafter one AVi 
mund, an English monk, who had risen to be bishop I 
of I\Ian, claiming to be the son of Angns, asserted 
his right to the earldom, and assumed the name ol 
Malcolm Macbeth. He was assisted by Somerled, 
thane of Argyle, whose daughter he married, and 
nuiny of tho northern chiefs. After having for 
several years sustained a struggle with David, he 
was at length betrayed by his own adherents, 
who put out his eyes and delivered him up to the 
Scottish king. He was sent a prisoner to the cas- 
tle of Roxburgh, hut after a tedious captivity, was 
l)ardoned, when he retired to the abbey of Riland 
in Yorkshire, where he died. [See Life of David 
I. post."] 

On the death of David I. in 1153, the Tanistic 
law of succession would have conferred the right 
to the throne on Malcolm son of Duncan, the eld- 
est sou of Malcolm Caniuore, but being then in 
possession of the earldom of Athol (p. 54), lie 
does not appear to have brought it forward, pre- 
ferring probably the certainty of possession under 
the feudal law to the risk of a hopeless conflict. 
On his death however, some years afterwards, it 
would appear that the law of Tanistry again came 
into conflict with the established system, not only 
as respects the succession to the crown, but in 
reference also to the family possessions of the 
earldom of Athol, and we find the celebrated Boy 
of Egi-emont, in the person of William, son of 
William Fitz-Duucan, a younger son of Duncan, 
appearing as a claimant of both, in opposition to 
M.alcolm IV., the reigning monarch, and to his 
cousin Henry, son of Malcolm his father's brother, 
then earl of Athol. The people of the Highlands, 
ever prepared to avail themselves of an occasion to 
thrust out the race that govenied them according 
to the Saxon laws, were the more encooraged f 





support the claim of this individual in the absence 
of Malcolm TV., tlien rendering military service 
to Henry II. in France, by the general dissatis- 
faction professed to be entertained on account of 
that servitude. Six of the seven great earls of 
Scotland, who governed the districts into which the 
ancient Tictish provinces of Scotland were divided 

and iu whose hands the nomination of the crown 

was vested [see p. 67]— sent a message to Mal- 
colm, then at Toulouse, expressing their disappro- 
bation of his proceedings, and indicating a with- 
drawal of their allegiance. On his return from 
France, he met the chiefs at Perth ; and whilst 
by the intervention of his clergy he endeavour- 
ed to pacify them and regain their confidence, 
he was in 1160 attacked by a portion of the 
confederacy, but they were repulsed, and many of 
their followers slain. [See life of Malcolm IV. 
post.'] Donald Bane, another son of William 
Fitz-Duncan, and grandson of Duncan, afterwards 
cook up the claim, and supported by the northern 
chiefs, he for seven years held out the provinces 
of Moray and Ross against William the Lion, but 
in 1187, while his army lay at Inverness, a ma- 
rauding party commanded by Roland of Galloway 
accidentally encountering him, when attended by 
few of his followers, attacked and slew him. In 
1211 his son Guthred landed from Ireland and 
wasted the province of Ross. Notwithstanding 
that the king (William the Lion) went against 
him in person at the head of an army, he kept 
possession of the north of Scotland for some time, 
but was at last betrayed into the hands of Wil- 
liam Comyn, by whom he was beheaded. 

On the accession of Alexander II. to the throne, 
Donald Bane, or MacWilliam, the brother of 
Guthred, and the son of that Donald who was 
slain in 1187, prepared to assert his own preten- 
sions to the crown, and in conjunction with Ken- 
neth Macbeth, who after an unsuccessful attempt 
to obtain the earldom of Moray in the reign of 
Malcolm IV. had taken refuge in Ireland, invaded 
Scotland at the head of a numerous body of Irish 
followers. They made an inroad into Moray, but 
were met by Ferchard, earl of Ross, an ally of the 
government, who defeated and slew them. Balfour 
in his annals says: "In the zeire 1215, Donald 
Bane, the sone of Mack ■ William, and Keneth 

Mack-Acht, with the son of a pittey king ol 
Irland, and a good armey, invadit the heighf 
lands. Against quhom Machentagar Icweys ane 
armey, and with them feights a werey bloodiey 
and creuell batell, quhom he totally ouerthrowes, 
the 17 day of Julay, and solemly presents the 
rebells heads to the king ; for wich so gude 
seruice the king solemley knights Machentagar, 
and gives him a zeirly pensione during his 
lyflTe." [Vol. i. p. 38.] Lord Hailes transcribed 
the same names, with a slight difference in the 
spelling, from the Chronicle of Melrose. "The 
author," he says, " being a Saxon, has coiTupted 
the Gaelic names ; Kenaukmacaht and M'Kentagai 
are unintelligible words." From the above retro- 
spect, which was necessary to render the narrative 
clear, the reader will not be at a loss to under- 
stand that by Donald Bane is meant Donald 
M'William the grandson of William, and great- 
grandson of Duncan king of Scotland, and bj 
Machentagar, Ferchard Macantagart, earl of Ross, 
who conquered and slew him and Kenneth Mack- 
Act, or Macheth, as already narrated. 

The rebellion of Somerled in 1221, of which an 
account has been given iu pages 66, 67, is the last 
of those persevering efforts made to replace the 
family of Duncan on the throne of his father Mal- 
colm. By an intermarriage of their families at an 
earlier period Somerled had become closely related 
to the race of Duncan. The language of the old 
chronicler Winton, ab'eady quoted, 

" Dat rebel] wes till hyin befor thjin,'* 

would imply that he with ti;3 forces of Argyle had 
aided in the previous one of 1215. The death, there- 
fore, of the last of the heirs of the direct line seems 
to have opened the way to a claim to the throne in 
his own right. In reading of these continuous 
struggles, and of the aid so frequently rendered 
by the Irish and Scottish branches of the Celtic 
family to the assertion of the old Pictish law, we 
see another proof of the tenacity with which under 
all discouragements they held to it. In the fre- 
quent interference also of the Irish in these intei'- 
nal struggles, — made too, it is worthy of being 
noted, generally on occasions when the occupant 
of the throne was embarrassed by other questions, 
— we seem to read over again the series of con 




tests — brought to light by Skene and others — 
whereby the Irisli Dahiadic tribe, not having then 
the Norman arms to encounter, at an earlier pe- 
riod of tlie national history more successfully sub- 
merged the existing government, and gave the 
name of Scotland, and race of nionarclis — the true 
heirs according to their theory — to that country. 

Although the family of Angus had become ex- 
tinct by the death of Kenneth, yet by the Celtic 
law of succession, the claims of the family were 
transmitted to the next branch of the clan, and in 
1228 the tranquillity of the same district was again 
liisturbed by one Gillespie, claiming to be the 
chief of the province. This warrior, after burning 
50me wooden castles, surprising and slaying a 
baron who had been sent against him, called Tho- 
mas of Thirlstane, to whom Malcolm IV. had 
given the district of Abertai-ff, set fire to the town 
of Inverness, and spoiled and wasted the crown 
lands in that neighbourhood. The king went 
against him in person, but for a while he eluded 
his pursuit. He was at last encountered and slain, 
by William Comyn earl of Buchan, the justiciary 
of the kingdom. As a reward for suppressing 
this insurrection Comyn got a grant from the king 
of the districts of Badenoch and Lochaber. In 
accordance with his usual policy, Alexander erected 
that portion of the extensive earldom of Moray, 
;vhich was not then under the rule of the Bissets, 
the Comyns, and other Norman barons, into the 
separate sheriffdoms of Elgin and Nairn. " The 
authority of government," says Skene, " was thus 
so effectually established that the Moravians did 
not again attempt any resistance; and thus ended 
with the death of Gillespie, the last of that series 
of persevering efforts which the earls of Moray had 
made for upwards of one hundred years to pi'cserve 
their native inheritance." [Highlanders of Scot- 
land, vol. ii. p. 170.] 

In 1233 the most serious insurrection which 
Alexander had yet to contend with occurred in 
Galloway, arising out of a similar principle to 
that which produced the disturbances in Moray; 
the adherence, namely, of the inhabitants to the 
ancient law of tanistry, as evidenced in their un- 
willingness to submit to female succession. The 
people of that extensive district, which forms 
the south-western angle of Scotland, were chiefly 

of a Celtic race. Besides offshoots from the Scoth 
of Kintyre, large bodies of colonists from Ireland 
formed, at various times, settlements there, durinj; 
the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries, and from 
the frequent incursions of these and other settlers, 
the district obtained its name ; either, as is most 
likely, from the word Call, which originally signi- 
fied stranger or wanderer, and in this sense was 
ap])lied to the pirates who, in those days, infested 
the western coasts of Scotland, — hence the term 
used by the Irish annalists, in reference to them, 
namely the Gallgael, meaning Gaelic pirates or 
rovers, — or, as is generally supposed, from the 
Gaelic origin of the inhabitants. Although the 
name is now confined to the shire of Wig 
ton and the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, it an- 
ciently had a more extensive application, as it 
comprehended the entire peninsula between the 
Solway and the Clyde, including Annandale in the 
south-east, and most of Ayrshire in the north- 
west, and was governed by its native chieftains, 
styled the lords of Galloway, who acknowledged a 
feudatory dependence on the Scottish crown. In 
the twelfth century, Fergus, one of the most po- 
tent of these, who was the son-in-law of Henry 
I. of England, endeavoured to throw off his alle- 
giance to Malcolm IV., and raised a formidable 
insurrection in Galloway. Enraged at his daring, 
Malcolm marched into his territory, and though 
twice repulsed, he succeeded in a third effort, in 
the year IIGO, in overcoming him. Fergus, after 
suing for peace, resigned his lordship and posses- 
sions to his two sons, Gilbert and Uchtrcd, and 
retired to the abbey of Holyrood, where he died 
in the following year. His two sons attended, as 
feudatories, William the Lion, in 1174, on his un- 
fortunate expedition into England ; but they no 
sooner saw him taken captive than, at the head ol 
their savage followers, they returned to their na- 
tive wilds, attacked and denioli-shed the royal 
castles, and murdered many subjects of William 
who were settled in Galloway. To protect them 
against the vengeance of their own sovereign, they 
besought Henry, the English king, to receive tlicii 
homage. In the meantime, before receiving an 
answer to their revjuest, Uchtred was cruelly mur- 
dered by his brother Gilbert for his share of the 
inheritance. Gilbert renewed the negotiation with 




Henrj' in liis own name, and offered to pay liim a 
yearly tribute of two tlioiisand niarlis of silver, 
five hundred cows, and five hundred swine. To 
mark his detestation of the treacherous murder of 
Uchtred, Henry refused both the homage and the 
tribute. On regaining his liberty, King William 
invaded Galloway with an army, but instead of 
punishing Gilbert as he deserved, he accepted 
from him a pecuniary satisfaction. In the follow- 
ing year (1170) Gilbert accompanied William to 
York, where he was received into the favour 
of Henry, and did homage to him ; the crown 
vassals as well as the kingdom of Scotland be- 
ing then, in terms of the treaty which restored 
William to freedom, placed under feudal subor- 
dination to England. [See life of William the 
Lion, post.^ From this Gilbert, who died in 1185, 
sprang, afterwards, in the thii-d generation, Mar- 
jory countess of Carrick in her own right, the mo- 
ther of Robert the Bruce. Meantime Roland, the 
son of the murdered Uchtred, seized the favoura- 
ble moment of the death of his uncle Gilbert, to 
attack and disperse his faction, and to claim pos- 
session of all Galloway as his own inheritance, in 
which he was favoured by his own sovereign, 
William. Henry 11., however, the English king, 
opposed his claims, and assembling a large army 
at Carlisle, prepared to invade GaUoway. Ro- 
land resolved upon a desperate resistance, but the 
dispute was ultimately adjusted by Roland, after 
swearing fealty to Henry, being confirmed in the 
loi-dship of Galloway, on condition of surrendering 
the territory of Can-ick to his cousin Duncan, the 
eon of Gilbert. He is the Roland of Galloway 
who, in 1187, encountered and killed the pre- 
tender, Donald Bane, at Inverness, p. 69. On the 
restoration of the national independence, Roland 
obtained the office of constable of Scotland. He 
died in December 1200. 

Alan, the eldest son of Roland, and the last 
male-heir of the line of the ancient 'lords of Gal- 
loway,' died in 1233. He succeeded as constable 
of Scotland, and was a personage of considerable 
importance in Scottish history. He had been 
twice married. By his first wife he had a daugh- 
ter Helen, or Elena, mamed to Roger de Quincy, 
earl of Winchester. By his second wife, Margaret, 
the eldest of the three daughters, and eventual 

heiresses of David, earl of Huntingdon, the bro- 
ther of William the Lion, he had two daughters; 
his eldest daughter by his second marriage, Devor- 
guil, becoming the wife of John de Balliol, lord ol 
Bernard castle, transmitted to their son John Bal- 
liol, the competitor, afterwards king, the lineal right 
of succession to the throne. Devorgnil's younger 
sister Christian, was the wife of William des Forts, 
son of the earl of Albemarle. LTnwiiling to have 
their country partitioned among the husbands ol 
Alan's three daughters, the people of Galloway 
offered the lordship to Alexander, whose sense of 
justice prevented him from depriving the legiti- 
mate heirs of their right. They then requested 
that an illegitimate son of Alan, named Tliomas, 
should be appointed their lord. To this applica- 
tion Alexander also refused to accede, on which 
the Galwegians broke out into open rebellion, hav- 
ing at their head the bastard Thomas, aided by 
an Irish chieftain named Gilrodh, who joined him 
with a large force from L-eland. To suppress this 
formidable outbreak, Alexander led an expedition 
against the rebellious Galwegians, who did not 
wait to be attacked by him, but rushed forth from 
their mountains and fastnesses with Celtic fury, 
and proceeded to ravage the adjacent country. 
They even contrived to surround Alexander, when 
lie had got entangled among morasses, and he was 
in imminent danger till Ferchard, earl of Ross, 
came to his assistance, and assaulting the rebels 
in the rear, routed them with great slaughter. 
Galloway was restored to Alan's heiresses, and 
the inhabitants compelled to receive as their supe- 
rior Roger de Qnincey the husband of Elena. 
Thomas and his Irish ally escaped to Ireland, but 
in the following year they returned with a fresh 
force, and attempted to renew the rebellion. Gil- 
rodh, on landing, burnt his vessels, as if resolved 
to conquer or die. The insurgents were, however, 
again defeated, and Gilrodh surrendered himself 
to the earl of March without resistance. He was 
sent bound to Edinburgh castle, but both he and 
Thomas were pardoned. Their Irish followers, 
crowding towards the Clyde, in the hope of being 
able to find a passage to their own country, fell 
into the hands of a band of the citizens of Glas- 
gow, who are said to have beheaded them all ex- 
cept two, whom Balfour calls two of their chief 



comiiiiuidcrs, and these tlicy seut to Edinburgh, 
to be hanged and quartered there. The king's 
enforcing tlie rights of Ahin's daughters, and at 
tlie head of an army breaking down the spirit of 
insurrection, was the introduction to the epoch of 
granting charters for the holding of lands, and of 
landholders giving leases to tenants, as well as of 
the security of property and the cultivation of the 
arts of husbandry in Galloway. 

Notwithstanding the terms of amity in which 
Henry and Alexander lived, there were still several 
subjects of dispute between them, which now and 
then occasioned some disquiet, and aflbrded matter 
for discussion and negotiation ; although their own 
pacific dispositions prevented an open rupture. 
Henry showed at times au inclination to extend 
the incidents of tlie homage of the king of Scot- 
land to an unreasonable limit ; and in 1234 he 
went so far as to solicit the Pope to exhort Al- 
exander to acknowledge the superiority of Eng- 
land over Scotland, au exhortation which Alex- 
ander, when he received it, paid no attention to. 
Alexander, on his part, always insisted either on 
restitution being made to him of the three nor- 
thern counties of England, or on the repayment of 
the fifteen thousand merks paid by his father to 
King John. The vacillating character of Henry 
in. exposed the peace between the two countries 
to the risk of constant inten-uption, but sometimes 
he would conciliate his brother-in-law's favour by 
gifts, concessions, and the warmest professions 
of friendship. An instance of this occurred in 
1230, when Henry invited Alexander to York, 
where he celebrated Christmas, and entertained 
him with great state, and after loading him 
with presents, sent him home. In 1236, after 
an interview between the two monarchs at New- 
castle, where they royally feasted each other, 
Henry bestowed the manor of Driflield on his 
sister, the queen of Scots, for life, and at a sub- 
sequent period he conferred on the same prin- 
cess the manor of Staunton. [Citron. Melr. 203. 
Foedera, i. 370, 379.] At length in September 
1237, the matters in dispute between Henry and 
Alexander were heard at York, before Otho, or 
Endes le Blanc I'Aleran, a cardinal deacon and 
the papal legate to England. The conference last- 
ed for fifteen days, and twenty-four councillors of 

the two kings were present. The iiegociulionH 
terminated by a coinpromise. Henry, in full of iili 
claims, con.sented to grant to Alexander lands in 
Northumberland and Cumberland, of the yearly 
value of two hundred pounds. Alexander agreed 
to accept of these as an equivalent, and did hom- 
age to Henry in general terms. JMalcolni MacdnlV, 
earl of Fife, Walter Com}ii, earl of Mcnteith, and 
others of the principal Scottish barons, bound 
themselves by oath to maintain this agreement on 
their monarch's part. [Fadera, i. p. 374, 400. 
Fordtin, i. 370. JIailes'' Annals of Scotland, vol 
i. p. 153.J 

On this occasion the papal legate took an op- 
portunity of intimating to Alexander his intention 
of soon visiting Scotland, in order, as he pretend- 
ed, to inquire into the ecclesiastical afl'aii-s of hii 
kingdom. Alexander, however, was fully aware 
of the true motive of this visit, namely, the exac 
lion of money, and he had no desire to gratify the 
legate in the matter. The avarice of the court o/ 
Rome had, about this period, risen to such an ex- 
orbitant height as to be the subject of general 
complaint in all the nations of Christendom. The 
enormous amount of power which the Pope and 
his ministers universally possessed was used fur 
purposes of extortion in every kingdom subject to 
their control. The venality of the popedom wa.s 
so great that it guided all its dealings with princes 
and people everywhere abroad, and pervaded its 
tribunals at home. Simony was o])enly practi-sed; 
neither favours, nor even justice could be obtained 
without a bribe, and he who paid the highest price 
was sure to obtain his suit. In 122C Pope Ilono- 
rius, under pretence that the poverty of the see of 
Rome was the source of all the grievances that 
existed, that they might be remedied, demanded 
from every cathedral in the Christian world two 
of the best prebends, and from every convent two 
monks' portions, to be set apart as a perpetual 
and fixed revenue of the papal see. This demand 
was felt to be so unreasonable that it was unani- 
mously rejected, but about three years later he 
claimed and obtained the tenth of all ecclesiastical 
revenues, which he levied in tlfe most oppressive 
manner, rapacious and insolent collectors of the 
tithes being sent into the different parishes, io 
many case.s before the clergy had even drawn 




tlieir own rents. Of all this Alexander was not 
ignorant, and lie had not forgotten the conduct of 
tlie two deputies of the papal legate when, in 1218, 
they visited Scotland and grievously harassed tlie 
Scottish clergy. For a long period previous to 
his reign, Scotland had submitted, altliough re- 
luctantly and impatiently, to the repeated visits 
of a papal legate who, under the pretext of watch- 
ing over the interests, and reforming the abuses of 
the cliurch, assembled councils, and levied large 
sums of money in the country, but now that the 
Scottish church had obtained from the Pope the 
riglit, however ambiguously and loosely worded 
the bull granting it might be, to hold provincial 
councils of herself, the presence of a papal legate 
in Scotland for any such purpose as that pretend- 
ed by Otho was altogether imnecessary. Alex- 
ander, therefore, peremptorily declared that he 
would not allow any such visit. " I have never," 
he said, " seen a legate in my dominions, and as 
long as I live, I will not permit such an innova- 
tion. We require no such visitation now, nor 
have we ever required it in times past." He add- 
ed a hint that should Otho venture to disregard 
his prohibition and enter Scotland, he could not 
answer for his life, owing to the ferocious habits 
of his subjects. The legate prudently abandoned 
all idea of the expedition then, but, as shall pres- 
ently be seen, he carried his intention into effect a 
few years thereafter. \_Matth. Paris, p. 377.] 

Alexander's queen, Joan, had for some time 
been in declining health, and according to the su- 
perstition of the times, she sought relief at the 
shrine of Thomas a Becket at Canterbury, but in 
vain. She died on the 4th of March, 1238, in the 
presence of her two brothers, King Henry and 
Richard duke of Cornwall. 3he had no cliildren. 

About this time it would appeal- that despaii-ing 
of heii'S of his own body, Alexander publicly ac- 
knowledged, in presence and with consent of 
his barons, Robert Bruce, known in Scottish his- 
tory as Bruce the Competitor, the grandfather of 
the hero of Bannockburn, as the nearest heir in 
blood to the crown. The birth of a son by Alex- 
ander's second vnfe, in 12-11, put an end to his 
expectations of the throne at the time ; and on 
the competition for the crown which took place 
after the death of the Maid of Norway, more than 

fifty years afterwards, he urged this as one of hi? 
strongest pleas. [See life of Robert the Bruce, 

In the year 1239 Alexander had married at Rox - 
burgli. Lady Mary de Couci, daughter of Ingelram 
or Enguerrand de Couci, a lord of Picardy, Count 
de Dreux, in France. His family affected a rank 
and state scarcely inferior to that of a sovereign. 
The motto of the new queen's father is said to 
have been 

Je ne siiis Roy, ni Prince aussi. 

Je suis le Seigneur de Couci. 

Tlie provision of Mary de Couci, on her mar- 
riage, was a tliird of the royal revenues, amount- 
ing to upwards of 4,000 merks. [^Matth. Paris, p. 
555.] Soon after this marriage, Alexander, being 
in England, met the papal legate Otho on his w.ay 
to Scotland, and strenuously remonstrated with 
him on his intended visit. Tlirough his earnest 
entreaty, however, but with extreme reluctance, 
and only at the joint request of the nobility of both 
kingdoms, the king at length consented to admit 
him within his dominions, and even permitted 
him to hold a provincial council at Edinburgh, 
but he insisted upon and obtained a written decla 
ration from the legate, given under his seal, that 
this permission to enter the kingdom should not 
be drawn into a precedent. Not choosing, how.r 
ever, to countenance by his presence what he af- 
firmed to be an unnecessary innovation, Alexan- 
der retired into the interior of his kingdom, nor 
would he suffer the legate to extend his pecuniary 
exactions beyond the Forth. [il/a«/(. Paris, p. 
422.] Under such circumstances the papal emis- 
sary tarried no longer than to collect those spoils 
which both clergy and laitj', eager to get rid of 
liim, poured into his rapacious hands. Secretly, 
and without leave asked, he then departed from 
Scotland. He had previously in this same year 
(1240), plundered the prelates and convents of 
England of large sums of mone}', partly by in- 
trigues, and partly by menaces, and on his depar 
ture is said to have carried more money out of the 
kingdom than he left in it. 

In 1241, the queen gave birth to a son at Rox- 
burgh, whom the king called Alexander after him- 
self He succeeded him on tlie throne under tho 
name of Alexander III. 




Although the ties of reliitionship which had 
bound together Ileniy and Alexander, were now 
severed, yet so good a mutual understanding still 
subsisted between the two kings, that in 124L', 
when Henry prepared to visit his dominions on 
the continent, alter he had declared war against 
Louis IX. of France, he committed to Alexander 
the care of the northern froutiors of his kingdom. 
lie probably distrusted his own baron.s, who, dis- 
contented with his patronage of foreigners, were 
then preparing that confederacy against him \\ liich 
under Simon de Montfort, a few years later, virtu- 
ally wrested all his regal authority from him. The 
king of Scotland, in the absence of the English 
sovereign, was the most likely person to have 
seized the opportunity of disturbing the borders ; 
but the trust thus so honourably confided to him 
was as faithfully and honourably' discharged. 
Alexander II. was not a prince to violate his faith, 
and he amply proved himself worth}' of the confi- 
dence which the English monarch had reposed in 
him. IC/ir. Melr. 203, 20i. Matth. Paris, 395.] 

In that age the great pastime of the nobles and 
knights was the tournament. At one of these 
feats of arms held in 1242, at Haddington, an inci- 
dent occurred which led to important consequences. 
Between the noble house of Athole and the Bissels, 
•an English family' who held large possessions iu the 
north of Scotland, a feud had long existed. At the 
tournament referred to, Walter de Bisset was foiled 
and overthrown by Patrick, earl of Athole, a young 
nobleman of great promise. It has been already- 
stated (life of Alexander I. p. 54, ante), that the 
earldom of Athole was, towards the end of the 
reign of David I. obtained by Malcolm, the son of 
Duncan, the eldest son of Malcolm Canmore. 
Malcolm was succeeded as earl by his son of the 
same name. He left a son, Henry, who also en- 
joyed the earldom. The latter died in the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth centurj'. By a son who 
predeceased him he had two granddaughters, Isa- 
bel and Fernelith. Isabel, the elder, married 
Thomas of Galloway, a younger son of Roland, 
and brother of Alan, lord of Galloway. Fernelith, 
the yoimger, married David de Hastings, an Anglo- 
Norman knight. This Patrick, earl of Athole, was 
the only child of the former, and the representa- 
tive by the female line of the eldest branch of the 

family of Duncan. In a short time after, the cnri 
of Athole was murdered at Haddington, and the 

house in which he bulged set on fu-c by the assassins. 
Suspicion at once pointed to the defeated I5is.sct 
as the instigator, if not the actual pcr|ictrator of 
the crime. The nobility, headi'd by the carl u( 
March, immediately raised an armed force, and, 
excited to vengeance by David de Hastings, who 
had marrieil Fernelith, the aunt and heiress of 
Patrick, and now earl of Athole, they demanded 
the life of both AValler and his mule \\'illiaui 
Bisset, the chief of the family. The latter offered 
to maintain his innocence by single combat; and 
urged that, at the time of the murder, he was at 
Forfar, seventy miles distant. By the exertions 
of the king he was saved from death, but he wa? 
banished and his estates were forfeited. All hit 
kindred were involved in his ruin. As his enemies 
secretly sought his life, the king took him under 
his protection and concealed him from their fury 
for three months. Escajiing after that period 
first to Ireland and afterwards to England, Bisset 
found his way to the court of King Henry, to 
whom, as an English .subject, he seems to have 
appealed against the judgment that had stripped 
him of all his possessions and exiled him from 
Scotland, on the plea " that Alexander, being 
the vassal of Henry, had no right to inflict such 
punishments on his nobles without the per- 
mission of his liege lord. " So deep was his 
desire of vengeance for the injuries which he 
had sustained, that, forgetful of all feelings of 
gratitude to Alexander, to whose generous in- 
terposition on his behalf, lie owed his life, he 
endeavoured, by the most insidious representa- 
tions, to incite Henry to take up arms against 
him. He declared that the king of Scots was in 
league with France, and that he gave shelter and 
protection to traitors from England who had taken 
refuge iu his dominions. 

Henry, believing on good grounds that a strong 
anti-English feeling had begun to prevail in Scot- 
land, and suspicious of the friendly correspondence 
which Alexander had, since his marriage to 
Mary de Couci, cultivated with France, gave 
but too ready an ear to these artful statenienis 
and insinuations. The personal intimacy of 
the two kings had now for some lime ceased. 




and as national jealousies began to revive, tlic 
weak -minded English monarch was the more 
easily influenced against his former friend am\ 
brother-in-law. He complained to Alexander that 
lie had violated the duty which he was bound to 
yield to him as his lord paramount, and Alexander 
is said to have replied that he owed no homage 
to England for any part of his dominions, and 
would perform none. Henry on this being re- 
ported to him, determined on an immediate inva- 
sion of Scotland. As one of his pretexts for 
preparing for hostilities, he alleged that "Walter 
Comyn, earl of Menteth, had given umbrage to 
England, by erecting two castles, the one in Gal- 
loway, the other in Lothian." {Hailes, vol. i. p. 
169.] The Comyns were remarkable at this pe- 
riod for their cliampionship of Scottish indepen- 
dence, and as the Walter Comyn mentioned was 
one of the principal noblemen in Scotland, Henry 
naturally enough looked upon him as representing 
the feeling against England prevalent amongst 
the Scottish nobility at the time. There was an- 
other pretext, " that Alexander had leagued him- 
self with France, and had afforded an asylum to 
GeofiVey de Marais, and other English offenders." 
In 1242, as has been already stated, Henry de- 
clared war against Louis IX. of France, and made 
an expedition into Guienne, his stepfather, the 
count de la Marche, having promised to join him 
with all his forces. He was unsuccessful, how- 
ever, in all his attempts against the French king. 
He was worsted at Taillebourg, was deserted by 
his allies, lost what remained to him of Poitou, 
and was obliged to return with loss of honour to 
England. This disgrace rankled in his breast, 
and Bisset's charge that Alexander was in league 
with France, touching him on the point where he 
was most sensitive, incensed him against Alexan- 
der. He secretly applied to the earl of Flanders 
for succours, and instigated no fewer than twen- 
ty-two Irish chiefs to make a descent on the 
Scottish coast. Having airanged all his plans, 
he proclaimed war against Alexander in 1244, and 
assembled a numerous and well-appointed army at 
Newcastle, prepared to cross the borders into Scot- 
land. Some troops which had been sent to the 
assistance of Alexander by his brother-in-law, 
John de Couci, were intercepted by Henry. The 

English monarch at this period was not on good 
terms with his nobles, most of whom were per- 
sonally intimate with Alexander, and remembered 
their old association in arms with huu against the 
tyrant, King John. From some one or other of 
them he doubtless obtained information of Henry's 
intentions, in time to send notice to his brother- 
in-law in Kcardy for what aid he could furnish him 
with. He then determined upon a vigorous re- 
sistance, and was warmly seconded by his nobihty. 
Measures were taken to strengthen the frontier 
fortresses of the kingdom ; and at the head of a 
gallant army Alexander marched southward, re- 
solved to he beforehand with Henry, and encounter 
bis foes on English ground. From the description 
which the contemporary Enghsh historian, Mat- 
thew Paris, has given of the force under Alexander 
on tliis occasion, it appears to have been a formid- 
able one. " His army," he says, " was numerous 
and brave ; he had a thousand horsemen tolerably 
mounted, though not indeed on Spanish or 
Itahan horses. His infantry approached to a 
hundred thousand, all unanimous, all animatetl 
by the exhortations of their clergy, and by con- 
fession, courageously to fight and resolutely to cUe 
in the just defence of their native land." The 
horsemen were clothed in armour of iron network. 
Henry had a larger body of cavalry than the Scot- 
tish king, and his army included a force of five 
thousand men at arms, splendidly accoutred 
[Matth. Paris, p. 645. Chr. Melr. p. 156.] The 
rival armies came in sight of each other at a place 
called Ponteland in Northumberland. No battle 
ensued, however. The English nobles held in high 
respect the character of the Scottish king, who, 
according to Matthew Paris, was justly beloved by 
all the English nation, no less than by his own 
subjects, and they did not fully approve of the 
rash enterprise of their own sovereign. While the 
Scottish army, undismayed by the superior array 
of their opponents, were prepared and eager for 
battle, the leaders of the English, on the other 
hand, were only anxious to avert hostilities. 
Henry soon saw that it would be dangerous to 
push matters to extremities. Through the media- 
tion of Richard earl of Cornwall, the brother of the 
king of England, and the archbishop of York, a 
treaty of peace was concluded at Newcastle on tt:» 




13th of Au^ist, the terms of which were honour- 
ahle to both sovereigns, mid that witliout a sword 
being drawn, a bow bent, or a hmce put in rest. 
Henry did not insist on an express act of liomage 
from Alexander for the kinp;doin of Scotland, 
wh le Alexander, on his side, agreed always to 
'lenr good faitli and afl'ection to Henry as his liege 
lord, and not to enter into any alliance with the 
enemies of England, unless the English did him 
some wrong. \Fccdera, torn. i. p. 429.] Tlie 
terms of the treaty have by Scottish writers been 
represented as favourable to Scotland, as in their 
opinion Henry by it undoubtedlj' conceded the 
point in dispute between tliora. Dr. Lingard, 
however, an acute and impartial investigator, de- 
scribes it as " an arrangement by which, though 
Alexander eluded the express recognition of feu- 
dal dependence, he seems to have conceded to 
Henry the substance of his dem.i«d." This much 
is certain, that although the matter was not pressed 
to extremities, the claim of Henry was both re- 
vived and in part exercised early in the following 
reign. \_Life of Alexander III.^ It was also one 
of the stipulations of the treaty, that a proposal 
made in 12-12, the year after a son was bora to 
Alexander, of a marriage between Margaret the 
daughter of the king of England and the yonng 
^)rince of Scotland, should be carried into effect, 
as it subsequently was in 1251, when Alexander 
HI. was only ten )ears old. Alan Durward, at 
that time considered the most accomplished knight 
and the best military leader in Scotland, Henry 
ue Baliol, and David de Lindesay, with other 
knights and prelates, swore on the soul of their 
lord the king, that the treaty should be kejjt in- 
violate by him and his heirs. 

In 1247 Alexander was again called to suppress 
an insurrection which had broken out in Galloway. 
Exasperated by the oppressions of their liege lord 
Roger de Quincy, earl of Winchester, the husband 
of Elena the eldest daughter of the deceased Alan, 
lord of Galloway, the people of that district 
suddenly rose against him, and besieged him in 
his own castle. In a sally which he made lie was 
successful in cutting a passage through his rebel- 
lious vassals, and instantly sought redress from the 
king. Alexander chastised and subdued the Insur- 
gents, and reinstated de Quincy in his superiority. 

The last expedition in which Alexander wua 
engaged was undertaken in order to compel vari- 
ous of the chiefs in the wcslorn islands and in tlie 
north of Scotland who were at that lime the vu.s- 
sals of Norway, to renounce their allegiance to that 
power, and to reduce the entire country under his 
own domioiou. On selling out he declared " Unit 
he would not desist till ho had set his standard 
upon the cliffs of Thurso, and subdued all tliat tlic 
king of Norway possessed to the westward of tlie 
German Ocean." [Matth. Paris, p. 550.] Tlic 
principjil of these chiefs was Ewen, great-grand- 
son of the first Somerlcd, lord of the Isles, and 
grandson of his eldest son Dugall, who held cer- 
tain of the western islands under the king of Nor- 
w.iy. Ewen being the vassal of both sovereigns 
for different parts of his possessions, was placed in 
an awkward position between them, for if he con- 
sented to the demand of Alexander, he would only 
expose himself to the hostility of the Norwegian 
king, while if he refused it, he was sure to incur 
the vengeance of the king of Scots. Ewen seems 
to liave considered it the better policy to remain 
true to the king of Norway. Alexander collected 
a great fleet and sailed for the western Islands, 
determined upon making every elibrt to obtain 
possession of them. It appears that so great was 
the attention which was paid to the building of 
ships in those days, that not only was Alexander 
possessed of a considerable naval force, but even 
the Hebridean chiefs, whose jirincipal business 
liiracy, then esteemed an honourable profession, 
had formidable fleets. It is stated also that in 1231 
Alan, lord of Galloway, who has been already 
mentioned, was able to fit out a fleet of a hundred 
and fifty ships, from his own territories, with 
which he drove Olave the Black, king of JIan, 
from his dominions. This may help to furnish 
some idea of the extent of the naval strength of 
.Vlexander the Second, when he set forth to the 
western Isles to bring them under his sway. 

Deeming it of the greatest consequence to gain 
over Ewen to his hiterest, he besought him ic 
give up Kerneburgh, and other three castles, 
together with the lands which he held of Haco 
king of Norway, promising liim that if he would 
come under his allegiance, he would reward him 
witn many greater estates in Scotland, and tiikc 





liiin iuto his confldeuce and favour. All Eweii's 
relations and friends advised him to yield to the 
king of Scotland and relinquish his fealty to the 
Norwegian monarch, but the Island chief remained 
steadfast to his allegiance, and declared that he 
would not break his oath to King Haco. {^Skene's 
History of the Highlanders, vol. ii. p. 61.] Al- 
though, however, he is said to have refused all 
otters of compromise, he appears to have agreed 
to pay to Alexander an annual tribute of three 
hundred and twenty marks, [Ayloff^s Calendars 
of Ancient Charters, p. 336], doubtless for such 
portion of his possessions as was under the actual 
government of the king of Scots. All our histo- 
rians style this Ewen, Angus of Argyle, but this 
is evidently erroneous. 

Alexander was not destined to see the end of 
his expedition. The subjection of the western 
Isles to the Scottish crown was reserved for his son 
and successor, Alexander III. M'hen preparing 
to invade these islands, and so far on his progress 
as the Sound of Mull, this brave and prudent 
monarch was attacked with a fever, of which he 
died July 8, 1249, at Kerrara, a small island lying 
off the bay of Oban ; being at the time of his death 
in the 51st year of his age, and 31st of his reign. 
A legend full of the superstitious feeling of the 
times, yet not without a certain degree of poetical 
interest, states that as Alexander lay in his bed 
there appeared to him three men; one of them 
dressed in royal garments, with a red face, squint- 
ing eyes, and a temble aspect ; the second was 
very young and beautiful with a costly dress, and 
the third was of larger stature than either, and of 
a still tiercer countenance than the first. The last 
personage demanded of him whether he meant to 
subdue the islands, and on his answering in the 
affirmative he advised him to return home ; a 
warning to which he paid no attention. The 
three persons, says the tale, were supposed to be 
St. Olave, St. ilagnus, and St. Columba. The 
latter certainly showed a most forgiving disposition 
in taking part with the two Norwegian saints, as 
the piratical invaders from Norway had alwaj-s 
been bitter enemies of his monastery of lona. 

All historians agree in giving Alexander the 
Second the character of a wise, prudent, and mag- 
nanimous prince. Brave, and not unsuccessful in 

war, he was yet disposed to cultivate the bless- 
ings of peace. His rule was firm and strict, and 
under his sway Scotland advanced in prosperity 
and civilization ; so that at his death he left it a 
more powerful nation than it had ever been in any 
previous period of its history. Though prompt 
and severe in the administration of justice, he was 
impartial and just, and his personal qualities were 
of that generous and popular nature which ren- 
dered Lim beloved equally by his nobility and 
people. Twenty-five statutes of Alexander U. 
were added to the code of Scottish laws ; several 
of which, says Lord Hailes, requii'e a commentary. 
His body was buried before the altar of the abbey 
of Melrose. 

The burghs of Dumbarton and Dingwall are the 
only two which received charters from this mon- 
arch. The former town had been resigned by 
Maldwiu, earl of Lennox, into his hands, and in 
1222 he erected it iuto a free royal burgh, with 
extensive privileges. The latter was made a royal 
burgh by Alexander in 1227. To the church he 
was a generous benefactor, as he founded no fewer 
than eight monasteries for the mendicant friars of 
the order of St. Dominic, called the Black Friars, 
namely, at Aberdeen, Ayr, Berwick, Edinbui'gh, 
Elgin, Inverness, Stirling, and Perth. Boece, 
with his usual ingenuity, supposes that Alexander 
saw Dominic in France about the year 1217 ; but 
that was the year when he was deserted by the 
French prince Louis, and when Alexander was 
anxious to be reconciled to the Pope and to make 
peace with England. There is no evidence that 
Alexander ever was in France. Lord Hailes thus ' 
remarks on this conjecture of the inventive Boece: 
"The sight of a living saint may have made an 
impression on his young mind : but perhaps he 
considered the mendicant friars as the cheapest 
ecclesiastics. His revenues could not supply the 
costly institution of Cistercians and canons regu- 
lar in which his great-grandfather, David I., took 
delight." Some idea may be formed of the value 
of land in Scotland in Alexander the Second's 
reign, from the circumstance that the monks of 
Melrose purchased from Richard Barnard, a mea- 
dow at Farningdun, consisting of eight acres, at 
thirty-five marks. 

The following is the seal of Alexander II,, 




taken from Ancie>so7i^s Diplomata et Numismata, 
phite 31. Alexander is here represented clothed 
in a complete coat of masclcd mail, protected by 

plates at tlie elbows. The surcont also first worn 
in England by King John, is thrown over his ar- 
mour, anu[lnr proof, as Tytler rcmarkB of Ilia 

progress of military fashions from England into 
Scotland at that period. His shield is hollowed, 
so as to fit the body, and completely defend it. 
The shield then in use in Scotland was the liite- 
sliaped shield of tlie Normans, and previous to 
Alexander's time, it was plain and unornanieuted. 
The emblazonment of the lion rampant, which 
had been chosen as his armorial bearing by his 
father William, surnamed the Lion, and which 
ever after formed the arms of Scotland, appeared 
on Alexander's shield for the first time. In this 
he followed the example of Richard Coeur de Lion, 
who was the first to introduce into England he- 
raldic emblazonments on the s'.iield. In the above 
seal, Alexander's horse has no defensive armour, 
bnt is ornamented witli a fringed and tasselled 
border across the chest, and an embroidered sad- 
dlecloth, on which the lion rampant again appears. 
The unicorns as supporters of the royal sldeld 
were added by the Stewarts to the arms of Scot- 

ALEXANDER III., king of Scotland, the only 
son of the preceding and of his queen ]\Iary de 
Couci, was born at Roxburgh castle, on the 4th 
of September 1241. He succeeded to the throne 
on the death of his father, 8th July 1249, being then 

Se.ll ot Alexander III. 

in the ninlli year of his age, and wiis crowned at 
Scone on the 13th of the same month. This pre- 
cipitancy was owing to the apprehension enter- 
tained by that portion of the Scottish nobles who 
were opposed to the English claim of supremacy 
over Scotland, that the English king Henry HI., 
who esteemed himself the feudal superior of the 
Scottish sovereigns, would intorfere in the ar- 
rangements preliminary to the young monarch's 
inauguration. In this proceeding they not only 
flattered the popular sentiment bnt were actuated 
by a regard to the interest of their order, as the 
lirivilcges of the Scottish barons and clergy, and 
es]iecially that of independent heritable jurisdic- 
tion within their lands, was not only not enjoyed in 
England, bnt proved a serious check ujion the royal 
authority and power, and any assimilation of the 
two countries in this respect was calculated to 
jilace their continued enjoyment of them in dan- 
ger. Of this party Walter Comyn, earl of 
Menteith, was the head. Indeed, all the power 
of the kingdom was, at this time, chiefly in the 
hands of the Comyns, a family descended from 
Robert Comyn, a Norman knight from Northum- 
berland, who came into Scotland in the time of 
David tlie Kirst. During the first vearsof Alex- 




ander's reign, (wlien, to use the words of Buclian- 
an, "this family governed ratlier than obe3-ed 
him,") tlieir influence in the administration of tlie 
country was cliaracterized by a spirit of nation- 
ality and opposition to English interference in 
every shape that was or might be exhibited. 

On the day of the coronation, the bishops of 
St. Andrews and Dunkeld, with the abbot of Scone, 
attended to officiate, when some of the counsel- 
lors, and among the rest, Alan Durward, the high 
justiciary, or lord chief justice, of Scotland, called 
also Ostiarius, and in the French VHuissier, from 
his ofiice as keeper of the palace gate or of the 
door of the king's chamber, objected to the young 
king being crowned so soon after his accession, on 
the grounds that " the day appointed for the cer- 
emony was unlucky, and that the king, previous 
to his coronation, ought to receive the order of 
knighthood." Durward doubtless expected that, 
from his being at the head of the Scottish chival- 
ry, as well as from having married a natural sister 
of the young king, the honour of knighting Alex- 
ander would devolve upon himself; but in this he 
was disappointed, as the earl of Menteith pro- 
posed that the bishop of St. Andrews should both 
knight the king and place the crown on his head, 
citing the instance of William Rnfus as having been 
knighted by Lanfranc ai-chbishop of Canterbury. 
[Fordiin, b. x. c. i.] He also urged the danger of 
delay, as the English king, in a letter to the Pope, 
had solicited a mandate from his holiness to the 
young monarch of Scotland, that "being Henry's 
liegeman, he should not be anointed or crowned 
without his permission." He, therefore, strongly 
advised that the ceremony shoidd be over before 
the Pope's answer could arrive. Heniy, it would 
appear, had also requested a grant of the tenth of 
the ecclesiastical revenues of Scotland. Both re- 
quests were, however, rejected by the Pope, In- 
nocent IV., the first as derogatory to tlie honour 
of a sovereign prince, and the second as without 
example. \_Fadera, vol. i. p. 163.] It is ex- 
tremely Ukely that, chagrined and disappointed at 
not getting the fuU extent of his claim as feudal 
superior recognised by the treaty of Newcastle in 
1244, Henry had made this application to Rome 
before the death of Alexander the Second, to bo 
prepared to assert it effectually when his successor 

came to the throne ; as there could be no time tc 
have done so in the short period, only five days, 
that elapsed between the accession and the coro- 
nation of Alexander the Third. 

The advice of the earl of Menteith was followed. 
^Vithout waiting for the result of Henry's appli- 
cation to the Pope, the Scottish nobles and pre- 
lates seated the young Alexander in the regal 
chair or sacred stone at Scone, which stood before 
the cross at the eastern end of the church, and 
invested him with the crown and sceptre and the 
other insignia of royalty. The barons, in token 
of theii' homage, cast their mantles at the feet of 
their young sovereign, who previous to the cere- 
mony had been by David Bernham, bishop of St. 
Andrews, begirt with the belt of knighthood 
The coronation oath was read in Latin, and then 
explained in French, that being then the language 
of the court, clergy, nobility, and barons ol 
Scotland as well as of England, and the various 
countries more immediately connected with France. 
During the ceremonial an impressive incident 
occurred. While the king sat upon the inaugu- 
ral stone, the ciWwn on his head and the sceptre 
in his hand, a white-haired Highland sennachy o; 
bard, of great age, and clothed in a scarlet mantle, 
advanced from the crowd, and bending before the 
king, repeated in the Gaelic tongue, the genealogy 
of the youthful monarch, deducing his descent 
from the fabulous Gathelus, who, according to le- 
gendary lore, married Scota, the daughter of Plia- 
raoli, and was the contemporary of Moses ! Al- 
exander, though he did not comprehend a word 
of this singular recitation, is said to have liberally 
rewarded the venerable genealogist, who thus un- 
expectedly introduced this Celtic usage at the 
coronation of a Scoto-Saxon monarch. 

The first act of the new reign, after the corona- 
tion of Alexander, was of a religious character, yet 
held at that period as of no less importance than 
the coronation itself. The virtues of the pious 
queen Margaret, the wife of IMalcolm Canmore, 
having become the subject of universal belief as 
well as of monastic biography, according to the 
superstition of that age her remains were believed 
to have the faculty of working miracles, and an 
application was made to the Pope in 1246, by 
Alexander II., to admit her into the calendar of 




the saints. As the general reader is well aware, 
the evidence required to establish such a claim re- 
quired to be full and distinct; and in the present 
instance, after a coniniission, consisting of tlie 
bishops of St. Andrews, Dinikold, and Dunblane 
liad made a favourable report, it was found invalid, 
because it had not incorporated the evidence of 
the witnesses, and a new commission was issued. 
If we can only get over the dilliculty as to whether 
tlie class of miracles on which such claims are 
founded are to be admitted as proveable by any 
liunuiu testimony whatever, the most sceptical 
must admit that the evidence generally, such as it 
might be, was both abundant and strict. Li con- 
sequence of these delays, it was not till 1249 that 
Queen Margaret became, as a canonized saint, the 
object of ecclesiastical dedication, and the alAcy 
of Dunfermline, called after her name, had her 
bones " transfeiTed " from the place were they 
ivere originally deposited " in the rude altar of the 
kirk of Dunfennline" to the choir of the abbey 
church. The young king Alexander III. with his 
mother, and a large assembly of nobles and clergy, 
were present at the ceremony. Robert de Kelde- 
licht, the abbot, raised to the dignity of the mitre 
in 12-14 in a bull, the terms of which are preserved 
in the registry, granted at the special request of 
Alexander IL, saw the reward of his ambition and 
donations to the legate. The remains were placed 
in a silver sarcophagus, which the chroniclers state 
was adorned with precious stones. So interest- 
ing a scene could not take place witliout a miracle. 
The body of the wife refused to be translated until 
tliat of her husband had been first lifted to the 
intended spot, then 

" Syne in fayre manere 
Her corse thai tuk up and bare ben. 
And thame enterydd togyddyr, then 
Swa trowyed thai all that gadryd thare 
Qiihat honoure til hyr lord scho bare." 

Wi/nton, b. 7, c. 10. 

Tlie next proceeding of the new government was 
to change the stamp of the Scottish coin, the cross, 
which previously was confined to the inner circle 
being now extended to the circumference. This 
took place in 1250. The coins of this reign were 
pennies and half-pennies of silver, but though these 
only were issued, other denominations of money 

were named in accounting, as the shilling, the 
mcrk, and the juiund, while foreign coins, which 
were from time to time imported by the merchants, 
were allowed to be current in the kingdom. To 
give some idea of the value of the Scottish silver 
penny, it may be stated that ten of them were 
equal to half a crown of our present money. Five 
pence was the yearly rent paid to the king by the 
burgesses of every royal burgh, for each rood of 
land possessed under burgli jirivileges. The vas- 
sal of a thane, or of any other subject, was fined 
in fifteen ewes, or six shillings, for disobeying the 
king's summons to join the royal army. Money 
was common only in tlie burglis, at markets and 
fairs, and througli the more po]nilous and culti- 
vated parts of the kingdom. In secluded districts, 
cattle were more frequently refeiTcd to, as a com- 
mon measure of value. [ylnAv.ton's Diplomata 
Scotia:, with liudiliman's Introduction.'] 

In 1251 some measm-es appear to liave been 
employed by those at the head of affairs in Scot- 
land for circumscribing, or at least for defining the 
limits of the power of the clergy, as the Pope 
directed a bull to tlie bishops of Lincoln, Worces- 
ter, and Litchfield in England, requiring tliem to 
examine into the abuses said to prevail in Scot- 
land, and on these delegates jie conferred amjile 
powers of excommunication. [Cliartulary of Mo- 
ray, i. 30.] Lord Ilailes, who has printed this 
bull in full in the ap]iendix to the first volume of 
his Annals of Scotland, tliinks it probable that it 
was never transmitted to the English bishops, no 
historian having made any mention of it. 

The state of the kingdom at this time was unfa- 
vourable to the continuance of that peace and 
lirosperit}' in which the firm and prudent adminis- 
tration of jVlexander the Second had left it at his 
death. The king was a minor, and exposed to 
the continual demands of the sovereign of England 
for a recognition of his claim of feudal superiority, 
while the nobles, instead of joining together and 
acting in unison for the common welfare, were en- 
gaged against each other in a factious struggle for 
power. They were divided into two great parties. 
Tlie one, composed of the potent family of the 
Comyns and their adherents, among whom was 
John de Baliol, lord of Galloway, were masters o( 
the goveramcnt. Tlie chiefs of the other p.irtv 




were Patrick Cospatrick, earl of March and Dun- 
bar, Malise, earl of Stratherne, Niel or Nigel, earl 
of Carrick, Alexander, the steward of Scotland, 
Robert Bruce, lord of Annandale, and Alan Dur- 
wai-d, the high justiciary. The latter party acted 
all along in alliance with Henry III. of England, 
who, by the marriage of his daughter to Alexan- 
der, soon obtained a fair pretext for interfering in 
the aft'airs of Scotland. 

As stated in the life of Alexander the Second, 
(ante, p. 77,) the young prince his son had been 
betrothed when only a year old to Henry's eldest 
daughter, Margaret, who was about the same age, 
and their nuptials, although neither of them had 
reached their eleventh year, were solemnized at 
York, 26th December 1251, amidst circumstances 
of extraordinary splendour. Besides the bride's 
father and mother. King Henry and his queen, 
the mother of the young bridegroom, Mary de 
Couci, the queen-dowager of Scotland, with a 
train worthy of her high station, was present at 
the nuptials, [Ri/mer, vol. i. edition 1816, p. 278,] 
having come for the purpose from France, whither 
she appears to have retired soon after the death 
of Alexander the Second. There were also pres- 
ent the nobility and the dignified clergy of both 
countries, and in their suite a numerous assem- 
blage of vassals. According to Jlatthew Paris, a 
thousand knights, in robes of silk, waited upon 
the pi'incess at her bridal, and the primate of 
York contributed six hundi-ed oxen, as part of the 
marriage feast, which, says the matter-of-fact 
chronicler, " were all spent upon the first course." 
With the hand of his daughter Henry gave the 
promise of a dowry of 5,000 merks, \_F(edera i. 
467,] which, however, was not paid till several 
yeai's afterwards. 

In the midst of the marriage festivities, Alex- 
ander, according to custom, did homage to Henry 
for the lands which he held in England, but on 
his father-in-law requiring him to render fealty 
for his kingdom of Scotland, " according to the 
usage recorded in many chronicles," Alexander, by 
the advice of his council, returned this prudent 
answer: "I have been invited to York to marry 
the princess of England, not to treat of affairs of 
state, and I cannot take a step of so much impor- 
tance without the knowledge and approbation of 

my parliament." [Matth. Paris, p. 829.] This 
famous reply, there cannot be a question, was 
dictated by the Comyns, whose policy at that pe- 
riod was strictly national, and against the claims 
of England. The word parliament as here used 
must be taken with the limitation of meaning 
pointed out in the life of Alexander the Second 
(a7tte, p. 66). It signifies no more than the states 
of the kingdom, that is a meeting of the regents 
and counsellors of the king, with the nobles, 
crown vassals, and superior clergy. Under the 
feudal system all vassals of the crown, holding 
their possessions and privileges by the tenure of 
fixed and certain services, were entitled to receive 
the royal summons to sit in parliament, as it 
would now be called, whenever the necessities of 
the kingdom compelled the king to demand their 
advice and assistance for his direction and support 
in providing for the common welfare of the realm 
While the young king remained at York, Alan 
Durward, the high justiciary of Scotland, who 
had accompanied him, and who by virtue of his 
office was one of his chief counsellors, was accused 
by Henry himself \_Hailes' Annals, vol. i. p. 164] 
of a design against the Scottish crown, " for that 
he and his associates had sent messengers, accom- 
panied with presents, to the Pope, soliciting the 
legitimation of his daughters by the king's sister . 
whereby, in the event of the king's death, they 
might succeed as lawful heirs of the kingdom of 
Scotland." Balfour in his Annals, [vol. i. p. 59,] 
says that " as conscious to this plot were accused 
likewise Walter Comyn, earl of Menteith, WU- 
liam Comyn, earl of Mar, and Robert, abbot of 
Dunfermline, chancellor of Scotland, who was 
accused that he had passed a legitimation under 
the great seal to the king's base sister, the wife of 
Alan, earl of Athole, great justiciary of Scotland." 
The story is taken from the Chronicle of Melrose 
Whether there was any foundation for the accu- 
sation or not, it is certain that the chancellor 
hastily left the English comt, where he had been 
with the young king, and retnrning to Scotland, 
resigned the seals, quitted his abbey, and assumed 
tlie habit of a monk at Newbottle, in Mid Lothian, ; 
\_Chr. Melr. 219,] and that Henry, on the return | 
of Alexander and his queen into Scotland, sent 
with them Geofii-ey de Langley, keeper of the i 




royal forests, to act in concert with tlie Scottisli 
nobles, as guardian of the young king, but he 
proved so insolent and rapacious that he was soon 
dismissed. IMatth. Paris, 571.'] Tytler says, but 
without giving any authority, that the accusers of 
Diu'ward were the earls of Mcnteith and Mar, 
and that Henry placed these noblemen at the head 
of the new appointment of guardians to the young 
king, w'hich he made at this time. [Hist, of Scot- 
land, vol. i. p. 9.] It is not inipi'obable that Hen- 
ry's object in bringing this accusation against the 
popular and potent Alan Durvvard was as much to 
remove so dangerous a rival from about the person 
of the queen, as to obtain the services of so ac- 
complished a soldier and so expert a leader, in his 
wars in Guieune, which he was conscious he had 
no means of securing otherwise than by driving 
him into a sort of banishment from his country, 
under a charge of meditated treason, not easily 
repelled. Two years after these transactions, the 
Pope, having induced Henry to embark in a pro- 
ject for the conquest of Naples, or as it was called, 
Sicily on this side the Fare, levied a tenth on all 
ecclesiastical benefices in England for three years, 
and in 1254 granted to Henry a twentieth of the 
ecclesiastical revenues of Scotland for the same 
term, which grant was renewed in 1255 for one 
year more, to be emploj-ed by the English king, 
as asserted by the chroniclers of the period, in the 
expenses of an expedition to the Holy Land. 
IChr. Melr. i. 30. Fosdem, vol. i. 467.] We ra- 
ther think, however, that while this was the pre- 
text, the money thus received from Scotland for 
four years was by Henry intended to be applied, 
and was in fact expended, in a fruitless endeavour 
to secure the crown of Sicily for his second son 
Edmoud, which had been promised him by the 
Pope. [Fcedera, vol. i. p. 502, 512, 530.] 

At this time the Comyn party api)ear to have 
been in fuU possession of the government. Robert 
de Ros and John de Baliol, two of their friends, 
had the name of regents. In 1254 Simon de 
Montfort, the gi-eat earl of Leicester, the same 
powerful nobleman who, four years afterwards, 
attempted to wrest the sceptre from Henry's hand, 
was sent into Scotland, charged with a secret mis- 
sion from Henry [Fcedera, vol. i. p. 523]; the 
precise nature or object of which can only be con- 

jectured from subseipient events. In the following 
year complaints were sent from the young queen 
to the English court, that she was coufined in thu 
solitary castle of Edinburgh, "a place without ver- 
dure, and owing to its vicinity to the sea unwhole- 
some," that she was not permitted to make excur- 
sions through the kingdom or to choose her female 
attendants, and that, altliough both she and Alex- 
ander had completed their fourteenth year, she 
was still secluded from the society of her husband. 
Henry had all along been in communication with 
the discontented nobles who were opposed to the 
Comyn party having possession of the govcniment, 
and there can be no doubt that while he professed 
to interfere only for the good of his daughter, he 
fanned their mutual jfcalousies and animosities, and 
gave his countenance and sujijiort to their pro- 
ceedings. He declared that he would protect 
them against the encmiiis of the king and the 
gamsayers of Queen Margaret, and promised to 
■nake no atten7pt to seize the person or impair the 
dignity of the king, and that he would never con- 
sent to the dissolution of his marriage with the 
queen. [Fcedera, vol. i. p. 559.] The particular 
causes of such a declaration are said by our histori- 
ans to be uid<iiowu [I lades' Annals, v. i. p. 165]. 
and to be involved in much obscurity [Tytler' s His- 
tory of Scotland, vol. i. p. 11]; but there can be 
no doubt that when Heniy engaged to support 
the interests of the party favourable to his claim 
as feudal su))erior over Scotland, and was prepar- 
ing to interfere actively in the overthrow of those 
ministers who were opposed to it, he had found it 
necessarj' to make some declaration of the kind tc 
satisfy them that his interference in Scottish affairs 
nas meant to go no farther than a mere change in 
the party administering the goveniment. 

Alan Durward, who was serving with the Eng- 
lish army in Guienne, had gained, by his military 
talents and address, the favour of the fickle mon- 
arch of England, and by his advice Henry seni 
Richard de Clare earl of Gloucester, and John 
Maunsell, his chief secretary, to Scotland, ostensi- 
bly to relieve the young qneen from the real or 
pretended durance of which she complained, but 
in reality to assist the discontented nobles in theii 
efforts to overturn the Comyns, and place the 
government in their own hands. While the re- 




gents and tliea- protectors the earls of Menteith 
and Mar wore engaged in preparations for holding 
a meeting of the estates at Stirling, Gloucester, in 
concert with the earls of Carrick, March, and 
Stratherue, surprised the castle of Edinburgh, re- 
stored the king and queen to liberty, and allowed 
them free conjugal intercourse. \_Chr. Melr. p. 
220. Matth. Paris, p. 908.] To aid this enter- 
prise, Henry assembled a numerous army, and as 
he led it towards the borders, he issued from New- 
castle, August 25, 1255, a proclamation declaiing 
that in tliis progress to visit his dear son Alexan- 
der, he did not design anything prejudicial to the 
rights of the king, or the liberties of Scotland. 
[Fmdera, vol. i. pp. 560, 561.] The young king 
and queen were immediately conveyed to the 
north of England, and had an interview with 
Henry at "Werk castle in Northumberland. Theh- 
safe conduct bore, "that they and their retinue 
should not tany in England, unless with the gen- 
eral approbation of the Scottish nobility." [Fosdera, 
vol. i. p. 562]. Henry, soon after, visited Alex- 
ander at Roxburgh, within his own territories. 

At the abbey of Kelso, whither the two kings 
had repaued with great pomp, a new regency was 
appointed, 20th September 1255. This proceed- 
ing was said to be by the advice of the English 
king, but there can be no doubt that these entire 
transactions were under his express direction or 
rather control and management throughout. The 
party of the Comyns were removed from the king's 
council and all their employments in the state. 
Those among them who were particularly named 
were Gamelin, chancellor of Scotland and bishop- 
elect of St. Andrews, WiUiam de Bondington, 
Dishop of Glasgow, Clement, bishop of Dunblane, 
Walter Comyn, earl of Menteith, Alexander 
Comyn, earl of Buchan, William de Mar, earl of 
Mar, John de BaUiol, Robert de Ros, John Comyn, 
and William Wishart, archdeacon of St. Andrews, 
of which see he was afterwards bishop. IFcedera, 
vol. i. pp. 565, 567. Chr. Melr. p. 221.] The 
English faction, as the earl of March and his 
friends were accounted, to the number of fifteen, 
were appointed regents of the kingdom and guar- 
dians of the king and queen. \_Fcedera, vol. i. p. 
566.] The following are their names : Richard 
Inverkeithen, bishop of Dunkeld ; Peter de Ram- 

say, bishop of Aberdeen ; Malcolm Macduff, earl 
of Fife ; Patrick Cospatrick, earl of March and 
Dunbar ; Malise, earl of Stratherne ; Nigel, earl 
of Carrick ; Algxander, the steward of Scotland ; 
Robert de Brus ; Alan Dnrward ; Walter de 
Moray ; David de Lindsay ; WiUiam de Brechin ; 
Robert de Meyners : Gilbert de Hay ; Hugh Gif- 
ford de Tester. The government thus new mo- 
deUed was to subsist for seven years, that is, till 
Alexander should have attained the age of twenty- 
one, and vacancies in the regency were to be sup- 
plied by the siu-viving regents. Alexander declared 
that he would not restore the Comyn party to 
favour until they had atoned for their offences 
against the king of England as well as against 
himself; except in the event of Scotland's being 
invaded by a foreign enemy, when they might be 
again taken into favour. To Henry he promised 
that he would treat his daughter with conjugal 
affection and all due honour ; and to the regents 
that he would ratify all then- public acts and rea- 
sonable grants. Patrick, earl of March and Dun- 
bar, swore upon the king's soul, a customary form 
of oath in those days, that these engagements should 
be fulfilled, and Alexander subjected himself to the 
papal censm-es shotdd he faU in performance. The 
instrument drawTi up on the occasion was depos- 
ited in the hands of the English king ^Fcedera, 
vol. i. p. 567.] It was considered by the Scottish 
party in general as derogatory to the dignity ot 
the kingdom, and Bondington, bishop of Glasgow, 
Gamelin, bishop elect of St. Andrews, and the earl 
of Menteith, indignantly refused to afiBx their seals 
to a deed which, as they asserted, compromised 
the liberties of the country, and was prejudicial to 
the honour of the king. [Chr. Melr. p. 221.] 
Winton (book vii. chap, x.) says of it : 

" Thare wes made swylk ordynans. 
That wes gret grefe and displesans 
Till of Scotland ye thre statis, 
Burgens, Barownys, and Prelatis." 

Before returning to England, Henry, with the 
view of raising money, proceeded to take cogni- 
zance of the ofiences of the late regents John de 
Baliol and Robert de Ros. As they both pos- 
sessed estates in England, he held them to be 
amenable to his comts, even on a vague charge o< 




disrespect and disloyalty to Alexander and liis 
queen. Jolui de Baliol obtained liis jiardon by 
the payment of a large fine, but Robert do Ros, 
to whom the castle of AVerk belonged, not appear- 
ing to his summons, was deprived of his lands 
in England, which were confiscated by Henry. 
[Matt/i. raris, ]i. 611.] 

The tranquillity of the kingdom being thus, in 
the meantime, in some degree restored, tlie young 
king and queen, attended by a retinue of three 
hundred horse, visited the court of England in 
August 1256, and were royally entertained at 
London, Woodstock, and Oxford. On the second 
of September of that year Alexander was invested 
by his father-in-law in the earldom of Hunting- 
don as a fief held by his ancestors. [7l/aK/(. Pa- 
m, p. 626.] As a farther mark of his afl'ection, 
Henry issued orders to all liis military tenants in 
the five northern counties to assist the king of 
Scotland with all their forces. [^Fcedera, vol. i. p. 
605.] He farther declared that the grant which 
he himself had obtained from the Pope of a twen- 
tieth of the ecclesiastical revenues of Scotland 
should never be urged as a precedent to the hurt 
of the nation. 

The late settlement of the government having 
been brought about by English influence, was gen- 
erally unpopular in Scotland, and did not last 
longer than about two years. "The greater part," 
says Buchanan, [vol. vii. p. 60,] "of the nobility 
and the ecclesiastical order, their power being 
curtailed by the new ordinances, stigmatized them 
as an English thraldom and a commencement of 
slavery." The Coniyus, t.iking advantage of this 
feeling, and working upon the sensitive national 
jealousy of England, now endeavoured to regain 
their former position in the government. That 
party was still powerful, there being at this time 
in the kingdom three earls and thirty-three barons 
of the name, [see Comyn, sin-name of] ; and 
the number of their retainers, assisted by the 
forces of the other patriotic nobles, backed by 
the influence of Gamelin, late chancellor and bi- 
shop elect of St. Andrews, enabled the Coniyns 
to present a forniid.ible opposition to the re- 
gency. G.amelin had, towards the close of 1255, 
procured himself to be consecrated by William de 
Bondington, bishop of Glasgow, in direct opposi- 

tion to an injunction of the regents. Fur ihig act 
of disobedience he was outlawed, and the revenues 
of his see were seized. [C/iron. Afelr. p. 221.] 
Gamelin immediately hastened to Rome and ap- 
pealed to the Pope, who espoused his cause, 
declared him worthy of his bisliopric, and ex- 
communicated his accusers, ordering the sen- 
tence to be solemidy published in Scotland by 
Clement bishop of Dunblane and the abbots of 
Jlelrose and Jedburgh. [/&/«/.] Enraged at the 
bold opposition of Gamelin, Henry, to whom the 
Pope had addressed an imperious letter, on his 
behalf, prohibited his return, and issued orders 
for his arrest, if he attempted to land in England. 
IFcsdera, vol. i. p. 652.] 

In the meantime the Comyns received a power- 
ful accession to their cause in the support given to 
them by Mary de Couci, the mother of the young 
king, who in 1257 returned to Scotland. That 
princess had, during her residence in France, ta- 
ken for her second husband John de Brienne, the 
son of Guy of Lusignan, the titular king of Jeru- 
salem. After the male line of Godfrey of Bouil- 
lon had become extinct, the sceptre of Jerusalem 
was held by Sybilla the daughter of Baldwin and 
granddaughter of Fulk, count of Anjou, grandfa- 
ther of Henry the Second of England. Having 
such an adversary as Saladin the Great to con- 
tend with. Queen Sybilla, to strengthen her hands, 
found it necessary to marry one of the bravest of 
the knights then engaged in her service, and the 
husband she made choice of was Guy de Lusig- 
nan, the father of John de Brienne, a prince of 
a handsome person but of no very honourable re- 
nown. Although he lost his kingdom by the in- 
vasion of Saladin in 1187, he was still acknow- 
ledged by all the Christians as king of Jerusalem. 

The quoen-dowager was accompanied to Scot- 
land by her second husband, and supported br 
their influence the Comyns and their party ac- 
quired strength enough to effect a counter-revolu- 
tion in the government. It was now considered a 
favourable time to publish the sentence of excom- 
munication which had been procured from the 
pope against the enemies of bishop Gamelin, The 
awful ceremony was performed by the bishop of 
Dunblane and the abbots of Jedburgh and Mel- 
rose, the delegates of the Pope, in tho atibey 



church of Cambuskenneth, and repeated ' by bcU 
and candle' in every chapel in the kingdom. [Chr. 
Melr. p. 182.] The Coniyns hereupon declared 
til at the king was now in the hands of persons 
accursed, and that the kingdom was in immediate 
danger of papal interdiction, and under the pre- 
text of rescuing the king from such a state of 
things, and relieving him fi'om the control of for- 
eigners who, they said, filled all the highest offices 
of the state, they assembled in gi-eat strength, and 
headed by the earl ofMenteith, they during the night 
attacked the court at Kinross, seized the person 
of the king while in bed, and carried him and the 
queen before morning to Stirling. They obtained 
at the same time possession of the great seal of 
the kingdom. The king and queen were kept 
separate till the party of the regents were dis- 
persed. \J\Iatth. Paris, p. 644.] The charge they 
brought against the young queen was that " she 
had incited her father, the king of England, to 
come against them with an army in a hostile man- 
ner, and make a miserable havoc" in the country. 
[Tbid. p. 821.] To strengthen their interest, the 
Comyns concluded an alliance with Lewellyn 
prince of Wales, who was then (1257) at war with 
England, whither Alan Durward had precipitately 
fled. Taking the young king with them, the 
forces of the Comyns marched southward to the 
borders, where it would appear the adherents of 
the late government had rallied and collected their 
strength. A negotiation was set on foot which 
led to a compromise between the rival factions 
at Roxburgh ; the leaders of the defeated party 
agreeing to refer all disputes to a conference to be 
held at Forfar. This, however, was only an ex- 
pedient to gain time, as the latter retired into 
England, and the earls of Albemarle and Here- 
ford, with John de Baliol, were soon after sent 
by Henry to Melrose, where Alexander held his 
court for the time. Although their avowed object 
was to mediate between the two factions, their 
real intention was to seize, if possible, the person 
of the king, and carry him to England. Past ex- 
perience, however, had led the Comyns to distrust 
their professions, and the person of Alexander 
was removed from the abbey of Melrose to the 
forest of Jedburgh, where the greater part of the 
Scottish forces had already assembled 

The king of England, obliged to suppress foi 
the present his bitter opposition to bishop Ga- 
melin, and to be silent regarding the obnoxious 
treaty of Roxburgh, was thus constrained to ac- 
cede to the appointment of a new regency, con- 
sisting of ten persons, six of them being of the 
Comyn faction, with fom- of the former regents. 
This took place in 1258. At the head of the new 
regency, ■^^'hich may be said to have governed the 
country till the king came of age, were placed the 
queen-dowager and her husband. The regents 
were, Mary the queen-dowager ; John of Brienne, 
her husband ; Gamelin, bishop of St. Andrews , 
Walter Comyn, earl of Menteith ; Alexander 
Comyn, earl of Buchan ; and William, earl of 
Slar. Their colleagues were, Alexander, the stew- 
ard of Scotland ; Robert de Meyners ; Gilbert de 
Hay ; and Alan Durward. \_Matth. Paris, p. 644. 
Fcedera, vol. i. p. 670.] Soon after, Walter earl 
of Menteith, one of the regents and the soul of 
the national party, died suddenly. In England it 
was reported that his death was occasioned by a 
fall from his horse. In Scotland it was believed 
that he had been poisoned by his wife, countess 
in her own right, that she might be free to indidge 
a guilty passion for one John Russel, an English 
knight, called by Boece an obscure Englishman, 
whom, disregarding the addi-esses of the Scottish 
nobles, she somewhat precipitately married. The 
suspicion of her guilt, perhaps groundlessly ex- 
cited by the slighted suitors, was employed as a 
pretext for depriving her and her second husband 
of the earldom, driving them in disgrace from the 
kingdom, and at last dividing the inheritance be- 
tween her heirs and those of her younger sister. 
The latter had married Walter Stewart, called 
Bailloch or "the freckled," a younger brother of 
the steward of Scotland, who laid claim to the 
earldom of Menteith in right of his wife, and by 
the favour of those in power obtained and kept it. 
\Fordun, x. 11. Fcedera, ii. p. 1082.] 

It was the policy of the court of Rome in that 
age, when it asserted a right over all kingdoms 
and grasped at power wherever it could be claim- 
ed, to secure all ecclesiastical patronages to itself, 
and scarcely was the dispute relative to the re- 
gency settled when Alexander found himself likely 
to be involved in a difference with the Roman 




pontiff. The bisliopiic of Glasgow bei-ominfr va- 
cant by the death of William de Bondington, 
Alexander in 1259 bestowed it upon Nicholas 
Moffat, archdeacon of Teviotdale, one of liis own 
subjects. Disregarding the king's appointment, 
the Pope, Alexander IV., gave the vacant see to 
his chaplain, John de Cheyani, an Englishman, 
and archdeacon of Bath. Sensible, however, that 
this step would prove disagreeable to the' yotnig 
Scottish monarch, he requested the king of Eng- 
land to use his good offices with his son-in-law, 
to receive Cheyam, and put him in possession of 
his temporalities. " Although he is my subject," 
said Henry to the king of Scots, " I would not 
solicit you in his behalf, could any benefit arise to 
you from your opposition to a man on whom the 
Pope has already bestowed ecclesiastical jurisdic- 
tion." Alexander thought fit prudently to acqui- 
esce in the Pope's nomination, but though Chey- 
am was kindly enough received at the Scottish 
court, the bishop himself knew that he was obnox- 
ious to the government, and lie took the first op- 
portunity of leaving the kingdom, and enjoying 
the revenues of his see abroad. [_Fcedera, vol. i. 
p. 683. Chr. Melr. p. 222.] Satisfied with Alex- 
ander's apparent submission to his wishes, the 
Pope recalled certain angry Aandates which he 
had issued against him and his kingdom. 

In 1260, Alexander, who had then attained his 
twentieth year, was invited by his father-in-law 
to visit him with his queen at London. Whatever 
may have been the motive of this invitation, the 
manner in which it was conveyed filled the regents 
and nobility of Scotland with suspicion as to the 
idterior intentions of Henry. It appears that 
he sent to Alexander for the purpose a monk of 
St. Albans, who arrived at a time when the king 
and his nobles were assembled in council, to whom 
he declined to impart the special objects for which 
the meeting was desired by the English monarch, 
farther than that it was to treat of matters of 
great importance. Two of the regents, Alexander 
Comyn, earl of Buchan, and Alan Dunvard the 
justiciary, with William Wishart, chancellor of 
the kingdom, were despatched on a secret mission 
into England, to exact pledges from Henry as to 
his behaviour towards the young king while at his 
court. The conditions on which Alexander and 

his queen consented to visit England on this ocoa- 
sion were, that during Ills residence at the Eng- 
lish comt neither the king nor his iittcndantM 
should be required to treat of state affairs, an<l 
that if the queen of Scotland became pregnant, or 
if she gave birth to a child during hor slay with 
her father, neither she nor her infant were to bo 
detained in England. To the latter sti])ulatlon 
particularly Henry gave his solemn oath. \Fir,{- 
cra, vol. i. yip. 713, 714.] 

Thus secured, Alexander, attended by a large 
concourse of the nobility, proceeded, In October 
1260, to the court of England. The young queen 
followed him by slow stages, and on her approach 
to St. Albans, she was met by her younger bro- 
ther Edmond, then a mere youth, who with a 
splendid retinue conducted her to London. Their 
reception was unusually magnificent, but Alexan- 
der, yoinig as he was, did not allow the festivities 
which marked the occasion to divert his mind 
from two objects which had been strong induce 
ments with him to comply with King Henry's in- 
vitation. He wished to exercise his rights over 
the earldom of Huntingdon, which he held of tho 
English crown, as well as to obtain payment of 
his wife's marriage portion, which had been too 
long delayed. In this last matter, however, ho 
was disappointed. The authority of the English 
monarch had been now for nearly two years 
usurped by the twenty-four barons, at the head 
of whom was Shnon de Montfort, earl of Leices- 
ter, and Henry's exchequer was in too impover- 
ished a state to allow him to discharge the debt 
at this time. 

It was agreed that the queen should remain m 
England until she gave birth to the child of which 
slie wag then pregnant, and Henry entered into a 
.solemn engagement that, in the event of the death 
of Alexander, he would deliver up the child to the 
following Scottish bishops and nobles to be con- 
veyed to Scotland, namely, the bishops of St. 
Andrews, Aberdeen, Dunblane, and Galloway, 
and to Malcolm, earl of Fife, Alexander Comyn, 
earl of Buchan, Malise, carl of Stratherno, Patrick, 
carl of March and Dunbar, William, earl of Mar, 
John Comyn, Alexander, the steward of Scotland, 
Alan Durward, and Hugh de Abernothy, or to 
any three of them. This list would seem to indi 



cate that the two rival factions into which the 
nation had been so long divided had at last united 
to resist English interference in the domestic 
affairs of Scotland. Alexander now returned to 
his own kingdom, and in the succeeding February 
(1261) the young queen was delivered at Windsor 
of a daughter named Margaret, afterwards manied 
to Eric king of Norway. [Fcedera, vol. i. p. 713. 
Chr. Melr. p. 223.] With regard to the dowry 
promised with the queen it may be stated that in 
1262 Alexander sent the steward of Scotland to 
England to demand payment of it from Henry. 
He paid an instalment of five hundred marks, 
whicli drained his treasury ; and promised to make 
payment of the remainder at INIichaelmas 1263 and 
Easter 1264. " I appoint such distant terms," he 
said, " because I mean to be punctual, and not to 
disappoint you any more." The marriage portion 
of the princess of England was in fact not all paid 
till some time after this, and only in small partial 
payments. [76/rf.] 

Alexander having now (1262) arrived at full 
age, took the reins of government into his own 
hands, and in the administration of affairs he 
showed both prudence and courage. Combining 
the zeal, but tempered with discretion, for national 
independence which had characterized the Coniyns, 
with something of the friendly disposition towards 
England which had been the most marked feature 
in the policy of their opponents, this strong-willed 
monarch was able at once to shake himself loose 
from the tutelage of either party, and to conduct 
the government in his own person, according to 
his own views and judgment. His first important 
undertaking after he came of age, was to accom- 
plish the subjection to his sway of the chiefs of the 
western islands, an object which death had pre- 
vented his father, Alexander the Second, from 
effecting, although as related (anfe, p. 78), he had 
prepared an expedition for the purpose. The 
king of Norway, at this time, held unquestioned 
possession of the Orkneys and the Shetland Isles, 
and claimed also to rule over the Hebrides. In 
T255 the possessions of Angus Macdonald, lord of 
[slay, the descendant of Reginald, a son of Sonier- 
led, lord of the Isles, were ravaged by Alexander, 
because he would not consent to renounce his 
fealty to the king of Norway, and he was thus 

compelled to become a vassal of Scotland. In 

1262, Henry, the English king, interposed his 
good oflices to prevent a rupture between Haco, 
king of Norway and Alexander, as to the posses- 
sion of the Islands [^Fcedera, vol. i. p. 753], which 
were remarkable at that period for their prosper- 
ous condition, their crowded population, and theii 
advanced state of civilization. Haco returned an 
evasive answer, and after an unsuccessful embassy 
to the Norwegian court, Alexander determined 
upon at once endeavouring to bring the Islands 
under his sovereignty. For this purpose he in- 
stigated William, earl of Ross, at that time, says 
Skene, the most powerful nobleman in Scotland, 
and whose great possessions extended over the 
mainland opposite to the northern isles, to com- 
mence hostilities against them. This William 
was the son of Ferchard who acted such a promi- 
nent part in the reign of Alexander the Second 
(see pp. 70 and 72). Ferchard was surnaraed 
GiUeam-ias, " the priest's son," — whence Anrias 
or Koss, the family name, — descended from a noble 
who figured amongst the earls that besieged Mal- 
colm IV. in Perth in the year 1160. [See Ross. 
Earldom of.] Being joined by the Mathiesons, 
and other powerful dependents, the earl suddenly 
crossed over to the Isle of Skye, where he rav- 
aged the country, burned villages and churches, 
and put great numbers, both of men and women, 
to the sword. [^Skene's Highlanders of Scotland, 
vol. ii. p. 52.] The Norse Chronicles relate, that 
in theu- wanton fury his soldiers raised little chil- 
dren on the points of their spears, and shook 
them till they fell down to their hands. The 
complaints of the island chiefs of the atrocities 
committed by their savage invaders determined 
Haco to fit out an expedition to revenge the in- 
juries oflfered to his vassals. 

He accordingly repaired to Bergen to superin- 
tend in person the preparations of this armament. 
These were so vast and so threatening as to 
spread alarm, as to its destination and objects, 
even upon the coasts of England. When all was 
complete, he sailed from Herlover, on July 7, 

1263. His own ship, described as having been 
entirely of oak, was of larger size than the rest, 
having twenty-seven banks of oars, that is, twen- 
ty-seven seats for the rowers. It is also said tc 




have been ornamented witli richly carved dragons, 
overlaid with gold. ^Norse Account of the Expe- 
dition, with Johnstone's Notes, p. 25.] The Nor- 
wegian fleet reached the Shetland Isles within 
two days, whence steering for the Orkneys, Ilaco 
proposed to despatch a squadron of liglit vessels 
to ravage the south-eastern coasts of Scotland, 
but the pi'incipal nobles and knights on board his 
fleet declined to proceed unless he himself went 
with them, and he was constrained to bear up for 
Ronaldsvoe, now Ronaldshay, the most southern 
of the Orcadian group, situated about six miles 
from Duncansby head, on the coast of Caithness, 
and near to the mouth of the Pentland frith. 
Here he remained at anchor for some weeks, dur- 
ijig which he levied contributions upon, and ex- 
acted tribute from, the inhabitants both of the 
neighbouring islands and of the opposite main- 
land of Caithness, a district which appears to 
have been reduced under the Scottish sway in tlie 
interval between the death of Alexander the Sec- 
ond and the arrival of Haco. It is recorded in 
the Norse Chronicle of the expedition that, while 
the fleet lay at Ronaldsvoe, " a great darkness 
di'ew over the sun, so that only a little ring was 
bright round his orb," which precisely fixes the 
date of this great invasion, as the remarkable 
phenomenon of an annular eclipse has been ascer- 
tained to have been seen at Ronaldsvoe on the 
5th of August 1263. 

Haco now sailed to the south. Crossmg the 
Pentland frith, his galleys proceeded bv the Lewes 
to Skye, where he was joined by the squadron of 
Magnus king of Man. Holding on his course to 
the Sound of Mull, Dngal of Lorn, the son of Ro- 
nald, the son of Reginald MacSomerled, and other 
Hebridean chiefs, united their forces to his, so 
that he soon found himself at the head of a fleet 
of above a hundred sail, most of them vessels of 
considerable size. Though far from being of the 
dimensions of the vessels of war of our day, these 
craft of Norway and the island chiefs were very 
formidable in piratical excursions. Dividing his 
force, he sent one powerful squadron, under Mag- 
nus and Dugal, to ravage the Mull of KintjTe, 
and lay waste the estates of those chiefs who had 
submitted to Alexander, while another was de- 
spatched to reduce the isles of Ai-ran and Bute, in 

the frith of Clyde. The comprehensive name of 
the Hebrides compri.-icd in thoso days not only 
the numerous islands and islets extending alon;; 
nearly all the west coast of Scotland, but also tlio 
peninsula of Kintyre, the island;) of the Clydi', 
and even for some time the kle of Man. With 
the remainder of his fleet Haco cast anchor at 
Gigha, a little island between the coast of Kin- 
tyre and Islay. While he lay here he was mot 
by the island chief Ewen, mentioned in the life of 
Alexander the Second (page 77), as having re- 
fused to withdiaw his allegiance from Norway, 
when that monarch in 12't9 set out on his expedi- 
tion against the western islands. Since then ha 
seems to have reflected on the hazard of holding 
out against the king of Scotland, as he subsequent- 
ly, although at what period does not appear, swore 
fealty to his successor, and on Ilaco's desiring 
him to follow his banner, he excused himself, on 
the ground that he had sworn an oath to the Scot- 
tish king, and that he had more lands of him than 
of the Norwegian monarch. He therefore en- 
treated King Haco to dispose of all those estates 
which he had conferred upon him. Haco was 
satisfied with his reasoning, and after bestowing 
presents on him dismissed him honourably. The 
reguli or petty chiefs of the Hebrides were m 
those remote times called kings, and accordingly 
Ewen is called King John by Tytler, who evidently 
assumed that Ewen is the Celtic name of John, 
\_History of Scotland, vol. i. p. 26], and King Ewen 
by Skene [History of the Highlanders, vol. ii. p. 52.] 
The politic example of Ewen was not followed 
by the other island chiefs who had owned allegi- 
ance to Alexander, for Haco was soon after joined 
by Angus lord of Islay and South Kintyre, who 
had submitted to Alexander only eight years be- 
fore (p. 88), giving his infant .«on as a hostage, 
and agreeing, by a formal instrument, that hia 
whole territories should be forfeited, if he ever 
deserted ; and even by Murchard, a vassal of the 
earl of Menteith in North Kintyre, who had ob- 
tained this district from the baron to whom it had 
been granted by Alexander the Second. [Shene'» 
Highlanders, vol. ii. p. 53.] Roderic, the Norwe- 
gian leader, who had been despatched to reduce 
Bute, took the strong castle of Rothesay, its gar- 
rison having capitulated, part of whom he savage- 




ly murdered. He then laid waste the island, and 
caiTied fire and sword throughout the adjoining 
districts of Scotland. After sending a force under 
Sigurd, a Hebridean chief, to the assistance of the 
Ostmen, or descendants of the Danes settled on 
the eastern coasts of Ireland, who were anxious 
to throw off the English yoke, Haco, with his 
fleet, the greater part of which had now rejoined 
him, sailed round the point of Kintyre, and enter- 
ing the frith of Clyde, anchored in the Sound of 
Kilbrannan, which lies between the island of Ai'- 
ran and the mainland. 

By this time the Norwegian fleet had increased 
to a hundred and sixty sail, and the danger of a 
descent on the Scottish coasts became inmiinent. 
In this emergency Alexander despatched a depu- 
tation of Barefooted friars with overtures of peace 
to Haco ; in consequence of which five Norwegian 
commissioners were sent to the Scottish court to 
arrange the preliminaries, when a truce was agreed 
upon. The defenceless state of the western and 
south-western portions of Scotland made the gain- 
ing of time a matter of the first importance to 
Alexander until an army could be collected suffi- 
ciently strong to repel the invaders. Alexander 
offered to resign to Haco the sovereignty of all 
the western or Hebridean isles, claiming as be- 
longing to Scotland only those of AiTan, Bute, 
and the two Cumbrays, in the frith of Clyde. 
[Norse Account of the Expedition, p. 71.] These 
moderate terms of the king of Scotland were re- 
fused by Haco, who carried his fleet across the 
frith to Millport Bay. Although the coast of 
Ayrshire was now open to a descent from his 
fleet, Haco, in consideration of the existing truce, 
restrained his followers from plunder, but provi- 
sions becoming scarce, the officers of the expedi- 
tion earaestly entreated him for permission to 
land, that they might obtain by seizure supplies 
for the ships. Thus pressed, Haco despatched a 
last envoy to Alexander, of the name of Kolbein 
Rich, with the following chivahic proposal : "That 
the sovereigns should meet amicably at the head 
of theii' armies, and treat regarding a peace, which 
if, by the gi'ace of God, it took place, it was well ; 
but if the attempt at negotiation failed, the am- 
bassador was to throw down the gauntlet from 
Norway, to challenge the Scottish monai'ch to 

debate the matter witn his army in the field, and 
let God, in his pleasure, determine the victory.' 
Alexander was too wary to accept the challenge, 
although, says the Norse Chronicle, he " seemed 
in no respect unwilling to fight," and the truce 
was declared at an end. [Noy-se Account of tht 
Expedition, p. 75.] 

A fleet of sixty vessels, under the command of 
Blagnus king of Man, and with him four Hebrid- 
ean chiefs and two principal Norwegian officers, 
was now despatched by Haco, across the Clyde 
to Loch Long, where they took to their boats, 
and dragging them across the neck of land be- 
tween Arrochar on the west and Tarbet on the 
east, which separates the salt and the fresh water 
lochs, they carried havoc and destruction through 
the numerous islands on Loch Lomond. Stm-las, 
a Norwegian poet, thus celebi'ates this exploit : 
" The persevering shielded wamors of the thrower 
of the whizzing speai- drew theii- boats across the 
broad isthmus. Our fearless troops, the exactors 
of contribution, with flaming brands, wasted the 
populous islands in the lake and the mansions 
around its winding bays." A devastating expe- 
dition into Sthlingshire followed under another 
leader, who returned to the ships loaded with boo- 
ty. Haco had now to contend with the storms 
and tempests of the end of autumn, which had 
been counted ujion by the Scots as likely to bring 
wreck and disaster to the invaders. Ten of their 
best ships were lost by a storm in Loch Long, and 
on the first of October, while the main fleet of 
Haco lay at anchor in the capacious and usually 
well-sheltered bay between the island of Cumbray 
and the mainland of Ayrshire, it was overtaken 
by a tempest of so severe and protracted a char- 
acter, the wind blowing right up the frith and 
sound upon his fleet, that the superetitious Nor- 
wegians ascribed its extreme violence to the pow- 
ers of enchantment. [Norse Account of the Expe- 
dition, pp. 81, 87.] The galley of the king was 
in imminent peril, and several vessels were strand- 
ed. The storm increasing, Haco rowed to one ot 
the Cumbray islands, and caused mass to be 
chaunted amid the roaring of the elements, in the 
hope that the dreaded powers of magic might be 
neutralized by the services of religion. Still the 
tempest continued, and his o'lvu ship, with five 




other galle3-s, was cast ashore, while tliose of tlio 
fleet that still rode out the gale, though mostly 
dismasted or otherwise disabled, were driven vio- 
lently up the channel towards Largs. [Ihid. p. 85.] 
The Scots collected on the surrounding heights 
watched with intense interest the dispersion of the 
invading armament, and crowding to the beach, 
immediately attacked with fury the crews of the 
Norwegian ships as thcj' were successively driven 
ashore. Tlie Norwegians defended themselves 
with great intrepidity, and Haco, taking advan- 
tage of a lull in the storm, succeeded in sending 
in boats with reinforcements to their relief, when 
the Scots deemed it expedient to retire, but only 
to return again at night to plunder the stranded 
vessels, among which were two transports. At 
daydawn next morning Haco landed with a large 
force, and ordered the transports to be lightened 
and towed to sea, with those vessels which had not 
been totally wrecked. The rays of the rising sun 
now shone upon the Scots army mustered on the 
heights above the village of Largs, and as it de- 
scended from the high grounds towards the beach 
it had truly a formidable appearance. It was led 
by the king in person, along with Alexander the 
steward of Scotland, the grandfather of the first 
sovereign of the name of Stuart who occupied the 
Scottish throne; and consisted of a numerous body 
of foot-soldiers, well accoutred and armed for the 
most part with bows and spears, with a force of 
fifteen hundred horsemen, chiefly knights and bar- 
ons, many of them with their Spanish steeds 
sheathed in complete armour. All the horses had 
breastplates. The Norwegians on shore numbered 
little more than nine hundred men, commanded 
by three principal leaders. Two hundred of them, 
under Ogniund Ivi-akidauts, occupied a rising 
ground in advance of the main body, which were 
posted on the beach. With the former was Ilaco, 
who, on the approach of the Scottish army, was 
anxiously entreated by his chiefs to row out to 
the fleet and send them reinforcements. The king 
insisted on remaining on shore, but they would 
not consent to his exposing his life unnecessarily, 
and he returned in his barge to his fleet at the 
Cumbrays. The Norwegians on the hill, being 
attacked with great fury by the Scots, who greatly 
outnumbered them, and pressed them on both flanks, 

became apprehensive of being surrounded, rui) 
began to retire in scattered parties towards the 
sea. Their retreat soon changed into a fli(;hl, 
and the divisions drawn up on the beach suppos- 
ing they had been routed, broke their ranks, ami 
while many of the Norsemen threw themselves 
into their boats and attempted to rcgnin their 
ships, the rest were driven along the shore amid 
showers of arrows, stones, and other missiles, to a 
place a little below Kolburne. In the meantime 
another violent storm had come on, which not 
only ]n'evented Haco from sending ashore in time 
the expected reinforcements, but completed the 
ruin of the Norwegian fleet, already much shat- 
tered by the previous gales. The Norwegians on 
land, thus left to themselves, gallantly maintained 
the unequal contest, and repeatedly rallying, made 
an obstinate stand wherever the nature of the 
ground favoured their movements. Gathering 
round their stranded galleys they defended them- 
selves with all their accustomed bravery, and kept 
their pursuers for some time in check. [Iliid. p. 
97.] A young Scottish knight named Sir Piers 
de Curry was here slain. According to the Norso 
Chronicle, his helmet and coat of mail \vere plated 
with gold, and the former was set with precious 
stones. In the true spirit of chivahy he galloped 
frequently along the Norwegian line, endeavour- 
ing to provoke some one to single combat. An- 
drew Nicolson, one of Haco's chiefs who conducted 
the retreat, answered his defiance, and after a 
brief encounter, killed him with a blow which 
severed his thigh from his body, the sword cutting 
through his armour, and penetrating to the sad- 
dle. The Norwegians stripped him of his rich ' 
armour ; but while doing so they were attacked , 
furiously 1)3- the Scots, and many fell on both sides. 
[lliid. p. 99.] The Norwegians would have been 
cut to pieces to a man, had not a reinforcement 
reached them towards evening from the fleet, the 
boats being pushed through a tremendous surf to 
the shore. These fresh troops instantly attacked 
the Scots upon two points, and their arrival gave 
new courage to the Norivegians, who began to 
form themselves anew. The contest was pro- 
tracted till night, when, according to the Norsa 
account, the Norwegians, uniting in a last grand 
effort, made a desperate charge against their as- 




Bailants, who were posted on the heights over- 
hannjing the shore, and succeeded in beating tliom 
back, after a short and furious resistance. The 
survivors then re-embarlsed in their boats, and 
thougli tlie storm continued to rage, got ou board 
their shattered vessels in safety. [Ibid. p. 103]. 
Among the Norwegians of note who fell were 
Haco of Stcine and Thorgisi Eloppa, both of King 
Haco's household, with many more of the princi- 
pal Norwegian leaders. Sir Piers de Curry is the 
only name of mark mentioned as having fallen on 
the Scottish side. 

Next morning tlie strand was seen covered with 
dead bodies and strewed with the wreck of the 
best appointed fleet which Norway had ever sent 
out. Alexander granted a truce to Haco, to ena- 
ble him to bury his dead, and to raise above their 
bodies those rude memorials which to this day 
mark the site of the field of battle. The chief 
scene of the contest is supposed to have been a 
large plain southward of the village of Largs, still 
presenting a recumbent stone ten feet long, which 
once stood upright, and is believed to have been 
placed over the grave of a chieftain, and vestiges 
are found of cairns and tumuli formed, as is said, 
over pits into which the bodies of the slain were 

Such was the battle of the Largs, famed in story, 
song, and tradition, and the most memorable event 
in the reign of Alexander the Thii-d. The loss 
sustained by the Norwegians is thus feelingly 
alluded to in Lady Wardlaw's celebrated ballad 
of Hardyknuto; — ■ 

*' In thraws of death, with wallert cheik, 

All panting on the plain, 
The fainting coi-ps of warriours lay, 

Neir to aryse again : 
Neir to return to native land; 

Nae mair, wi' blythsome sounds, 
To boist the glories of the day, 

And sbaw their sbynand wounds. 

On Norway's coast, the widow'd dame 

May wash the rock with teirs, 
May lang luik ower the shiples seis, 

Before hu- mate appeu-s. 
Ceise, Emma, ceise to hope in vain 

Thy lord lyes in the clay; 
rhe valiant Scots nae reivers thole 

To carry lyie away " 

After the stranded vessels had been burnt l)y 
his order, King Haco weighed anchor with the 
small remnant of his fleet that remained to him 
under the Cumbrays, and, being joined by the 
squadron which had been sent up Loch Long, he 
steered to the bay of Lamlash in the Island ot 
Arran, and across the frith of Clyde, a few miles 
from the scene of his disasters and defeat. In 
Lamlash bay he met Sigurd, whom he had sent 
to inquire into the situation of the Ostmen of Ire- 
land, and was assured by him that they would 
willingly receive his aid against the rule of Eng- 
land. The aged but heroic monarch, anxious to 
wipe out the disgrace of his repulse at Largs, was 
eager for the enterprise, but a council of his offi- 
cers opposed the expedition, and it was accord- 
ingly abandoned. [Norse Account, p. 109.] He 
afterwards sailed past Sand, Gigha, the Calt o( 
Mull, Rum, and Cape Wrath, to the Orkneys, 
where he arrived on the 29th October, abandoned 
by the island chiefs who had joined him, and ever 
by many of his own followers, and with the loss 
of another vessel in the Pentland Frith. At Kirk- 
wall a mortal illness, brought on by anxiety and 
disappointment as much as by overfatigue, seized 
upon Haco, under which he lingered for some 
weeks, and at last expired on the 15th December 
(126.3). Thus ended the last gi-eat attempt of the 
Scandinavian monarchs to secure to themselves 
the possession of the Western Isles. 

The tidings of the death of Haco and of the 
birth of an heii- to the throne were received by 
Alexander on the same day, the queen having, on 
the 21st of January, been delivered at Jedburgh, 
of a son, who was named Alexander. [CTir. Meh. 
p. 225.] 

To follow up the advantages which he had al- 
ready gained, and complete the reduction of the 
isles, were now the chief objects of Alexander. 
With the intention of invading the Isle of Man, 
he raised an army, and compelled the island chiefs 
to furnish a fleet for the transport of his troops. 
Dreading his vengeance, and despairing of assist- 
ance from Norway, Magnus, king of Man, son of 
Olave the Black, who had been subdued by Alan 
lord of Galloway in 1231, sent envoys with offers 
of submission, and hastened himself to meet the 
Scottish king, which he did at Dumfries on hi? 




way to subdue the Isle of Man, where he swore 
fealty to the crown of Scotland, and Itocanie bound 
to funiish to Ids lord paramount, whon rcqnirod, 
ten war-gallcvs, five with twenty-fonr oars and 
five with twelve. [Fordun, b. 10. c. 18.] This 
Magnus, king of Man, died in 1265. A military 
force, under the earl of Mar, was next sent against 
those chiefs of the Western Isles who had joined 
or had favoured the invasion of Haco. Some of 
them were executed, and the rest reduced. After 
negotiations which lasted for nearly three years, a 
treaty of peace was at last, in 1266, concluded 
with IMagnus, king of Norway, the successor of 
ITaco, whereby the Hebrides and the Isle of Man, 
and all other islands in the western and southern 
.<eas, of which the Norwegians might have hitherto 
held, or claimed the dominion, were made over in 
full sovereignty to Scotland. The Shetland and 
Orkney islands remained in the possession of Nor- 
way. One of the articles of this important treaty 
provided that four thousand mcrks sterling of the 
Roman standard, in four yearly payments, and a 
pei-petual quitrent of one hundred merks annually 
should be paid by Scotland to Norway, in consid- 
eration of the latter yielding up all claim to the 
isles. Another declared that such of the subjects 
of Norway as were inclined to quit the Hebrides 
should have full liberty to do so, with all tlieir 
effects, whilst those who preferred remaining, were 
to become subjects of Scotland. To this latter 
class, the king of Norway, in fulfilment of his part 
of the treaty, addressed a mandate, enjoining them 
henceforth to serve and obey the king of Scot- 
land as theu' liege lord ; and it was further ar- 
ranged that none of the islanders were to be 
punished for their former adherence to the Nor- 
wegians. \_Gregorys Highlands and Isles of Scot- 
land, p. 22.] To the treaty, which is dated the 
20th of July, 1266, was added the penalty of a 
fine of ten thousand merks, to be exacted by tlie 
Pope from the party breaking it. The patronage 
of the bishopric of Sodor and ^lan wiis expressly 
ceded to Alexander, while the ecclesiastical juris- 
diction was reserved in favour of the archbishop 
of Drontheim in Norway. [Tythr's Hist, of Scot- 
land, vol. i. p. 41, note.'] 

After the treaty of cession, Alexander appears 
to have acted in a liberal spirit towards the island 

chiefs. Ewcn of I^orn, (already referred to oa t 
grandson of Dugall, eldest son of the first Somcr- 
Ii'd by his second wife, dauglitcr of Olave the red, 
Norwegian king of the Isles,) was of course re- 
stored to the lands in that portion of the Hcbridea 
termed by the Norwegians the Sudreys, which he 
had resigned into the hands of Haco {ante, p. 89), 
and which he had formerly held of Norway, and 
was further rewarded for liis services and fidelity. 
By his death, however, without male issue, this 
branch of the descendants of Somerled, chief of 
the Macdonalds, became extinct. Angus Moir, 
of South Kintyre and Islay, grandson of Reginald 
the second son of the elder Somerled by the same 
maiTiage, the ancestor of the second race of the 
lords of the Isles, who had on its arrival joined the 
Nonvegian expedition (ante, p. 89), having deter- 
mined to remain in the isles, became, according to 
the treaty, a vassal of the king of Scotland, for his 
lands there, and was allowed to retain, under one 
king, all that he had formerly held under both. 
His son Alexander having subsequently mamed 
one of the daughters and co-lieiresscs of Ewen ol 
Lorn, became the lineal representative of the elder 
branch of the race of Somerled. The isles of Skye 
and Lewis were confciTcd upon the earl of Ross, 
no part of these islands, or of Man, Arran, and 
Bute, being granted on this occasion by Alexan- 
der the Third to any of the descendants of Somer- 
led, to whom they had formerly belonged. The 
former, however, viz. the isles of Skye and Lewis, 
aftei-wards reverted to that family, when on the 
utter niiu of the Albany family, accomplished by 
the revenge of James I., the Macdonalds, lords of 
the Isles, quietly succeeded to the earldom of 
Ross, through their descent from the last heuess 
of that line. 

While thus fortunate in secnring peace at home, 
Alexander had been able, in 1264, to allow a lai-ge 
Ixidy of Scottish auxiliaries under John Baliol, 
lord of Galloway, Robert de Brus, lord of Annan- 
dale, and John Corayn, to be sent to the assist- 
ance of liis fathcr-iii-law, Ilcni^- III., who with 
his son Edward prince of England, afterwards 
Edward I., was in arms against his revolted bar- 
ons, led by Simon de Moiitfort, carl of Leicester. 
Northampton was stormed by the royalists, but 
at the battle of Lewes, 14th May. Henry was de- 




feated and made prisoner, as were also two of the 
Scottish leaders, Jolin Com_vn and Robert de Brns. 
In tliis battle great slaughter was made of the 
Scottish auxiliaries, who behaved with all their 
accustomed bravery. IMatt/i. Pan's, p. 669. Hem- 
inffford, p. 581. Km/p/iton, p. 2447.] The battle 
of Evesliam, 4th August, 1265, where Simon de 
Montfort was discomfited and slain, retrieved the 
fortunes of Henry, and the Scottish barons soon 
obtained their liberty. [Chr. Melr. p. 226.] 

The long minority of Alexander, from the con- 
stant feuds and contentions among the nobles, and 
the anarch}' which generally prevailed, had struck 
deep at the roots of the prosperity of his kingdom ; 
but his wise, firm, and judicious rule after he came 
of age, was well calculated to heal the wounds 
tliat had been inflicted, and to restore confidence 
and tranquillity to his people, by whom he was 
universally beloved. After the Norse invasion 
and the reduction of the isles, the kingdom was 
not again, during Alexander's life, assailed by a 
foreign eneni}-, while its internal peace seems to 
have been no longer disturbed by the turbulence 
of its domestic factions. For three years after, 
Alexander was engaged in maintaining the inde- 
pendence of the national church against the exac- 
tions of the court of Rome, at the same time, with 
equal spirit and pnidence, keeping in check the 
domineering spirit of his clergy. In the year 
1266, Cardinal Ottobon de Fieschi, the legate of 
the Pope in England, demanded six merks from 
every cathedi-al in Scotland, and four merks from 
each parish church, for the expenses of his visita- 
tion. This demand the king firmly resisted, and 
appealed to the pontiflF. To defi-ay the expenses 
of the appeal, the clergy supplied him with two 
thousand merks. \Fordun, b. 10. ch. 21.] Soon 
after (in 1267) a dispute between the king and 
the bishop of St. Andrews arose from the excom- 
munication of a certain knight named Sir John de 
Dunmore, for offences committed against the prior 
and conver.t of St. Andrews. The king required 
Gamelin, the bishop, to absolve him, without sat- 
isfaction. The latter refused, and not only ratified 
the sentence, but excommunicated all the adhe- 
rents of Dunmore, the royal family only excepted. 
[rritated at his zeal, Alexander allowed the legate 
(0 levy part of the disputed contributions, and the 

contention between the king and the bishop threat- 
ened to rise very high, when, to pnt an end to it. 
Dunmore, of his own accord, with creditable good 
sense, asked forgiveness of the church, made rep- 
aration, and was absolved ; on which the king and 
the bishop were reconciled. The papal legate 
now demanded admittance into Scotland, but the 
king, having examined his commission, and con- 
sulted with his clerg}', sent him a peremptory re- 
fusal. [/Ji'rf. c. 23.] Foiled in this scheme, the 
legate, in 1268, summoned the Scottish prelates to 
attend him in England, at whatever place he 
should tliink fit to hold a conncil. He also re- 
quired the Scottish clergy to send two representa- 
tives, who should be heads of monasteries. The 
Scottish bishops deputed two of tlieir number, and 
the other clergy two ; but though they acceded 
thus far, it was not to assist tlie council, but to 
watch its proceedings, as the cardinal-legate soon 
found ; for when he had procured several canons 
to be enacted relative to Scotland, the Scottish 
clergy at once disclaimed obedience to them. See- 
ing them so resolute, the Pope, Clement TV., took 
up different ground, and in the course of the same 
year claimed from the clergy of Scotland a tenth 
of their revenues to be paid to Henry of England, 
as an aid for an intended crusade, an object which 
he thought they could have no excuse in declin- 
ing to subscribe to. Here again, however, he 
was baffled, as both king and clergy united in a 
decided refusal to the requisition, Alexander de- 
claring that Scotland was ready to equip a compe- 
tent body of knights to proceed to the Holy Land. 
Accordingly David earl of Athole, Adam earl of 
Carrick, William Lord Douglas, John Steward, 
Alexander Comyn, Robert Keith, George Dur- 
ward, John de Quincy, and William Gordon, all 
connected with the first families in Scotland, as- 
sumed the cross, and sailed for Palestine, whence 
few of them ever returned. The earl of Carrick 
here mentioned was Adam de Kilconath, the hus- 
band of the lady IMarjory, only daughter of Nigel 
earl of Carrick, whose recent death in the Holy 
wars had left her heiress in her own right of the 
whole lands and earldom of Carrick. Her hus- 
band, Adam de Kilconath, who became earl of 
CaiTick in her right, having also been slain in 
Palestine in 1270, she afterwards became the wife 




of Robert de Bnis, the fathei- of the restorer of the 
Scottisli monarchy. /\ . 

In the meantime, founding upon tlie papal ^rant, 
the king of England, in 12G9, attempted to levy 
the tenth of tlie ecclesiastical revennes in Scot- 
land, for the crusades. The attempt was spirit- 
edly met by the Scottisli clerfry, who, not content 
with appealing to Rome, to show their indepen- 
dence both of the papal legate and the English 
king, assembled in a provincial council at Perth, 
under the authority of the bull of Pope Honorius 
IV., granted in the year 1225, during the reign of 
Alexander the Second. [See ante, p. CO.] At 
this council, over which one of their own bishops 
presided, they passed various canons for the regu- 
lation of the Scottish church, which remained in 
force till the Reformation, and with those of the 
council of 1242, are preserved in the Chartulary 
of Aberdeen. The first of them appointed a coun- 
cil of the national clergy of Scotland to be held 
annually, and the second decreed that each of the 
bishops should, in rotation, be " conservator statu- 
torum," or jn-otector of the statutes, and during the 
interval between each council he should enforce 
obedience to the canons, under pain of ecclesias ■ 
tical censures. \_Fordun, b. 10. c. 23, 24, 26. Chr. 
Meh. pp. 241, 242.] 

In 1270, Alexander's queen gave birth to a 
second son, who was named David, but who died 
in his eleventh year. The country at this period 
enjoyed both peace and plenty, and few events of 
a domestic nature seem to have occurred of suffi- 
cient importance to deserve a place in history. 
The friendly relations which had been for some 
time maintained with England were not impaired 
by the death of Henry m., which took place No- 
vember 16, 1272. At the coronation of Henry's 
son and successor, Edward I., at Westminster, 
19 August, 1274, Alexander and his queen, Mar- 
garet, Edward's sister, were present, with a splen- 
did train of his nobility. Before proceeding to 
London, Alexander took care to obtain from his 
royal brother-in-law a letter declaring that his 
friendly visit to him, on this occasion, should not 
be construed into anything prejudicial to the inde- 
pendence of Scotland. In those feudal times such 
a precaution was customary, and we find Edward 
himself, when twenty year." afterwards he jeut 

some ships to tlio assistance of the king of France, 
his feudal superior for the duchy of Normandy. 
requiring from that monarch a similar declaration. 
About six months after she had attended her bro- 
ther's coronation, Alexander lost his queen, who 
died 26th February 1275, in the prime of her age. 

In 1275, a tenth of the church revenues of Scot- 
land was again required by the Pope, for the rcliel 
of the Holy Land. Benomund de Vicci, corrupted 
Into Bagimont, was sent to collect this contribu- 
tion, which was paid by all the clergy, except the 
regulars of the Cistertian order; that order having 
compounded with the Pope, by granting a general 
aid of fifty thousand merks ; and thus the amonnt 
of their annual revenues throughout Europe re- 
mained unknown. Bagimont was prevailed upon 
by the Scottish clergy to apply to Rome on their 
behalf for an abatement of the tax ; but the Pope, 
remwnbering no doubt their former resistance to 
his demands, refused to grant any commutation, 
and it was rigidly exacted. The rent-roll by which 
this tax was levied is known in history by the 
name of " Bagimont's roll," the estimate being 
made not according to " the ancient extent, but 
the true value." {Fordun, b. 10. c. 35.] Two 
years thereafter, Alexander was involved in a dis- 
pute with the bishop of Durham, who accused him 
of encroachments on the English marches. The 
king of Scots sent five ambassadors to the court of 
Edward, with the declaration that he had only 
maintained the marches according to ancient usage, 
that is, "to the floodniark towards the south," 
IFmlera, vol. ii. p. 84,] and bearing a proposal 
that commissioners shoidd be appointed by both 
crowns to adjust the matter. This dispute, which 
Lord Hailes thinks, and with good reason, related 
only to a salmon fishing at the month of the 
Tweed, was, soon after, amicably settled. 

In 1278 Alexander attended the English parlia- 
ment at Westminster on Michaelmas day, when he 
took the general and traditional oath of fealty to 
Edward in the following tenns: "I, Alexander, 
king of Scotland, do acknowledge m3-self the liege- 
man of my lord Edward king of England, against 
all deadly." This Edward accepted, " saving the 
claim of homage for the kingdom of Scotland, 
whenever he or his heirs should think proper to 
make it." [Jhatlera, vol. ii. p. 126] On tliii: 





occasion Robert do Bnis, eldest son of the lord of 
Amiandale, and who was, by marriage, earl of 
Carrick, — having seven years before espoused 
Martha or Marjory, countess of Camck in her 
ovra right, the widow of his old companion in 
arras, and fellow-crnsadcr, Adam de Kilconath, — 
by the command of Alexander and with the ap- 
probation of Edward, performed the accompany- 
mg ceremony of homage, in these words: "I, 
Robert cai-1 of Carrick, according to the authority 
given to me by my lord the king of Scotland, in 
presence of the king of England, and other pre- 
lates and barons, by which the power of swearing 
upon the soul of the king of Scotland was confer- 
red upon me, have, in presence of the king of 
Scotland, and commissioned thereto by his special 
precept, sworn fealty to Lord Edward king of 
England in these words : ' I, Alexander king of 
Scotland, shall bear faith to my lord Edward king 
of England and his heirs, with my life and mem- 
bers, and worldly substance ; and I shall faith- 
fully perform the services, used and wont, for tlie 
lands and tenements which I hold of the said 
king.' " This having been sworn by the earl of 
CaiTick, was confirmed and ratified by the king of 
Scotland. [Ibid.'] Both kings were then and al- 
ways amicably disposed towards each other, and 
the time had not yet come for Edward to advance 
those claims of supremacy over the kingdom of 
Scotland which, whether well or ill founded, had 
30 often created disquiet between the two king- 
doms, and were only finally got rid of on the field 
of Bannockburn. It is remarkable that the cere- 
mony of homage, under the reservation on Ed- 
ward's part of tlie claim of fealty for the kingdom 
of Scotland, should have been on this occasion 
performed by the father of that Bruce who, after 
the long struggle for independence, should have at 
last succeeded in rescuing the kingdom from the 
claim for ever. The following portrait of Alex- 
ander in. is from a print of the parliament of 
Edward I. in which the above ceremony was 
performed, published in Pinkerton's portraits of 
lUustrions persons of Scotland, taken from a copy, 
m the coLection of the earl of Buchan, from an 
ancient limning formerly in the College of Arms, 


In 1281 the treaty which, in 1266, had been 
concluded witli Norway, was farther cemented by 
the marriage of Margaret, the only daughter of 
Alexander, who was then twenty-one yeai's old, 
to Eric king of Norway, then in his fom'teenth 
year. A dowry of fourteen thousand merks was 
given with the princess, who was accompanied to 
the NoiTvegian com-t by Walter Bailloch earl of 
Menteith and his countess, the abbot of Balmeri- 
no. Sir- Bernai-d Montalto, and other knights and 
barons. The alliance thus happily formed between 
the two countries was calculated to put an end to 
those troubles which the restless chieftains of the 
western islands so frequently occasioned by their 
turbulence and ambition, and the wavering fealty 
of whom even the late treaty of peace had failed 
to secure for any length of time to Scotland. It 
appears that notwithstanding the submission ol 
King Magnus, Alexander had been compelled in 
1275 to lead an anned force against the Isle oi 
Man, and in 1282, the veiy year following the 
marriage of the princess Jlargaret, Alexander 
Comyn earl of Budian and constable of Scotland, 
proceeded with an army to suppress some dis- 
turbances In the lately ceded islands. [Fadeta, 
vol. u. p. 20.5.'] 




Soon after the marriage of his sister, Alexander 
the prince of Scotland, then in his nineteenth 
year, was united, in 1282, to JIar;;aret, the daui;h- 
ter of Gny earl of Flanders. The ceremony took 
place at Roxburgh, and the rejoicings lasted for 
fifteen days. The king himself was, at this time, 
only in his forty-first year, and might reasonably 
have expected a lengthened reign, while the mar- 
riages of his son and daughter, thus so auspicious- 
ly formed, gave an almost certain hope that his 
sceptre would be transmitted to descendants of his 
o^vn line. But a singular train of calamities fol- 
lowing each other in vapid sucecssion, soon de- 
stroyed all such hopes and expectations. The 
queen of Norway died about the end of 1283, 
leaving an only child, known in Scottish history 
as " the Maiden of Norway;" and very soon after, 
on the 28th of January 1284, the prince of Scot- 
land, who had alwa3's been of a w-eak constitution, 
also died, at the abbey of Lindores in Fife, leav- 
ing no issue. Prince David, the youngest son of 
Alexander, had, as already stated (p. 95), died 
in 1281, the year of his sister's marriage. Both 
princes were interred at Dunfermline. 

Being thus bereaved of his children, the first 
care of Alexander was to take the necessary mea- 
sures for the settlement of the succession. On the 
5th of February, 128'!, the estates of the kingdom 
assembled at Scone, when the prelates and barons 
became bound to acknowledge Margaret, princess 
of Norway, as their sovereign, " failing any chil- 
dren whom Alexander might have, and failing the 
issue of the prince of Scotland, deceased ;" it not 
being then known whether his widow was preg- 
nant. [Fwdera, vol. ii. p. 266.] 

In the following year, being earnestly entreated 
by the lords of his council and the estates of the 
realm, Alexander deemed it prudent to contract a 
second marriage, and accordingly sent Thomas 
Tartar, the lord chancellor, with Sir Patrick Gra- 
hame. Sir Waiiam St. Clair, and Sir John de 
Soulis, knights, as ambassadors to France, to 
choose for his bride Joletta, the beautiful and ac- 
complished daughter of the count de Drenx. This 
lady accompanied them to Scotland, and their 
nuptials took place at Jedburgh, April 15, 1285. 
In the midst of the marriage rejoicings, an inci- 
dent occurred which, in that superstitious age, dis- 

mayed and distressed the guests who had thronged 
to the royal festivities. Amidst the masques and 
pastimes usually produced on such occasions, and 
when tlic enjoyment of the scene was at its height, 
a spectral image of death glided with fearful ges- 
tures among the revellers, and after striking ter- 
ror into all present, vanished suddenly. The 
thing was nothing more than a well-acted piece ot 
mummery, or clever pantomimic representation by 
a person expert in such performances, which were 
not unusual in the "Moralities" and "Mysteries" 
as enacted in those days by the monks, but it was 
held as if foreshadowing those misfortunes which 
so soon after befell Scotland, beginning with the 
sudden and violent death of the king himself. 
[Forduii, b. 10. c. 11.] To the north of the burgh 
of Kinghorn, on the sea-coast, of Fife, and north 
era shore of the Frith of Forth, there stood in 
Alexander's time a castle, beaiing the name of 
the burgh, which was often the residence of the 
Scottish kings, but of which no vestige now re- 
mains. This castle and the domains attached to 
it, were frequently pledged, along with otbere, in 
security for the jointure of their queens. The 
young queen Joletta appears to have been resid- 
ing here on the 16th March 1286, when Alex- 
ander the Third, who had been enjoying the chase 
towards Buratisland and Inverkeithiiig, turned 
his horse's head, in the dusk of the evening, to- 
wards Kmghom. The road then wound along 
the top of the rocks which overhang the sea, and 
as it was dangerous to proceed in the dark, his 
attendants strongly m'ged him to remain at luver- 
keithing till the morning. Disregarding their re- 
monstrances the king galloped forward, and when 
little more than a mile west from Kinghorn, his 
horse stumbled, and he was thrown over a lofty 
and rugged precipice, and killed on the spot. The 
place is still familiarly known in the traditions of 
the district as the Iving's Wood-End. The ac- 
companying cut represents the scene of this un- 
happy catastrophe. This event, the greatest na- 
tional calamity that Scotland ever sustained, took 
place when Alexander was in the 45th year of his 
age, and 37th of his reign. His corpse, after be- 
ing embalmed, was solemnly interred at Dunferm- 
line, among the kings of Scotland. 
The loss of a sovereign so deservedly beloved 




— altliougli at the time they could not 
have foreseen the premature death of 
his granddaughter the princess of 
Norway, mucli less the contest for the 
succession to the crown, the overween- 
ing claims of the king of England, or 
the subsequent intestine war and the 
straggle for Independence which em- 
bittered it, in which the best blood of 
Scotland was shed and many noble 
families ruined and cast into exile — 
yet the many amiable qualities of the 
deceased monarch, the series of do- 
mestic disappointments by which his 
government had been preceded, and 
those presentiments of coming ca- 
lamities which so often cast their 
shadows before them, tended to 
overwhelm the people of Scotland with grief 
and dismay, and the misfortunes and miseries 
which followed, caused it to be long and deeply 
deplored. "Neuer," says honest Balfour, "was 
ther more lamentatione and sorrow for a king in 
Scotland than for him; for the nobility, clergie, 
and above all, the gentrey and comons, bedoued hes 
coffin for 17 dayes space with riuoletts of teares." 
[Annals of Scotland, vol. i. p. 77.] The oldest 
specimen of the Scottish language known to be in 
existence is a sort of monody, written on the 
death of Alexander, which has been preserved by 
Winton : 

" Quhen Alysandyr, cure kyng, wes dede, 
That Scotland led in luwe and le, 
Away wes sons of ale and brede, 
Of wyne and wax, of gamyn and gle. 
Oui'e gold wes changyd into lede. — 
Christ, liom in-to virgynyte, 
Succour Scotland, and remede. 
That stad is in perplexyte." 

Winton, vol. i. p. 401. 

The death of Alexander, so disastrous to Scot- 
land, is said to have been foretold, the day previous, 
to the earl of March, who was one of the chiefs of 
the English faction during Alexander's minority, 
at his castle of Dunbar, by Thomas of Ercildon, 
commonly called Thomas the Rhymer. On the 
night preceding the king's death, Thomas having 
arrived at the castle, was jocularly asked by the 


Scene of the death of Alexander 111. 
earl if the next day would produce any remarkable 
event ; to which the bard replied, " Alas ! for 
to-moiTow, a day of calamity and misery! Before 
the twelfth hour shall be heard a blast so vehe- 
ment that it shaU exceed those of every former 
period, a blast which shall strike the nations with 
amazement, shall humble what is proud, and what 
is fierce shall level with the ground ! The sorest 
wind and tempest that ever was heard of in Scot- 
land !" Next morning, discovering no unusual ap- 
pearance in the weather which indicated a storm, 
the day on the contrary being remarkably cleai- 
and mild, the earl and those who were with him 
began to doubt the powers of the prophet, as Tho- 
mas was esteemed, and having ordered him into 
theii- presence, they upbraided him as an impostor, 
and hastened to enjoy their wonted repast. Bui 
his lordship had scarcely seated himself at table, 
and the shadow of the dial fallen on the horn- of 
noon, when an express, his horse covered with 
foam, appeared at the castle-gate, and demanded 
an audience. On being asked what news he 
brought, he exclaimed: "I do indeed bring news, 
but of a lamentable kind, to be deplored by the 
whole realm of Scotland! Alas, our renowned 
king has ended his fair life at Kinghorn!" "This," 
cried Thomas, gathering himself up in the con- 
sciousness that his prediction had been fulfilled, 
" This is the scaithful wind and dreadfiil tempest 
which shaU blow such a calamity and trouble to 




the whole realm of Scotland!" Whether " the sun- 
set of life had given mystical lore" to this singular 
personage, or he had uttered his prediction in the 
usual mystical language of sootlisayei-s, leaving its 
rulfilment to accident or the weather, as chance 
might determine, it is certain that the story has been 
generally credited from that time till the present, 
and it would be very dillicnlt now to shake the 
universal belief in it. As indicating at least the 
impression which seems to have prevailed, that 
the death of Alexander foreboded gi-eatcr disaster 
and woe to Scotland, than any former event in our 
annals, it is not without a certain degi'ee of histo- 
rical interest, and could not well be omitted in 
any najrrative of Alexander's life. 

The appearance and manners of Alexander the 
Third were in the higliest degree noble and digni- 
fied, and snch as befitted a king. Though tall 
and large-boned, his limbs were well-formed and 
strongly knit. His figure was majestic, and his 
countenance handsome and expressive. His sin- 
cerity of character and excellent understanding 
were such as to command the respect while they 
won tlie attachment of his people. He is described 
as having been aff\ible in demeanoiu', easy of ac- 
cess, firm of purpose, and of a just yet generous 
disposition. His kingdom he governed with wis- 
dom and energy. With England he maintained 
constant peace and amity, yet, as Lord Ilailes 
justly remarks, never submitted to any concessions 
which might injure the independence or impair the 
liberties of the realm or the church of Scotland. 
In the administration of the laws he was diligent 
and impartial, and his inflexible love of justice, 
and patience in hearing disputes, were amortgst 
the qualities which endeared him to his subjects. 
For the punishment of oficnders and the redress of 
wi-ongs, he divided Scotland into four great dis- 
tricts, and made an annual progress through each, 
attended by his justiciary and his principal nobles. 
In passing from one county to another he required 
the attendance of the sherifi" witli the whole force 
of the shire ; and the train of retainers of the 
nobles who accompanied him being, while travel- 
ling, limited by law, the people were thus relieved 
of the charge of supporting the royal retinue. lie 
gi'eatly contributed to din^inish the burdens of the 
feudal system, and to restrain the license and op- 

pressions of the nobility ; keeping them in quiet 
subjection to his authority, and obliging each to 
act peaceably in his own allotted sphere. In his 
private life, Alexander was upright, temperate and 
pious, and in all his domestic relations kind and 
affectionate. During his reign, according to For- 
dun, " the church flourished, its ministers were 
treated with reverence, vice was openly discour- 
aged, cunning and treachery were repressed, injury 
ceased, and the reign of truth and justice main- 
tained throughout the laud." [Funlim, b. 10, 
ch. xli.] A ■ 

In Alexaiuler's reign the little trade that was in 
the country became so flourishing that foreign 
merchants were attracted to Scotland in numbers, 
fi'om the maritime and commercial cities of Italy, 
France, Germany, and the Low countries, who 
were allowed to traffic with the burgesses, and bad 
free and safe access to mai'kets in every burgb 
town. The imports were chiefly wine, cloth ano 
rich stuffs, armour and other commodities, while 
the staple exports of the kingdom consisted almost 
solely of fish, wool, and hides. The exportation 
of Scottish merchandise was, however, prohibited 
by Alexander under severe laws, owing to the fre- 
quent losses of valuable cargoes, by pirates, wrecks, 
and unforeseen arrestments. Notwithstanding 
this restriction, which showed very narrow ideas 
on the subject of trade, Scotland, we are told, 
speedily became rich in every kind of wealth, and 
in the production of the arts and manufactures. 
Agriculture, too, had made great progress in Alex- 
ander's peaceful reign, and, besides the produce of 
the gi'ound, flocks and herds abounded everywhere 
According to Winton : 

" Yowmen, pewero karl, or knawe 
That wos of imxht an ox til hawe, 
He gert that man hawc part in pluche , 
Swa wes com in his land cnwchc ; 
Swa than begouth, and eftcr lang 
Of land wes mesure, anc ox-gang. 
Mychty men tliat had ma 
Oxyn, he gcrt in plnchys g.i. 
Be that vcrtu all his land 
Of com he gert be abowndand." 

Vol. i. p. 40U 

Indeed, Scotland at period presented snob a 
field for commercial enterprise that a number of 




Lombard merchants, who were in that age the 
most active traders in Europe, and then filled 
every mart in England, arrived in the kingdom, 
and oifered to establish manufacturing and mer- 
cantile settlements in various parts, specifying 
particularly an island near Cramond, and the mount 
above Queensfeny. All they asked in return was 
to be allowed certain spii'itual immunities. Their 
proposal was, nowever, opposed by some of the 
most powerful of the nobility, though Alexander 
himself is said to have been desirous of encourag- 
ing them ; and their negotiations on the subject 
were defeated only by his sudden and premature 
death. [Fordun, b. 10. ch. xli. xlii.] 

In the period of two hundi-ed and thirty years, 
ivhich elapsed from the accession of Malcolm Can- 
more to the death of Alexander the Thti'd, that is, 
from the middle of the eleventh to near the close 
of the thirteenth centmy, a great change had taken 
place on Scotland as a nation. The vast moral 
revolution which the Saxon connexion and influ- 
ence of Malcolm's queen, Margaret, at first re- 
motely worked upon the country bad, during that 
time, extended its effects more and more thi-ough- 
out aU its relations, to the gi-eat improvement of 
the people, and their steady advance in civiliza- 
tion. But a sad reverse was now to take place 
in their destinies. The line of Scotland's ancient 
kings terminated with Alexander the Third, and 
the continuous train of miseries and wasting cala- 
mities in which the kingdom was involved for 
more than a generation after his unhappy death, 
fi'om the long and fierce stniggle that ensued for 
the succession to the throne, in which the national 
liberty and independence were frequently at stake, 
marks a peculiar era in the history of Scotland, 
and caused the memory of so good a king to be 
long held in afiectionate remembrance by the 
Scottish people. 

During the interval from what is usually called 
in Scottish annals " the Saxon Conquest," — when 
by the aid of a Northumbrian Saxon army, Mal- 
colm Canmore was enabled, first to drive Mac- 
beth beyond the Forth, and fom- years afterwards 
to defeat and slay him at the battle of Lum- 
phanan in Aberdeenshhe, — to the death of Alex- 
ander the Third, the last of Malcolm's dynasty, the 
advance made in civilization, in the useful arts, 

and in the habits of social life among the people ol 
Scotland was most remarkable. This was chieflj 
owing in the first instance, to the settlement of the 
Anglo-Saxon nobles and leaders in the Lothians 
and lowlands, and, in the second place, to the in- 
troduction of the feudal system by the Norman 
adventurers who followed them. The revolution 
that in the course of these changes took place in 
the laws and customs and forms of government 
was strikingly favourable to the progressive im- 
provement of the country. The Saxon and Nor- 
man colonization of the southern and midland dis- 
tricts exei'cised a far more direct and beneficial 
influence on the national character than ever was, 
or could be, derived from the Celtic race ; much 
of what is peculiar and distinctive in its formation 
being mainly ascribable to this important acces- 
sion to the population ; and from this period the 
Saxon domination may be said to have been firmly 
and securely established in Scotland. In the reign 
of Edgar one of its principal effects was to con- 
fine the Celtic portion of the community to the 
mountainous districts, while the more enlarged 
and comprehensive policy of Alexander led him to 
extend the Saxon institutions to those portions of 
the country which he may be said to have con- 
quered, and, as we have seen, by the erection of 
separate sherifi"doms, to bring them more imme- 
diately under the operation and subjection of the 
laws and government. 

The changes which took place on the Scottish 
church and clergy were among the most important 
of the efiects produced by the Saxon conquest, 
and in this respect it may be truly said, as Mi\ 
Daniel Wilson has remarked, to have been " even 
more an ecclesiastical than a civil revolution." 
[^Archceology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, 
p. 604.] By the man-iage of Malcolm Canmore 
with the Saxon princess Margaret, the sister of 
Edgar Atheling, much of elegance and refinement 
were introduced into the Scottish court. By her 
influence, joined to that of the Saxon reftigees, 
not only were several of the more gross and bar- 
barous customs of the Scots abolished, and various 
wise and beneficial laws adopted from the system 
of the Anglo-Saxon jurispnidence, but the whole 
form and fabric of religion was reformed, and the 
Scottish church assimilated as much as possible to 




the English, and to that of Rome ; so that, as Mr. 
Wilson says, " in the period wliicli intervened be- 
tween the landing of the fugitive Saxon jirincess 
at St. Margaret's Hope and the death of her 
yonnger son David, nearly all the Scottish sees 
were founded or restored, many of the principal 
monasteries were instituted, theu" chapels and other 
dependencies erected, and the elder order of CiU- 
dee fraternities with their missionary bishops for 
the first time superseded by a complete pai-ochial 
system." [/i/rf.] The change to the better on 
the ecclesiastical architecture of Scotland that fol- 
lowed was proportionately gi'eat. The Scottish 
clcrg_v, although not so wealthy as their Engli.^h 
brethren, appear to have been equally anxious to 
miprove the splendour of their churches, and the 
Gommodiousness of their dwellings. Even before 
the reign of Malcolm Canmore there were at Dun- 
keld, Brechin, Abemethy, and St. Andrews, reli- 
gious edifices, as grand and suitable in their way 
as the state of the arts and manners of those times 
would admit ; but the attention paid to religious 
matters by his pious queen Margaret, and the en- 
couragement given by her to foreign clergymen to 
resort to this kingdom, to whom new establish- 
ments required to be assigned, fixed a new era in 
the style and character of the ecclesiastical build- 
ings in Scotland. The Anglo-Saxon and Norman 
nobles who were driven into this country by the 
oppressions of William of Normandy, historically 
styled the Conqueror, also gave an impetus, by 
their advice and benefactions, to the changes and 
improvements which took place in the ecclesiasti- 
cal architecture of the people amongst whom they 
had found a home. Previous to this period, the 
churches had been in form, square or oblong, gen- 
erally built of timber or baked clay, and covered 
with lead, thatching, or tiles. In imitation of the 
only parts of the military architecture of the pe- 
riod that could be, in any degree, accommodated 
to religious purposes, beside some of these square 
churches, round towers had been erected, either 
as ornamental, or as secure repositories for valua- 
ble things in times of danger. In many instances 
these round towers may have served as belfries, 
and in others as places for conveying signals; 
while in some, it is not unlikely, they were used 
as prisons. In the ecclesiastical aixhitectm-e in- 

troduced at this period, the nave and the aisles, 
the chancel and the choir, were distinct parts of 
the same structure. The relative positions of the 
nave and the aisles were arranged by the practice 
of building these sacred edifices in the form of a 
cross. The native stylo of ecclesiastical architec- 
ture which had been in use was, in the progress of 
the reformation in the church, entirely superseded 
by the mode prevalent in England, as its ecclesi- 
astical system had also been. AVliat immediately 
succeeded appears to have been what is called the 
early or older Norman, to which Mr. \Vilson gives 
the name of the Romanesque style. Of this the 
oldest and one of the most interesting specimens 
now remaining in Scotland is the nave of the 
church founded and endowed by Queen Margaret 
at Dunfermline, where her nujitials with Malcolm 
took place in 1070, which she dedicated to the 
Holy Triiiity, and which was the origin of, and 
partly incoi-poratcd into, the Benedictine abbey of 
Dunfermline. The erection of tlie little chapel of 
St. Margaret in the castle of Edinburgh is assigned 
to the same period. This has been supposed, on 
good grounds, to have been erected over the place 
used for her devotions by Queen Margaret during 
her residence in the castle till her death in 1093. 
" It is in the same style," says Mr. Wilson, 
"though of a plainer character, as the earliest 
portions of IIol^TOod abbej', begun in the year 
1128; and it is worthy of remark, that the era of 
Norman architecture is one in which many of the 
most interesting ecclesiastical edifices in the neigh- 
bourhood of Edinbm-gh were founded, including 
Holyrood abbey, St. Giles' church, and the parish 
churches of Duddlngston, Ratho, Kirkliston, and 
Dalmeny." {^Memorials of Edinburgh, vol. i. p. 
129.] As specimens of the early Norman the 
following may also be mentioned, namely, the 
parish churches of Leuchars, in Fifeshire ; Borth- 
wick, in Mid Lothian ; Gulane, in East Lothian ; 
Uphall, and Abercorn, in West Lothian ; St. He- 
len's, Cockburnspath, in Berwickshire ; Mortlack 
and Monymusk, in Aberdeenshire ; St. Columba's, 
Southend, Kilchonclian, Campbeltown ; and " the 
beautiful little mined church of St. Blane, on the 
island of Bute, with its Noinian chancel arch and 
gi-accful First -pointed chancel; besides various 
others more or less perfect still remaining in Ar- 




pyleshii-e — all preseuting interesting features illus- 
trative of the development of the Romanesque 
style in Scotland, and furnishing evidence of the 
great impetus given to church building at the pe- 
riod." [Wikon^s Arcli(Eologi/, p. Sli-I We learn 
from the work just quoted that the portions which 
remain of the original Norman structure of Alex- 
ander the First's foundation on Inchcolm, (of 
which the cut given in p. 58 will illustrate our 
remarks,) erected about 1123, are characterized 
by the same unornate simplicity that marks the 
little chapel of St. Margaret in the castle of 
Edinburgh, which has already been referred to, 
and that it was not till the reign of David the 
First that any certain examples were furnished 
of the highly decorated late Norman work. 
The architecture of Kelso abbey, founded in 1128 
by David the First, (in the same year with 
Holyrood abbey,) and the singularly rich de- 
tails of which have made it one of the most cele- 
brated remains of the middle ages in Scotland, is 
Saxon or early Norman, with the exception of 
four magnificent central arches, which are decid- 
edly Gothic ; and is a beautiful specimen of this 
particular style, being regular and uniform in its 
structm-e. Though built under the same auspices, 
and nearly about the same period as the abbeys 
of Melrose and Jedburgh, it totally differs from 
them in form and character, being in the shape of 
a Greek cross. Melrose abbey, founded in 1136, 
was partially consumed by fii-e in 1322, and what 
now remains of the re-edified structm-e exhibits a 
style of architecture of the richest Gothic, which 
has been ascertained to belong to a later age than 
that of David. The well-known masterly de- 
scription of it by Sii- Walter Scott in the ' Lay of 
the Last Minstrel,' may, however, not unfitly be 
applied to the richer portions of the early Scottish 
Gothic style, which were constructed at the close 
of this period. 

" The darkened roof rose high aloot 

On pillars lofty and light and small ; 
The keystone locked each ribbed aisle 
Was a flenr-de-lys or a quatre-feuille 
The coj bells were cai'ved grotesque and gnm, 
And the pillars, with cluster'd shafts so trim, 
With base and with capital flourish'd ai-ound, 
Seem'd bundles of lances which garlands had bound." 

The chief object of architectural interest in Jed- 
burgh abbey is the Norman door, which, for the 
elegance of its workmanship, and the symmetiy of 
its proportions is unrivalled in Scotland. 

Although not strictly pertaining till a later 
period to Scotland, perhaps the most interesting 
specimen of later Norman work is the cathedral of 
St. Magnus at liirkwaU in Orkney, the most per- 
fectly preserved cathedi'al of that epoch, the foun- 
dation of which was laid in the year 1138, by 
Rognwald or Ronald, Norwegian earl or count of 
Orkney, the nephew of the sainted Magnus. Like 
St. Mungo's in Glasgow, it boasts of being a com- 
plete cross church, with all its essential parts en- 
tire, and these are the only two cathedral edificea 
now existing in Scotland, to which this descrip- 
tion applies. A remarkably curious and indeed 
unique example of the architecture of the period 
is the little church and tower of St. Rule, at St. 
Andrews. The Norman prevailed about a hun 
dred years, dming which period the ecclesiastical 
architecture of England and Scotland was much 
the same in character as well as details. The 
next style that was introduced was the Fii-st- 
pointed or early English, which was adopted about 
1170, and was used tiU about 1242 — a period of 
seventy years. Of this, which Is considered an 
improvement on the later Norman, the crypt and 
choir of Glasgow cathedral, built between 1188 
and 1197, the nave of Dunblane cathedral, Kil- 
winning abbey, the ruined abbey of Dryburgh, 
and the chancel of St. Blane's, Bute, already men- 
tioned, are fine examples. Subsequently the ec- 
clesiastical architectui'e of Scotland assumed a 
somewhat different style from that of England, 
and became more distinctive and peculiar in its 
character. The magnificent abbey of Aberbroth- 
wick, which was founded by William the Lion in 
1178, and which furnishes a most interesting spe- 
cimen of the early Scottish Gothic, is thought to 
mark the historic epoch in which the native styles 
had theu" rise. IWilson's Archceologi/, p. 618.] 
As an illustration of the progi-essive character of 
Scottish architectm-e, and the slow rate at which 
ecclesiastical structures in that age were erected, 
the reader is presented with the following view of 
"The North Aisle of the Nave of Dunfermline 
Abbey, looking west." 




The architectural distinctions which are here 
observable indicate a difference of ages iu tlie styles 
adopted as well as in the periods of erection. The 
nave is the only portion of the original abbey 
church which remains. At the time of the removal 
of the relics of the sainted queen Margaret, in the 
beginning of the reign of Alexander the Third, as 
already related (see p. 81) the choir was remodel- 
led according to the prevailing first pointed style 
of the thirteenth century, and on this occasion the 
nave also must have undergone some modifiea; 
tions. The interior of the nave is thus refen-ed to 
in ' Billings' Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiqui- 
ties of Scotland,' article Dunfermline: "Towards 
the western extremity the clustered pillar supports 
the deeply moulded pointed arch," — this later 
style probably indicating the period wlicn the new 
church was reliuilt, — "while further on," viz. 
towards the fi'ont of the engraving, " the sup- 
porting pillars are circular with tlie stunted hard 
Norman capital, and the arches are semicircular. 
The cylindrical shafts of the easternmost arch on 
either side ai-e adorned by lai-ge zigzags,'' indicat- 

ing the varieties of the early Norman. In the 
middle ages the most skilful architects were gen- 
erally monks or secular clergymen, who were at 
once the patrons and chief practitioners of the 
higliest branches of the art ; hence the peculiarly 
rich and splendid style of their architectural work, 
and as a guild of la}' masons was generally organ- 
ized wherever any great ecclesiastical erection 
was going on, hence, too, that singular progres- 
sive unity of pui^pose traceable throughout the 
various styles of the ecclesiastical architecture ol 
that period. 

During the reigns of Alexander the Second and 
Alexander the Third, Scotland began fur the first 
time to assume that positicm among the nations of 
Europe which it continued to sustain while it re- 
mained an independent kingdom. Its geographi- 
cal and political isolation, and smallness of extent 
and power in proportion to the neighbouring realm 
of England, as well as its intestine wiirs, and us 
has been remarked, " veiy partial share in the great 
movements of mediajval Europe, including the 
crusades," had hitherto prevented its importance 




from being acknowledged ; but its growing influ- 
ence and gradual development of strength under 
the monarchs of the period included within what 
is called "the Saxon Conquest," could not fail to 
be, in course of time, duly recognised by the other 
powers ; and the marriages of the second Alexan- 
der, first to Joan, the sister of John king of Eng- 
land, the daughter of a French lady and educated 
in France, and afterwards to Mary de Couci; of 
Alexander, prince of Scotland, the son of Alexan- 
der the Third; and latterly of Alexander himself, 
to other illustrious ladies connected with that 
kmgdom, could not fail to mark the consideration 
in which Scotland was at this period beginning to 
be held. It may here be stated that Enguen-and 
de Couci, the father of Mary de Couci, the mother of 
Alexander the Third, was one of the most accom- 
plished knights of the age in which he lived, and 
conspicuous above his contemporaries for his vir- 
tues and abilities. He stood so high in the esti- 
mation of his brother knights and nobles that they 
at one period seem to have entertained a project 
of placing him on the throne of France. Win- 
ton (vol. ii. p. 482), says that on account of hi.s 
brave actions, his possessions, and three mamages 
with ladies of royal and illustrious families, he was 
surnamed Le Grand. He was also one of those 
famous romantic poets of chivalry, who in the mid- 
dle ages were known by the name of Troubadours, 
as were also many of his family. His grandfather, 
Raoul I., lord of Couci, accompanied Philip Au- 
gustus in the earlier crusades, to Palestine. His 
nephew Renaud, Castellan de Couci, with whom 
Raoul is sometimes confounded, is the hero of the 
old French ballad of ' The Knight of Curtesy and 
the Lady of Faguel.' Having gone to the Holy 
Land with Richard Coenr de Lion, he was mor- 
tally wounded in defending a castle in 1191, and 
desired his squire, after his death to cany his 
heart to his mistress Gabrielle de Vergy, wife of 
the lord of Fayel. The squire was intercepted by 
the husband, and the heart of the unfortunate 
Castellan was by his orders dressed for supper 
and eaten by his wife, who, on being informed of 
the horrible fact, refused all sustenance, and died 
of voluntary stai-vation. The fame of the father 
of his future consort as a votary " of the gaj- 
science," and one of the most esteemed ProveuQal 

poets, as well as one of the most gallant knighta 
of the age, must have been well known to the 
Scottish king, and no doubt had its effect, with 
the attractions of the daughter, in directing the 
affections of Alexander II. towards her, on the 
death of Queen Joan. 

The de Coucis were long an illustrious family in 
France, and in the reign of Charles the Sixth, 
the then lord de Couci, one of the greatest warriors 
of his age, married the daughter of the duke de 
Lorraine. Our historians have universally con- 
tented themselves with mentioning the name of 
the mother of Alexander the Thu-d, without giving 
any account of her lineage or her father's illus- 
trious qualities both as a poet and a knight. The 
propensity to verse, song, and the dance, was one 
of the characteristics of the Norman chivab-y, and 
through the means of the Norman settlers in Scot- 
land, a similar taste must have been gradually 
encouraged at the Scottish court. Of this fond- 
ness for mirth and the gay poetry of the trouba- 
dours, which appears to have prevailed to some 
extent at the Scottish court during the reigns of 
Alexander the Second and Thud, a valuable proof 
seems to be furnished by the celebrated chesspiece, 
of which a woodcut is given. This chesspiece is 

preserved in the collection formed by Sir John 
Clerk at Penicuick house, and was found by John 




Adair, geogi-apher for Scotland, in 1682, some- 
where in the north, while enj^afjed in niakinir a 
survey of the kingdom. Tlie piece consists in all 
of seven figures, and is supposed, although not we 
think on very sufficient grounds, to be of Scottish 

In this curious and ingenious piece of art, a re- 
presentation and description of which is given in 
* Wilson's Archaeology and Prehistoric AnnaLs of 
Scotland,' page 579, (where it is supposed to be- 
long to the fourteenth century), the queen, pro- 
bably intended for Queen IMary de Couci, is re- 
presented crowned and seated on her throne, with 
a lapdog on her knee, and what is apparently a 
book, perhaps of troubadour poetry, in her right 
hand. On her left stands a knight in full armour, 
with drawn sword and shield, who appears to be 
reciting verses, while a trouvere or minstrel on 
her left seems to be accompanying him on the 
crowde, a musical instrument then in use which 
somewhat resembled the violin. The four female 
figures behmd have hold of each other by the hand, 
while the one next the minstrel bears a palm- 
branch. The whole seems intended to embody 
some display before the queen of the joyous science, 
in which the troubadours took so much delight. 

AleXjVNder, a surname in Scotland, probably derived ori- 
ginally from the first king of that name, but chiefly borne by 
the earis of Stirling and their descendants. The family of 
AJesander, earls of Stirling, is traced from a remote period 
by genealogists, who derive it from a branch of the Mac- 
donalds. Somerled, king of the Isles, who lived in the reign 
of Malcolm the Fourth, and was slain in battle about 1164, 
had by bis second mfe Effrica, daughter of Clave the Red, 
king of Man, three sons, Dugall, Reginald, and Angus. 
After Somerled's death, the Isles, with the exception of 
Arran and Bute, which had come to him with his wife, 
descended to Dugall, his eldest son by his second marriage. 
Dugall also possessed the district of Lorn. On his death 
the Isles did not immediately pass into the possession of 
his children, but appear, according to the Highland law of 
succession, to have been acquired by his brother Reginald, 
who, in consequence, assumed the title of king of the Isles. 
ISkene's Eistoiy of the Highlanders^ vol. ii. p. 49. ] The 
portion of property which fell to Reginald's share on his 
father's death consisted of Islay among the Isles, mth Kin- 
t\Te and part of Lorn. The genealogists of the nohle family 
of Stirling have confounded this Reginald with his cousin 
Reginald the Nonve^un, king of Man and the Isles, who wa.s 
contemporary with hhn, and who was the son of Godred the 
Black, king of Maa, the brother of Efinca, Somerled's second 
wife. Reginald, lord of Islay and South Kintyre and king of 
the Isles, was the father of Donald, the progenitor of the clan 
Donald, who had three sons, Roderick, Angus, and Alexander, 
Roderick's male descendants became extnict in the third gen- 
eration. Tlie second son, Angus, lord of Islay, the Angus Mohr 

of the Sennachies, and tho first of his race who iicknowlnlp-J 
himself a subject of the King of Scotliuul, wjui ancfstor of tli« 
earls of Ross, lards of the Isles, of tlio hirdii Mucdunnld, and 
of the earls of Antnm in Ireland. His grandson, John, lord 
of the Isles, took for his second wife, the princejis Margim-t, 
daughter of Robert II., and liis tliird son by her, Alvxunilrr, 
Lord of Lochabcr, forfeited in 1-131, had two sons, AngUH, 
ancestor of the Macalisters of Loup, Argyleshire, and Alex 
ander Macdister, who obtained the lands oi Menstrie, Clack- 
mannansliire, in feu from tlie family of Argjle, and was an- 
cestor of the earls of Stirling. His posterity took the sumHine 
of Alexander from his Christian name. He had u son, Thoimm, 
2d baron ot Menstrie, who is mentioned as an arbiter in a 
dispute between the abbot of Cambuskonneth and Sir David 
Bruce of Clackmannan, Gth March 1505. Tliomas* son, 
Andrew, 3d baron, was father of Alexander, Alexander, 4lli 
biu-on, who had a son, Andrew, 5th baron. This gentleman 
was fatlier of another Alexander Alexander, Gth biiron of 
Menstrie, who died in 1594, leanng an only son. Sir William 
Alexander, 7th baron of Menstrie and first carl of Stirling, a 
Memoir of whom is subjoined in larger type. 

Sir William Alexander, the first earl of Stirling, married 
Janet, daughter and heiress of Sir William Erskine, titular 
archbishop of Glasgow, parson of Campsie, chancellor of tha 
cathedral of Glasgow, and commendator of Paisley, a younger 
son of Erskine of Balgony, and cousin of the regent earl oi 
Mar. By lier he bad seven sons and three daughters. 

The earl's eldest son, WiUiam, Viscount Canada and Lord 
Alexander, was appointed an cxtraordinarj' lord of session in 
Scotland, in room of his father, 27th January 1635. He 
spent a winter in Nova Scotia as deputy-lieutenant, but the 
hjirdships he endured while there injured his constitution. 
He died at London in 1638, during the hfetime of his father. 
By his vrife. Lady Mary Doughis, daughter of William, first 
marquis of Douglas, he bad a son William, the second earl of 
StirUng, who died within six months after succeeding to the 
title, under eight years of age- 
Earl William was succeeded by his uncle Henry, who was 
the third son of the first earl, — the second son, Anthony, who 
had been knighted, and was master of works in Scotland, hav* 
ing, like his eldest brother Alexander, died before his father. 

The third earl died in 1644, leaxnng an only son, also named 
Hcnr}*, who became the fourth earl. He died in 1691, leav- 
ing issue four sons, whereof Henry the eldest succeeded as 
fifth earl, but died without issue 4th December 1739. His 
three younger brothers having also died without issue in his 
lifetime, the title became dormant. 

The first earl of Stirling's fourth son, John, married the 
daugliter and heiress of John Graham of Gartmore, of which 
estate the earl obtained a charter 23d Januar}' 1636. By this 
lady the Hon. John Alexander had a daughter but no sons; 
and in 1644, he sold Gartmore to Graham of Donnans, pro- 
genitor of the baronets of Gartmore, and the Grahams of 

Charles, the first carl's fifth son, bad an only sou Charles, 
who died without issue. Ludo^Hck the sixth son died in in- 
fancy, and James the youngest died without issue male. 

In 1830, a gentleman of the name of Mr. Alexander Hum- 
phrvs, or Alexander, came for^vard, and claimed tho titles 
and honours as descended from a younger bmnch of the fam- 
ily by the female side, liJs mother Hannah, the wife of Wil- 
Uani Humphrj's, Esq. of the Larches, Warwickshire, asstuning 
to be countess of Stirling in her own right. She died in Sep- 
tember 1814, and in April 1825 ho began to style himself 
earl of Stirling and Dovan, but was in 1839, tried before the 
High Court of Justiciar)', Edinburgh, on a charge of forgioff 




certain documents on which he founded his claim. The jury 
dediu-ed the documents forgeries ; but found the chai-ge ag.-unst 
liumphrys of having forged them not proven. The result of 
the trial was to put an end to his pretensions to the earl- 
dom. Another supposed descendant, M.ajor-general Alexan- 
der, of the United States service, generally styled Lord Stir- 
ling, distinguished himself during the revolution.ary war in 
Korth America, and died in 1783. See Stirling, earl of. 

The noble family of Alexander, e.arls of Caledon in Ireland, 
B descended from a junior branch of the house of Stilling. 

ALEXANDER, Sir William, first eai-1 of 
Stirling, an eminent poet and statesman, styled 
by Driimmond of Hawthomden, " that most ex- 
ceUeut spirit and earliest gem of our north," was 
the son of Alexander Alexander of Menstrie, in 
Stirlingshire, and was born, about 1580, in !Meu- 
strie House, which is celebrated also as the birth- 
place of Su- Ralph Abercromby, and of which a 
wood-cut is given at page 5. All his patrimony 
was the small estate of Menstrie, of which he was 
the seventh proprietor, but he acquired both fortune 
and rank for himself. After completing his edu- 
cation, he accompanied the seventh earl of Ai'gyle 
to the continent as his travelling tutor and com- 
panion. On his return to Scotland, he lived for 
some time in retu'ement, employing himself in 
composing amatory verses. His first poetical ef- 
fusions were inspu'ed by a passion which he en- 
tertained for a lady, whom he fancifully calls 
" Aurora." His suit was unsuccessful. The lady 
of his love married a much older person, and 
like another Petrarch he continued to address 
her in lachrymatory sonnets. These, a hundred 
in number, were published in London in 1604, 
under the title of 'Aiu-ora, containing the First 
Fancies of the Author's Youth.' He subsequently 
man-led Janet, daughter and heii'ess of Su- Wil- 
liam Erskine, cousin of the regent earl of Mar, 
as stated above. He next tmiied his attention 
to grave and moral subjects, with a view to the 
direction of princes and riders, in a series of tra- 
gedies, formed upon the Greek and Roman mo- 
dels, at least in then- chorusses between the acts. 
One of these, founded upon the story of Darius, 
was published in Edinburgh in 1603. He had 
oeen eai-ly introduced to the royal notice, as his 
residence was near the castle of Stirling, where 
James the Sixth often held his court, and shortly 
after that monarch, with whom he had mgratiated 
nimself by his poetiy, had removed to England, 

in the year stated (1603), Alexander followed him 
to London. At court he distinguished himself by 
his genius and accomplishments, and soon obtain- 
ed the place of gentleman of the privy chamber to 
Prince Henry, the eldest son of King James. To 
this youthful and amiable prince he addressed his 
' PariEuesis, or Exhortation to Government,' a po- 
em containing important and useful lessons to an 
heu- of royalty. After Prince Henry's death he 
published it, re-addressed to the new heir-appa- 
rent. Prince Charles. From this poem we may 
quote one short specimen : 

" heavenly knowledge ! which the best sort loves, 

Life of the soul ! reformer of the will ! 

Cleai* light ! which from the mind each cloud removes, 

Pure spring of vertue, physick for each ill ! 

WTiich, in prosperity, a bridle proves. 

And, in adversity, a pillar still. 

Of thee the more men get, the more they crave, 
And think, the more they get, the lesse ftiey h.ave." 

In 1607 the tragedy of Darius, above refen-ed to, 
was republished with three others, namely, Croe' 
sus. The Alexandrasan, and Julius Ca;sar, under 
the title of ' Monarchic Tragedies.' They had an- 
other title, ' Elegiac Dialogues for the Instraction 
of the Great,' and were dedicated to the king. 
None of them were adapted to the stage. The 
point of these moral 'Monarchic Tragedies' was 
to illustrate the superiority of merit to dignity. 
Thus, in Crresus, we have the following lines : 

•' More than a crown true worth should be esteemed. 
One Fortime gives, the other is our own ; 
By which the mind from anguish is redeemed, 
"WTien Fortune's goods are by herself o'erthrown " 

And in Darius there is the following sentiment : 

" Who woiJd the title of true worth were his. 

Must vanquish vice, and no base thoughts conceive. 

The bravest trophy ever man obtained 

Is that which o'er himself himself hath gained." 

We are afraid, however, that the tragedies were 
monarchic in more senses than one. Instead of 
such moral truisms, had he checked the intempe- 
rate spirit of kingcraft and selfish policy of James, 
or pointed out, as soon as they began to display 
themselves in his son Charles, the folly and danger 
of that love of the prerogat've and fatal duplicity 
which afterwards led him to the block, he would 




have rendered a benefit to tlieso monarchs, and 
done good service to humanity. One of those 
plays, called ' The AIexandi':B:in,' gave rise to the 
foUo^ving Latin epigram by Arthur Johnston, edi- 
tor of his ' Wliole Works.' 

" Confer Alexandros ; M.icedo victricibus .irmis 
Magnus, Scotus curmme Major utcr ?" 

Prince Henry died in 1G12, and in 1013 Alex- 
ander was appointed one of the gentlemen ushei's 
of the presence to Prince Charles, afterwards 
Charles I. In the same year he published a 'Sup- 
plement,' to complete the thii-d part of Sir Philip 
Sydney's romance of 'Arcadia,' which had been 
written some years before. In IGl-i he received 
the honour of knighthood from king James, who 
used to call him his " iihilosophic poet," and was 
made Blaster of Requests. The same year he 
published at Edinbm-gh his largest work, a sacred 
poem entitled 'Doomsday, or the Great Day of 
Judgement,' of which there have been several 
2ditions. It is supposed that Milton has copied 
from this in some parts of his Paradise Lost, or 
at least derived some of his suggestions from it. 
At this period he commenced his political career. 
The object which first attracted his attention was 
tlie settlement of a colony in North America, in 
a part of the Council of New England's patent 
from King James, which they were desirous of 
surrendering. Of this great tract of country he 
had a royal grant, dated at Windsor the 10th Sep- 
tember 1621, by which the said extensive territory 
was then given to him to hold hereditarily, with 
the office of hereditaiy lieutenant, and was thence- 
forth to be called Nova Scotia. The following 
sketch of this proposed settlement is abridged from 
Bancroft's History of the Colonization of America. 
Sii- Frederick Gorges, governor of Plymouth in 
New England, a man of energy of character, and 
zeal for discovery, having a few months previous, 
November 3, 1 620, obtained from James a patent 
for the famous association, which has but one pai'- 
aUel in the history of the world, whereby forty 
English subjects, incorporated as "The Council 
established at Plj-mouth for the planting, ruling, 
and governing New England in America," obtained 
an exclusive right to possess and rule over terri- 
tory extending from the fortieth to the forty-eighth 

degree of norlli latitude, and from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific, that coniiiany, under a grant from 
whom the Pilgrim fathers about the same timo 
obtained the privilege of a settlement, being ini- ' 
willing to witness the Roman Catholic religion 
and the French monarch in possession of the east- 
ern coast of North America, sought to secure the 
safety of the northern frontier of the region a.s- 
signed to them (now the present state of Maine), 
by inviting the Scottish nation to become the 
guardians of its frontier, and Sir William Alexan- 
der, as a of influence witli King James, anil 
ah-eady animated with the ambition, so common 
to the courtiers of that age, of engaging in colonia. 
adventure, was persuaded to second a design which 
promised to establish his personal dignity and ad- 
vance his interest. Accordingly, without difllculty 
a patent was obtained by him, as already stated, on 
the 10th September 1621, for all the teiTitory lying 
east of the St. Croix, and south of the St. Law- 
rence. Immediate attempts were made to efl'cct » 
Scottish settlement. A ship was sent out in 1622, 
but it only came in sight of the shore ; and thosa 
on board, declining the perils of colonization, re- 
turned to the permanent fishing station at New- 
foundland. In the following spring a second ship 
anived, but the two vessels in company hardly 
possessed courage to do more than survey the 
coast. After making a partial suiwey of the har- 
bours, and the adjacent lands, they postponed the 
formation of a colony, and returned with a brillianl 
account of the soil, climate, and productions ol 
Nova Scotia, which is still to be read iu Purchaa 
and other authors. 

The ten-itory thus ceded, however, and desig. 
nated Nova Scotia, had already been included in 
the French province of Acadia and New France, 
which, with a better title on the ground of discov- 
erj', had been gianted by Henry the Fourth ol 
France, in 1603, and had been immediately occu- 
pied by his subjects, and it was not to be sup- 
posed that the reigning French monarch would 
esteem his rights to his rising colonies invalidated 
by a parchment under the Scottish seal, or prove 
himself so forgetful of his kingly duty and honoui 
as to withdraw his protection from the emigrants 
who had settled in America on the fiiith of the 
crown. [Bancroffs History of the United Slatr: 




edition 1843, p. 134.] The accession of Charles 
the First in 1625, and his man-iage with Henrietta 
Maria, the daughter of the French king, might 
have been expected to lead to some adjustment 
between the rival claimants of the wilds of Acadia, 
but England would not recognise the rights of 
France ; and King Charles, by a charter dated at 
Oatlands, July 12, 1625, confirmed Sir William 
Alexander, and his heirs, in the office of lieuten- 
ant of Nova Scotia, with all the prerogatives with 
which he had been so lavishly invested by King 
James, and the right of creating an order of baro- 
nets of Nova Scotia. All who paid a hundred and 
fifty pounds for six thousand acres were to receive 
the honour of a knight baronetcy, and his majesty, 
by letter to his privy council of Scotland, dated 19th 
July 1625, fixed the quantity of land that Sir 
William might grant to the baronets created by 
him as the qualification and to sustain the title, 
to be " thrie myles in breadth, and six in lenth, 
of landis within New Scotland, for their several 
proportions." The difficulty of infefting the new- 
made baronets in their remote possessions was 
overcome by a royal mandate, converting the soil 
of the Castle Hill of Edinburgh, for the time be- 
ing, into that of Nova Scotia, and they were ac- 
cordingly invested with their honours on this spot. 
Sir William Alexander was to have the prece- 
dence of all the baronets. He had the same 
year (1625) published a pamphlet entitled 'An 
Encouragement to Colonies,' the object of which 
was to show the advantages which were likely to 
accrue to the nation ft'om the prosecution of the 
scheme. The grants of such title of baronet, 
though bestowed, in the first instance, in conse- 
quence of the voluntary sm'render of Sir AVil- 
liam, before or after he became earl of Stirling, 
were afterwards held of the crown, by charter 
of Novodamus to the respective parties. No 
baronet, however, obtained such grant from the 
king, without having previously obtained the 
portion of lands for its qualification, from Sir Wil- 
liam Alexander, the lord proprietor of the coun- 
try. Sir William was also invested with the pri- 
vilege of coining small copper money. The sale 
of lands proved to the poet a lucrative traffic, and 
he forthwith planted and began to settle a colony 
at Port Royal, where he built a fort. 

The version of the Psalms of David into Scot- 
tish verse, prepared by King James, had been 
committed to Sir William Alexander by his ma- 
jesty for revisal ; but from the following extract 
of a letter to his friend Dmmmond of Hawthorn- 
den, of date 28th April 1620, it would appear that 
the pedantic monarch, with characteristic vanity, 
thought his own translation of one of the psalms 
better than those of the two first poets of his time. 
" Brother," says Alexander, " I received your last 
letter, with the Psalm you sent, which I think 
veiy well done. I had done the same long before 
it came ; but he (meaning King James) prefers 
his own to all else ; though, perchance, when yon 
see it, you will think it the worst of the thi-ee. 
No man must meddle with that subject, and there- 
fore I advise you to take no more pains therein." 
On the 28th of December 1627 he received a li- 
cense from Charles I. to print the late king's ver- 
sion of the Psalms, with the exclusive cop3Tight 
for thirty-one years. The first edition was ac- 
cordingly published at Oxford in 1631, but the 
earl derived little benefit from the privilege thus 
confen-ed upon him, as King James' translations 
of the Psalms, although the use of them was at- 
tempted to be enforced by King Charles through- 
out his dominions, were rejected by the Scottish 
church and people, and not encouraged by the 
English, and in the civil war that followed they 
were lost sight of altogether. 

In 1626 Sir WOliam Alexander was appointed 
principal secretary of state for Scotland. On the 
2d of February, 1628, he had another charter, 
under the great seal of Scotland, in which he was 
described as the king's hereditary lieutenant of 
Nova Scotia, and had a gi-ant of certain islands 
and territories, the bounds of which were most 
extensive ; and the whole were erected into an 
entire and fi-ee lordship, then, and at all times 
thereafter, to be called and designated the " Lord- 
ship of Canada," from the great river then bearing 
that name, on both sides of which lay the territo- 
ries granted. This colony, as well as that of Nova 
Scotia, was founded and established at the sole 
private expense of Sir William Alexander, the 
grantee ; and both grants were confirmed to him 
by the parliament of Scotland in 1633. 

On the 4th of September. 1630. he was created 




Lord Alexander of TiiUibocly, and Viscount Stirling 
in tlie Scottisli peerage. Cliarles tlio First had, in 
1G27, entered into a war witli France, in support 
of the Ilngnenots of tliat l<ingdoni, which contin- 
ued until April 1629, when it was terminated by 
articles of peace, concluded at Susa in Piedmont. 
Paring this war, Sir David Kertk of Dieppe, a 
Calvinist, called ICirk by the English and Ameri- 
can historians, and his two brothers, Louis and 
Thomas, having received the command of three 
English ships, sailed in 1628 on an expedition 
against Quebec, then in the hands of the French, 
which they summoned to suiTcnder. The garri- 
son, though destitute alike of provisions and mili- 
tary stores, returned a proud defiance ; but after 
the Kertks had defeated a stpiadron sent to its 
relief, and reduced the ganison to extreme sufi'or- 
ing and the verge of famine, Quebec capitulated 
19th July, 1629. "Thus," says Bancroft, " ilid 
England, one hundred and thirty years before the 
enterprise of AVolfe, make the conquest of the 
capital of New France." Before, however, this 
conquest had been achieved, peace had been pro- 
claimed betwixt England and France, and an 
article in the treaty already mentioned promised 
the restitution of all acquisitions made in America 
subsequent to its date, April 14, 1629. 

In consequence of a letter from bis majesty, 
Charles the Fii'st, to the lords of the privy council 
in Scotland, on the subject of the dispute betwixt 
the English aud French concerning the title of 
lands in America and particularly New Scotland, 
their lordships, with the other estates of the realm, 
being assembled in convention, 31st July 163it, 
unanimously agreed that his majesty should " be 
petitioned to maintain his right of New Scotland, 
and to protect his subjects, undertakers of the said 
plantation, in the peaceable possession of the same, 
as being a purpose liighlie concerning his majestie's 
honour, and the good and credit of this bis ancient 
kingdom." The removal of the colony planted at 
Port Royal was nevertheless commanded by his 
majesty, together with the destruction of the fort 
built for its protection, and the evacuation of Port 
Royal itself, by a letter to Sir William Alexander, 
then Viscount Stirling, dated Greenwich, 10th 
July 1631. This fort it seems was one which had 
been erected by Lord Stii-ling's sen, Sir William 

Alexander, " on the site of the French coni(i(.>ld«, 
previous to the treaty of St. Gcnnains (afterwards 
referred to). The remains of this fort may bo 
traced with great ease ; the old parade, the cm- 
banknuMit and ditcli have not been disturbed, and 
])rcscr\c their original form." [Haliliurlon's Ifis- 
ton/ of Xova Scotia. Halifax, 1829, vol. ii. pago 
156.] The removal of the colony from Port, 
although it was declared to have been only for a 
time, occasioned a great private loss to Lord Stir- 
ling, and operated as a discouragement to the 
planting aud settling of Nova Scotia. At the same 
time King Charles wrote to the lords of the coun- 
cil, 12th July, 1631, "We will be vcrie careful to 
maintain all our good subjects who do plant them- 
selves there ;" .and granted letters patent, 28th of 
the same month, wherein he declared, that he 
agreed to give up the fort and place of Poi't Royal, 
without prejudice nevertheless to his right or title, 
or that of his subjects, for ever; and even held 
out the prospect of its garrison, colonies, and in- 
habitants being allowed to return in consequence 
of approbation to that effect being obtained from 
the French king. To their lordships he also wrote, 
under date 19th Februaiy, 1632, with a wan-ant 
in Lord Stirling's favour for £10,000 sterling, "in 
no ways for quitting the title, right, or pos.session 
of New Scotland, or of any part thereof, but only 
for satisfaction of the losses that the said viscount 
hath, by giving order for removing of his colonic 
at our express command, for performing of an 
article of the treatie betwixt the French and us." 
This is doubtless what Sir Thomas L'rqnhart, in ' 
his ' Discovery of a most Exquisite Jewel,' &c., ' 
(8vo, 1652,) refers to, when he charges Lord Stirling 
with having sold the colony to the French "for 
a matter of five or six thousand pounds Eng 
lish money ;" but it so happens that this sum oi 
ten thousand pounds never paid either to 
Lord Stirling or any of his Sieu-s. 

That fanciful knight speaks vciy slightingly of ^ 
Lwd Stirling's plans of colonization, and especially 
of his project of raising money by the creation and 
sale of baronetcies in what he calls " that kingdom 
of Nova Scotiai" and says that "the ancient gen- 
try of Scotland esteemed such a whimsical dignity 
to be a disparagement, rather than any addition 
to their former honour." Theii- dcsceudants, how- 




ever, are of a different opinion. The order of bar- 
onets of Scotland and Nova Scotia is considered 
highly hononrablc. From the beginning of the 
reign of Charles the First, when it was first 
instituted, to the end of the reign of Queen Anne, 
when the last member was created, upwards of 
two hundred and eighty baronets of this order 
were made in all ; and of these creations about 
one hundi-ed and seventy exist at present. The 
badge of the order is a medal bearing the arms of 
Nova Scotia, encii-cled by the motto, " -Fo-r mentis 
honestce gloria^'' suspended from the neck by an 
orange tawny riband. 

Owing to the capture of Quebec by Sir David 
Kertk, the king of France detained four hundi-ed 
thousand crowns, part of his sister the queen of 
England's portion. This brought about a treaty 
with King Charles, who empowered his ambassa- 
dor. Sir Isaac AVake, to conclude the dispute 29th 
June 1631, but it was not till 29th March 1632 
that the treaty was signed, by which King Charles 
agreed to make his subjects withdraw fi'om all the 
places occupied by them ; and for that effect gave 
orders to those who commanded in Port Royal, 
the fort of Quebec, and Cape Breton, to render 
up these places and fort into the hands of such per- 
sons as the French king should please to appoint ; 
which put an end to all differences, and the re- 
maining half of the queen's portion was paid by 
the French king. \J'rincis Annals of New Eng- 
land.'] This treaty is known in history as the 
treaty of St. Gennains. Although by this treaty 
Nova Scotia was not ceded at all, but only Port 
Royal commanded to be given up, the French 
fi'om Quebec and the surrounding district thereaf- 
ter suddenly broke into the country of Nova Sco- 
tia, on the unsupported pretence of a right to the 
possession of it, by the treaty just referred to. 
The troubles in England, m which King Chai-les 
was involved, prevented his breaking with the 
French court, and the French availed themselves 
of the opportunity of the convulsed state of Bri- 
tain to take possession of Nova Scotia, and keep 
it for a long time, without being molested, or any 
effectual remonstrances bemg made against their 

In June 1633 the patents or gi'ants to Sir Wil- 
liam Alexander, viscount of Stirling, were solemn- 

ly ratified by the Scottish parliament, and at the 
coronation of King Charles at Holyrood on the 
14th of the same month, with a view to perpetu- 
ate the name of the lordship of Canada in his 
family, the king, by other letters patent, created 
him viscount of Canada, and earl of Stirling. 
His salary as secretary of state for Scotland was 
only one hundred pounds sterling, but the privi- 
lege which, as akeady stated, he had received 
from the king, of issuing small coins, as well as his 
siile of baronetcies, added much to his fortune. 
As, however, the intrinsic value of these coins 
was inferior to their nominal, this monopoly was 
unpopular. They were called "turners," from 
the French town Tournois, where this money 
was first coined, and which, being a mixture of 
copper and brass toi-med billon, was known by the 
name of " turners " from this circumstance, as also 
"billons" from the mixture of which they were 
composed. Thus the poet Beattie, in the only 
known composition of his in the Scottish language, 
refeiTing to the disposition which prevailed on the 
part of the Scots to look to English to the neglect 
of native literatui-e, after the death of Allan Ram- 
say, thus uses the word : 

" Since Allan's death, nae body car'd 
For anes to speer how Scotia far'd ; 
Nor plack nor thristled turner'd 

To quench her drouth ; 
For, frae the cottar to the laird 
We a' run south." 

It was called the thristled, that is, thistled turner, 
to distinguish it from the French coin, which, ow- 
ing to the friendship subsisting between the Scots 
and the French, ch'culated in Scotland even so 
late as the reign of Lotiis the Fourteenth. The 
Scottish turner, or tournois, bore the national em- 
blem of the thistle. It was sometimes called a 
bodle, or black farthing, value two pennies Scotch ; 
being half a plack, value fourpence Scotch, or one- 
thu-d of a penny English. The motto of the earl 
of Stirling was " Per Mare, per Terras," which, 
with his armorial bearings, he caused to be placed 
in front of a spacious mansion he had erected at 
Stu-ling. His motto, in allusion to his poetry and 
his coinage, was thus parodied by the sarcastic 
Scott of Scotstarvet, '■^per metres, per tuviers," 
which became current among the people. The 




house remains, but has been long known by the 
name of Argyle's lodging ; the arms of the Alex- 
anders having after his death in 1640, when it 
passed into that family, been removed to make 
way for those of Argyle. " This baronial edifice 
is a very excellent specimen," saj-s Billings, in his 
' Baronial Ai'chitecture of Scotland,' " of that 
French style which predominated in the north in 
the early part of the seventeenth century. Its 
characteristic features are, round towers or tur- 
rets, whether at the exterior or interior angles, 
n'ith conical summits, rows of richly ornamented 
dormer windows, and a profuse distribution of 
semi-classic mouldings and other decorations." 
The accompanying cut represents it as originally 
constructed, aud before the cone-topped tower 

was substituted by tlie pulvgunal one erected in 
1674. It is taken from the highly interesting 
work above referred to The original portion 
bears the date of 1632. After the additions made 
to it in 1674, James VII., when duke of York, 
became its inmate as guest of Argyle, "an inci- 
dent," says Billings, " noticed in connection with 
the cii-cumstauce, that the guest was subsequently 
instrumental in putting his host to death." It 
was here the great Duke John held his council of 
war, when suppressing the rcbclliou of 1715. The 

building subsequently came into posscasioii of the 
Crown, and is now used as a military hospital for 
the gaiTison. [Aimmo's Slirtiniis/iire, p. 342.] Be- 
sides being secretary of state, an ollicc which ho 
is said to have held with no small degree of rcpu 
tation tUl his death, his lordship was by Charles 
the First appointed a member of the privy coun- 
cil, keeper of the signet in Scotland, commission- 
er of exchequer, and an extraordinary lord ot 
■session; a plurality of offices doubtless sullicicnt 
for one man. 

In 1637, by a privy seal precept dated 30th 
July, the earl was created earl of Dovan in Scot- 
land, with precedency from June 1633. He con- 
tinued to procure the creation of baronets of those 
persons respectively who concurred with him in 
the great enterprise of fully planting Nova Scotia, 
and he made up their territorial qualifications for 
receiving the dignity, by surrender of portions of 
the lands in their favour. This, wo are told, he 
did down to 31st July 1637, at which time he 
ceased to make them, intelligence having reached 
him that the French had overrun the country and 
held it in possession. Thus, twelve years after 
the commencement of this gi-eat undertaking, — 
wlicn one hundred and eleven baronets having 
fulfilled the stipulated conditions of the institution, 
had each received grants of sixteen thousand acres, 
which were erected into fi-ee baronies of regality, 
and two parliaments of Scotland, in 1630 and 
1633, had ratified aud confirmed all the privileges 
of the order, — it fell to the groimd. 

In 1638 Lord Stirling's eldest son and heir, 
William, lord Alexander, died, when his lordship 
made a surrender of all his honoui-s and estates 
into the hands of King Charles, who, by a charter of 
Novodamus, under ti le great seal of Scotland, dated 
the 7th of December 1639, regranted them to the 
earl, to hold to himself and the heirs male of his 
body, whom failing to the eldest heirs female. 
Shortly after this, Lord Stirling died at London, 
on the 12tli of September 1640, and was interred 
at Stirling on the 12th of April thereafter. His 
corpse was deposited in a leaden coffin in the fam- 
ily aisle in the «hurch of Stirling, aboveground, 
and remained entire for a hundred years. He 
never relinquished any of the rights vested in him 
under his patents, and an assignment of them in 




trust was executed by him ouly two weeks before 
his death The accompanying portrait of his 
lordship is taicen from one given in Walpole's 
Royal and Noble authors : 

The province of Nova Scotia finally came un- 
der the undisputed possession of Great Britain 
in 1763. By the fourth article of the treaty 
of Paris, of 10th Febniary of that year, the 
French king renounced all pretensions to Nova 
Scotia in all its parts, and thus, with Canada, its 
sovereignty was re-acquired by Great Britain, in 
whose possession it now remains. The baronets 
of Scotland and Nova Scotia in the year 1836, 
held a meeting at Edinbm'gh for the piu-pose of 
reviving the objects for which their order was 
created, and a " Case, showing their rights and 
privileges, dignitorial and territorial," was shortly 
thereafter published by Richard Broun, Esq., the 
secretary of the order, afterwards Sii- Richard Broun, 
baronet, of Colstoun, Dumfi-ies-shue ; but there is 
.very little likelihood now of their ever regaining 
the lands in Nova Scotia which were originally 
granted with then- titles. Since Queen Anne's time 
no new Nova Scotia baronets have been made. 
Those created are styled baronets' of Great Bri- 
tain, and no payment of money can now purchase 
the title, although of com'se expenses attend the 

passage of a patent, on the title being confeiTed 
— By his countess, as already stated in the preli- 
minary notice, the earl of Stirling had seven sons 
and three daughters, but only three sons and two 
daughters sui-vived him. 

A complete edition of Lord Stirling's works, re- 
vised by himself, was published in 1637, in one 
volume folio, under the title of ' Recreations with 
the Muses.' This work contained his four ' Mo- 
narchick Tragedies,' his ' Doomsday,' the ' ParaB- 
nesis to Prince Heniy,' and the first book of an 
intended heroic poem, entitled 'Jonathan.' His 
poems are generally of a grave and moralizing 
character, and possess considerable merit. Mi'. 
George Chalmers has remarked, that he must be 
allowed to have sentiments that sparkle, though 
not "words that burn," [Apology for the Believers, 
&c., p. 420] ; and Mr. Alexander Chalmers adds 
to this remark that " his versification is, in general, 
much superior to that of his contemporaries, and 
approaches nearer to the elegance of modern times 
than conld have been expected from one who 
wrote so much." His works were highly praised 
by wiiters of his own day. The opinion of Drnm- 
mond of Hawthornden has been already quoted. 
Michael Drayton, who commended Lord Stuiing's 
poems highly, expresses a wish to be known as 
the friend of a wi-iter " whose muse was like his 
mind ;" and John Davies of Hereford, in a book of 
epigrams, published about the year 1611, praises 
the tragedies of his lordship, and says that " Al- 
exander the Great had not gained more glory with 
his sword than this Alexander had gained by his 
pen." Higher approbation even than this, as 
coming from a higher authority in matters of lit- 
erature, is afforded in the verdict of Addison, who 
said of Lord Stirling's " whole works," that "he 
had read them over with the greatest satisfaction.'' 
Dr. Cunie, in his Life of Burns, says, "Lord 
Stirling and Drummond of Hawthornden studied 
the language of England, and composed in it with 
precision and elegance. They were, however, the 
last of their countrymen who deserved to be con- 
sidered as poets in that century." Dean Swift, in 
one of his poems, has brought their names toge- 
ther as 

" Scottish bards of highest fame, 
Wise Hawthornden and Stirling's iorA" 




His plays appear to be mere dramatic poems, more 
fitted for perusal in the closet than re])res('iitalion 
on the stage, and accordingly none of them seem 
ever to have been acted. Three poems by his 
lordship and a few of his letters, with ' Anacrisis, 
or a Censure of Poets,' occur in the folio edition 
of Drummoud's works. The latter of these pro- 
ductions is considered very creditable to his lord- 
ship's talents as a critic. As a proof of the un- 
popularity of Lord Stirling in his native country 
on account of his small copper money, it is stated 
by Burnet, in his Memoirs of the Dukes of Hamil- 
ton, that he durst not come to Scotland to attend 
to the king's affairs as secretary of state. His 
productions are as follows : 

Darius : a Tragedy. EJin. 1603, 4to. Reprinted witli tlic 
Tragedy of Croesus and a Para^nesis to the Prince, 1G04, and 
}!till further augmented with the Alex.andrian Tragedy and 
Julius Cxsar. Lond. 1607, 4to. 

Aurora; containing the first Fancies of the Author's youth. 
Inscribed to the Lady Agnes (Anne) Douglas, (afterwards 
Countess of Argyle). Lond. 1604, 4to. 

The Monarchicke Tragedies. Lond. 1604, 1607, 4to. 3d 
edition. Lond. 1616, small 8vo. 

An Eiegie on the Do.ath of Prince Henrie. Edin. 1612, 
4to. Including an Address * To his Majestie,' and ' A Short 
Viewe of the State of Man.' 

Doomesday, or the Great Day of the Lord's Judgement. 
Edin. 1614, 4to. 

A Supplement of a Defect in the third part of Sidney's 
Arcadia. Dublin, 1621, fol. 

An Encouragement to Colonies. Lond. 1625, 4to. 

A Map and Description of New Enghand, with a Discourse 
of Plantation and the Colonies, &c. Lond. 1630, 4to. 

Recreations with the Muses, being his whole works, with 
the exception of Aurora, and including Jonathan, an Unfin- 
ished Poem. Lond. 1637, fol. 

ALEXANDER, John, a painter of some emi- 
nence during the earlier half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Neither the place of his birth nor the date 
is recorded, but he was a descendant of the more 
celebrated George Jamesone, through his lawful 
daughter, Mary Jamesone. He studied his art 
chiefly at Florence. On his return in 1720, to 
Scotland, he resided at Gordon castle, haring 
found a liberal patroness in the duchess of Gor- 
don, a daughter of the earl of Peterborough. He 
painted poetical, allegorical, and ornamental 
pieces ; also portraits and historical landscapes. 
Many of the portraits of Queen Mary are by Al- 
exander. He had begun, it is stated, a picture of 
Mary's escape from Lochleven castle, which he 
lid not live to finish. 

Alison, the name of a family pofueaaing a haronotcv .f 
the United Kingdom, conferred 25tli June. 1H52, on .sir 
Archibald Alison, LL.D., D.C.L., and, born at Kin- 
ley, Salop, 29th December, 1792. His father, tho Rov. 
Archibald Alison, author of 'Essays on Taste,' of whom a 
memoir follows, was a scion of tho family of Alison of Now- 
hall, piirisli of Kettins, Forfarshire. By the mother's aidg 
he is descended lineally from Edward I. and Robert the 
Rruce. Sir Arcliibald was eiUicated at tho university 
of Edinburgh, .and admitted advocate in 1814; advocate 
depute from 1828 to 1830; sheriff of Lanarkshire, 1836, 
author of 'Principles of the Criminal Law of Scotland.' 
Edinburgh, 1832; 'Practice of the Criminal Law;' 'His- 
tory of Europe,' 20 vols. 8vo, the first published in 
1833; 'Essays,' contributed to Blackwood's Magazine; 
'Principles of Pnpuhition,' 1845; 'England in 1815 and 
1845, or a Sufficient and Contracted Currency ;' ' Life of tin 
Duke of Mariborough,' 1847; nian-icd, 21.-,t March 18'26, 
F.lizabeth Glencairn, youngest daughter of Lieutenant-colo- 
nel Patrick Tytlcr, second son of William Tvtlcr, Esq. of 
Wo^houselce; issue, Archibald, born 2Ist January 1826, 
lieutenant-colonel in the .army, military secretary to Lord 
Clyde when commander-in-chief in India, lost an arm at 
Luckiiow, and has a medal and clasps for bis services in the 
Crimea; Frederick .Montiigu, born 11th .M.ay 1835, a captain 
in the army, aid-de-camp to the same ccmmiander; and one 
daughter, Ellen Frances Catherine, Mrs. Cutlar Ferpisson 
ol' Craigdarroch. Sir Archibald's brotlier, William I'ultenev 
Alison, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., professor of practice of physic, 
LMiiversity of Edinburgh, and first physician to the Queen in 
Scotland, retu-ed from his chair in 1855, and died in 1859 

ALISON, Archibai,d, The Rev., author of 
' Essa3's on the Nature and Princii)les of Taste,' 
was the second son of a magistrate of Edin 
burgh, and some time loid provost of that city, 
where he was born in 1757. In 1772 he went to 
the university of Glasgow, and afterwards became 
an exhibitioner at Baliol college, Oxford, where 
he took the degrees of A.M. and LL.B. Entering 
into holy orders he obtaineil the curacy of Brance- 
peth, county of Durham, and was subsequently 
made prebendary of Sarum. Having acquired 
the friendship of the late Sir William Pulteney, he 
was indebted to him for proferment in the church. 
In 178-1 he married at Edinburgh the eldest daugh- 
ter of the celebrated Dr. John Gregory, by whom 
he had six children. In 1800, on the invitation 
of Sir William Forbes, baronet, and the vestry of 
the Episcopal chapel, Cowgate, Edinburgh, he 
became senior minister of that place of worship 
The congregation having removed to St. Paul's 
church, York Place, in the Siinie city, he continu- 
ed to officiate there until a severe illness, in 1831, 
compelled him to relinquish all public duties. He 
was one of the early fellows of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, and the inlimate friend of many 




of its most distinguished members. He was also 
a fellow of the Royal Society of London. His 
principal work, the ' Essays on the Nature and 
Principles of Taste,' published in 1790, has 
passed through several editions, and was trans- 
lated into French. He died' 17th May, 1839. 
His works are : 

Essay on the Nature and principles of Taste. Edin. 1790, 
4to. 3d. edit. 1815, 2 vols. 8vo. 4tli edit. 1816, 2 vols. 8vo. 

A Discourse on tlie Fast Day, 1809, 8vo. 

A Thanksgiving Sermon, 1814, 8vo. 

Sermons, chiefly on particular occasions. Edin. 1814, 8vo. 
Voi. ii. 1815, 8vo. 6th edit. 1815, 2 vols. 

Life and Writings of the Hon. Alexander Eraser Tytler, 
Lord Woodhouselee. Trans. Ed. R. Soc. viii. 515. 1818. 

Allan, a name meaning, in the British, Ala7i, swift lilce a 
greyhound ; in the Saxon, Ahvin, winning all ; and in the 

i Celtic, Aluinn, when applied to mental qualities or conduct, 
illustrious. The primary meaning of the word, however, is 

j sparkling or beautiful, and it is on that account the name of 
several rivers, particularly one in Perthshire, which waters 
the fertile district of Strathallan. It is the opinion of Chal- 
mers that the Alauna of Ptolemy and of Richard of Westmin- 
ster, (in his Itinera Homana, a work referable to the second 
century,) was situated on the Allan, about a mile above its 
confluence with the Forth, so that the name has an ancient 
as well as a classical origin. The popular song of ' On the 
banks of Allan Water,' is supposed to refer to a smaller 
stream of the same name, a tributary of the Teviot. Allan 
is also not unfrequently a Christian name in Scotland, as 
Allan Ramsay. 

ALLAN, David, an eminent historical paint- 
er, the son of David Allan, shoremaster at Alloa, 
was born there on 13th Februaiy 1744. His mo- 
ther, Janet Gullan, a native of Dunfermline, 
died a few days after his biith, and it is related 
of him that, when a baby, his mouth was so small 
that no nurse in his native place could give him 
suck, and a countrywoman being found, after 
some inquiry, a few miles from the town, whose 
breast he could take, he was, one very cold daj', 
after being wrapped up in a basket, amidst cotton, 
to keep him warm, sent off to her under the charge 
of a man on horseback. • On the road the horse 
stumbled, the man fell off, and the little Allan be- 
ing thrown out of the basket among the snow 
which then covered the ground, leceived a severe 
cut on his head. While yet a mere child of lit- 
tle more than eighteen months old, he experi- 
enced another narrow escape from a premature 
death. The servant girl who had the care of him 
while out with him in her arms one day in the 
autumn of 1745, thoughtlessly ran in front of some 

loaded cannons, at the very moment that they 
were fired by way of experiment, but she and the 
child were providentially not touched. 

Like that of many other great painters, his ge- 
nius for designing was discovered by accident. 
Being when a boy kept at home from school, on 
account of a burnt foot, his father seeing him one 
day doing nothing, reproved him for his idleness, 
and giving him a bit of chalk, told him to draw 
something with it on the floor. He accordingly 
attempted to delineate figures of houses, animals, 
&c., and was so well pleased with his own suc- 
cess, and so fond of the amusement, that the chalk 
was seldom afterwards out of his hand. His sense 
of the ludicrous was great, and he could not al- 
ways resist the propensity to satire. Having 
when about ten years of age drawn a caricature 
on his slate of his schoolmaster, a conceited old 
dominie, who used to strut about the school attLred 
in a tartan nightcap and long tartan gown, and 
circulated it among the boys, it fell into the hands 
of the object of it, who straightway complained to 
Allan's father, and he was in consequence with ■ 
drawn from his school. On being questioned by 
his father as to how he had the impudence to in- 
sult his master in such a way, he answered, " I 
only made it like him, and it was all for fun.'' In 
one account of his life it is stated that the first rude 
efforts of his genius were formed merely by a knife, 
and displayed a degree of taste and skill far above 
his years; and these having attracted the notice of 
Mr. Stewart, then collector of the customs at Alloa, 
that gentleman, when at Glasgow, mentioned the 
merits of young Allan to Mi-. Foulis, the celebrated 
printer, and he was sent, on the 25th of February 
1755, when eleven j'ears of age, to the Messrs. 
Foulis' academy of painting and engraving at 
Glasgow, where he remained seven years. In the 
3'ear 1764 some of his performances attracted the 
notice of Lord Cathcart of Shaw Park, near Alloa. 
At the expense of his lordship, Mr. Abercromby 
of Tullibody, and otiier persons of fortune in 
Clackmannanshu-e, to whom his talents had re- 
commended him, among whom were Lady Frances 
Erskine of Mar, and Lady Charlotte Erskine, hk 
afterwards proceeded to Italy, and studied for six- 
teen years at Rome. In 1775, he received tha 
gold medal given by the academy of St. Luke, in 




that city, for tlie best specimen of historical com- 
position ; the subject being ' The Origin of Paint- 
ing, or tlie Coriiitliian Maid drawing tlie Shadow 
of her Lover ;' an admirable engraving of wliich 
was executed at Rome by Dom. Cuncgo in 1776, 
and of whicli copies were published by him in 
February 1777, after his return to London. Mr. 
Allan presented the medal received by him for tliis 
painting to the Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 
land, on tlie 7tli January 178:'!, and an account of 
it was published in their tran.sactions, vol. ii. pp. 
75, 76. Tlie only otJier Scotsman who had ever 
received the gold medal of St. Luke's academy 
was Mr. Gavin Hamilton. After a residence of 
two years in London, he returned to Edinburgh, 
in 1779, and, on the death of Alexander Run- 
cinian in 1786, was appointed director and master 
of the academy established by the board of trus- 
tees for manufactures and improvements in Scot- 
land. In 1788 he published an edition of the 
Gentle Shepherd, with characteristic etchings. In 
' Observations on the Plot and Scenery of the 
Gentle Shepherd,' from Abemethy and WaUcer's 
edition (Edinburgh : 1808), reprinted in edition of 
A. Fullarton & Co., 1848 (vol. ii. p. 25.), the fol- 
lowing passage occurs : " In 1786, an unexpected 
visit was paid at New Hall house, (the romantic 
seat of Mr. John Forbes, advocate, situated in 
the parish of Penicuick, Edinburghshire, the sce- 
nery round which is supposed to have been that 
of the Gentle Shepherd,) by ]Mr. David Allan, 
painter in Edinburgh, accompanied by a friend, 
both of whom were unknown to the family. His 
object was to collect scenes and figures, where 
Ramsay had copied his, for a new edition of the 
pastoral. Mr. Allan was an intelligent Scottish 
antiquarian, and well acquainted with everything 
connected with the poetry and literature of his 
country. His excellent quarto edition was pub- 
lished in 1788, with aquatinta plates, in the tnie 
spirit and humour of Ramsay. Four of the scenes 
at New Hall are made use of with sonic figures 
collected there; and in his dedication to Ilamiltou 
of Murdiston in Lanarkshu'e, the celebrated histo- 
rical painter, he writes, ' I have studied the same 
characters' (as those of Ramsay), ' from the same 
spot, and I find that he has drawn fiiithfully, and 
with taste, from nature. This likewise has been 

my model of imitation, and while I nttcmptt-d. In 
these sketches, to express the ideas of the poet, I 
have endeavoured to preserve the costume a.s near- 
ly as possible, by an exact delineation of such 
scenes and persons as he actually had in hiscyo.'" 
Mr. Allan published also, some time after, a col- 
lection of the most hiunorous old Scottish songs, 
with similar drawings ; these publications, with 
his illustrations of the Cottar's Saturday Night, 
the Stool of Repentance, the Scottish Wedding, 
the Highland Dance, and other sketches of rus- 
tic character, all etched by himself in a(iHatlnta, 
procured for him the title of the Scntti.sli Hogarth. 
One of his subjects, representing a poor man re- 
ceiving charity from the hand of a young woman, 
is here copied. 

As an mstance of simple character and feeling 
without caricature, it gives a tolerabir good idea 
of his natural manner, and illustrates the particu- 
lar locality of Edinburgh of that epoch, where its 
scene is laid. It, .as well as the view of the Gen- 
eral Assemlily, which appears in another part of 
this volume, was n]^o etched by himself He like- 
wise etched and published various subjects drawn 
when in Italy, exhibiting the peculiarities of the 
people, .and especially the devotional cxtrava- 




gances of the church of Rome of that time, which 
appear to have excited his sense of the ludicrous. 
Besides these he published four engravings, done 
ill aquatinta by Paul Sandby, from di-awings made 
by himself when at Rome, where, in a vein of 
iliiiet drollery, he holds up to ridicule the festivi- 
ties of that city in connection with the sports of 
tlie carnival. Several of the figures were portraits 
of persons well known to the English who visited 
Rome during his stay there, and their truthful- 
ness gave much satisfaction at the time. 

His personal appearance was not in his favour. 
•' His figure," says the author of his life in Brown's 
Scenery edition of the Gentle Shepherd, 1808, " was 
a bad resemblance of his humorous precursor of the 
English metropolis. He was under the middle size ; 
of a slender, feeble make ; with a long, shai-p, lean, 
white, coarse fiice, much pitted by the small pox, 
and fair hair. His large prominent eyes, of a light 
colour, looked weak, near-sighted, and not very 
animated. His nose was long and high, his montli 
wide, and both ill-shaped. His whole exterior to 
strangers appeared unengaging, trifling and mean. 
His deportment was timid and obsequious. Tlie 
prejudices natm-ally excited by these external dis- 
advantages at introduction, were soon, however, 
dispelled on acquaintance ; and, as he became easy 
and pleased, gradually yielded to agreeable sensa- 
tions; till they insensibly vanished, and were not 
only overlooked, but, from the eifect of contrast, 
even heightened the attractions by which they 
were so unexpectedly followed. When in com- 
pany he esteemed, and which suited his taste, as 
restraint wore off, his eye imperceptibly became 
active, bright and penetrating; his manner and 
address quick, livelj', and intereslmg — always 
kind, polite, and respectful ; his conversation open 
and gay, humorous without satire, and playfully 
replete with benevolence, observation, and anec- 
dote." He resided in Dickson's close, High street, 
Edinburgh, where he received private pupils in 
his art. One of the most celebrated of his pupils 
was the late Mr. H. W. Williams, commonly called 
Grecian Williams. " The satkic humour and drol- 
lery," says ill'. Wilson, in his Memorials of Edin- 
burgh, (vol. ii. page 40), " of his well-known 'rebuke 
Bcene' in a country church, and the lively expres- 
sion and spirit of the ' General Assembly,' and 

others of his own etchings, amply justify the 
character he enjoyed among his contemporaries as 
a truthful and humorous delineator of nature." 
" As a painter," says the author of his life ab-eady 
quoted, " at least in his own country, he neither 
excelled in drawing, composition, colouring, nor 
effect. Like Hogarth, too, beauty, grace, and 
gi andeur, either of individual outline and form, or 
of style, constitute no part of his merit. He was no 
Corregio, Raphael, or Michael Angelo. He paint- 
ed portraits, as well as Hogarth, below the size 
of life ; but they are recommended by nothing save 
a strong homely resemblance. As an artist and a 
man of genius, his characteristic talent lay in ex- 
pression, in the imitation of nature with truth and 
humour, especially in the representation of ludi- 
crous scenes in low life. His vigilant eye was ever 
on the watch for every eccentric figure, every 
motley group, or ridiculous Incident, out of which 
his pencil or his needle could draw innocent enter- 
tainment and muth." He died at Edinburgh on 
the 6th of August 1796, in the 53d year of his 
age, and was interred in the High Calton burying- 
grouud. He had maiTied in 1788 Shirley Welsh, 
the youngest daughter of Thomas Welsh, a carver 
and gilder in Edinburgh. He had five children, 
three of whom died in infancy. His surviving son, 
David, went out as a cadet to India in 1806. 
He also left a daughter named Barbara. — BrowrCi 
Scenery edition of the Gentle Shepherd, appendix. 

ALLAN, Robert, a minor poet, some of whose 
IjTics and songs have long been popular in Scot- 
land, was born at Kilbarchan, in Renfrewshire, 
4th November, 1774. He was a handloom weaver, 
and all his life in humble circumstances. To re- 
lieve the tedium of his occupation he occasionally 
had recourse to poetry. In 1836, a volume of his 
poems was published by subscription, but made no 
great impression. The principal poem in the vol- 
ume, entitled ' An Addi'ess to the Robin,' is writ- 
ten in the Scottish dialect. His most popular 
pieces are 'The bonny built wheriy;' 'The Cove- 
nanter's Lament;' 'Woman's wark will ne'er ba 
dune;' 'Hand awa' frae me, Donald;' and the bal- 
lad ' O speed, Lord Nithsdale.' He had a nume- 
rous family, all of whom were married except his 
youngest son, a portrait painter of gi-eat promise, 
who emigi'ated to the United States. Desirous of 

/Tc^iyCo^^-^^i^ C€^/:^c(. 







joining liis son, Allan sailed for New York, where 
lie arrived 1st June 1841, but died there on the 
7th, six days after his arrival, from the effects of a 
cold caught on the banks of Newfoundland. He 
is represented as having been a most single-hearted 
and unaffected being, and much of the simplicitj' 
of his character is reflected in his poems. 

ALLAN, Siu William, an eminent historical 
painter, was born at Edinburgh, in 1782, of humble 
parentage, his father beiug one of the doorkeepers 
of the Com-t of Exchequer. He was educated partly 
at the High School of his native city, under William 
Nicol, the friend of Burns, and served his appren- 
ticeship to a coach-painter, George Sanders the 
celebrated miniature-painter being in the same 
emplojTiient. All his spare hours were devoted 
to drawing. He studied for several years at the 
Trustees' Academy, having Wilkie as a fellow- 
student. These two great painters began draw- 
ing from the same example, and thus continued 
for months, using the same copy, and sitting on the 
same form. The friendship thus commenced in then- 
youth increased with their years, and ceased but 
with the life of Wilkie, who died nine years before 
him. One of his first pieces engraved was ' Flora 
parting with Ascanius,' in Home's ' Adventures of 
the young Ascanius,' 1804. After the close of his 
studios in Edinburgh, Allan removed to London, 
and was admitted to the school of the Royal Aca- 
demy, where he remained some time. Not ulti- 
mately finding professional employment in London, 
he determined upon proceeding to Russia, to tiy 
whether encouragement could not be obtained in 
that country, and that he might study the rude and 
picturesque aspects there presented, and find suit- 
able and striking materials for his pencil. Hasti- 
ly communicating his intention to his friends in 
Scotland, with one or two letters of introduction 
to some of his countrymen at St. Petersburg, he 
embarked in 1805 in a vessel bound for Riga. 
Owing to adverse winds the ship, almost a wreck, 
was driven into Memel in Prussia, where, tliough 
ignorant of the German language, he took up his 
abode at an inn, and at once commenced portrait- 
painting. He began with the portrait of the 
Danish consul, to whom ho had been introduced 
by the captain of the vessel. Having, in this 
way, recruited his nearly cmiity purse, be pro- 

ceeded overland to St. Petersburg, encountoriiig 
on the road various romantic iniident.'i, and pnas- 
ing through a great portion of the Russian array 
on their way to the battle of Austerlitz. On his 
arrival at the Russian capital, he was introduced 
to niauj' valuable friends, through the kindness o( 
Sir Alexander Crichton, then physician to the 
Imperial family ; and was soon enabled to pursue 
his art diligently and successfully. Having at 
tained a knowledge of the Russian language, he 
travelled into the interior, and remained for sev- 
eral years in the Ukraine, making excursions at 
various times to Turkey, Tartary, the shores of 
the Black Sea, the Sea of Azoph, and the banks 
of the Kuban, amongst Cossacks, Circassians, 
Turks, and Tartars ; visiting their huts and tents, 
studying their history, character, and costume. 
and forming a collection of their arms and armouv, 
for his future labours in art, as he had resolved to 
devote his great powers to historical painting. 

In 1812, Mr. Allan began to think of returning 
to Scotland, but was prevented by the French in- 
vasion of Russia of that year. The whole country 
was thrown into confusion and alarm by the Era 
peror Napoleon's advance to IMoscow, and thus 
was Allan forced to remain, when he witnessed 
not a few heart - rending miseries incident to that 
eventful period. In 1814, however, he was en- 
abled to set out on his return home, and, after a 
lapse of ten years, he once more trod the streets 
of Edinburgh. His improvement had been so 
rapid and so remarkable, that the most eminent of 
his countrymen in literature and art visited, and 
were in daily intercourse with, the young and cn- 
tci7>rising aitist, and he numbered among his 
friends Scott, Wilson, Lockhart, and other dis 
tinguished literati of the day in Edinburgh, which 
city he resolved to make his future residence. His 
first efforts, after his return, were directed to em- 
bodying on the canvass, some of those romantic 
and striking scenes which had been suggested by 
his travels and adventures in the strange conntric* 
he had visited. His 'Circa.ssian Captives,' a 
work full of novel and original matter, character, 
and expression, and remarkable for the comjilete- 
ness of its design, and the m.asterly ari-angenicnt of 
its parts, was exhibited at Somerset House, Lon- 
don, in 181.5, and immediately ma<le his name 




generally known. To this gi-eat pictm-e succeeded 
' Tartar Banditti ;' ' Haslan Gheray crossing the 
Kuban;' 'A Jewish Wedding in Poland;' and 
' Prisoners Conveyed to Siberia by Cossacks,' 
which, with many others, he brought together, and 
exhibited in Edinburgh, along with the armoui- and 
costumes he had collected in his travels. The exhi- 
bition proved highly attractive, and the artist rose 
higher in the estimation of his countrymen. His 
picture of 'The Circassians' was purchased by 
Sir Walter Scott, John Wilson, the poet, his bro- 
ther, James, the naturalist, Lockhart, and a num- 
ber of the artist's other friends, and it was resolved 
to raflBe it in Edinburgh. In a letter to the Duke 
of Buccleuch, dated 15th April, 1819, Sir Walter 
Scott, who took a great interest in Allan, thus 
gives an account of the circumstance, and of the 
artist himself; — "A hundred persons subscribed 
ten guineas apiece to raffle for his fine picture of 
the Ch-cassian chief selling slaves to the Turkish 
pacha — a beautiful and highly poetical picture. 
There was another small picture added by way of 
second prize, and, what is curious enough, the 
only two peers on the list, Lord Wemyss and 
Lord Fife, both got prizes. Allan has made a 
sketch, which I shall take to town with me when 
I can go, in hopes Lord Stafford, or some other 
picture-buyer, may fancy it, and order a picture. 
The subject is the murder of Archbishop Sharpe 
on Magus Moor, prodigiously well treated. The 
savage ferocity of the assassins, crowding on one 
another to strike at the old prelate on his knees, 
contrasted with the old man's figure, and that of 
his daughter endeavouring to interpose for his pro- 
tection, and withheld by a niffian of milder mood 
than his fellows — the dogged, fanatical severity of 
Rathillet's countenance, who remained on horse- 
back, witnessing, with stern fanaticism, the mur- 
der he did not choose to be active in, lest it should 
be said that he struck out of private revenge — are 
all amazingly well combined." The picture which 
Allan executed from the sketch here described by 
Sir Walter Scott, was worthy of his genius. It 
was afterwards engraved, and is well known. 
The painting itself is in the possession of ]\Ir. 
Lockhart, of Milton-Lockhart. Sir Walter add- 
ed : — " Constable (the eminent publisher) has of- 
fered Allan three hundi-ed pounds to make sketches 

for an edition of the ' Tales of my Landlord,' and 
other novels of that cycle, and says he will give 
him the same sum next year, so, from being 
pinched enough, this very deserving artist sud- 
denly finds himself at his ease. He was long at 
Odessa with the Duke of Richelieu, and is a very 
entertaining person." 

During the visit of the Grand Duke Nicholas, 
afterwards Czar of Russia, to Edinburgh, about 
this time, he purchased several of Allan's pictures; 
one, the ' Siberian Exiles,' and another, ' Haslan 
Cheray,' both already mentioned. Allan s works 
were now readily bought. His most affecting pic- 
ture, 'The Press-Gang,' was purchased by Mr. 
Horrocks of Tillyheeran ; his ' Knox admonishing 
Mary, Queen of Scots,' a work full of character, by 
Mr. Trotter of Ballendean ; and his ' Death of the 
Regent Moray,' by the then duke of Bedford. A 
serious malady in his eyes, which was a source of 
suffering for several years, caused a cessation from 
all professional labours. A change of climate being 
advised by his physician, he went to Italy, and 
after spending a winter at Rome, he proceeded to 
Naples, and thence made a journey to Constanti- 
nople. He afterwards, with restored health, visit- 
ed Morocco, Greece, Spain, and the wild range of 
country from Gibraltar to Persia, and fi'om Persia 
to the Baltic, for the pm-pose of studying the scen- 
ery and manners of the various nations through 
which he passed. These he faithfidly embodied 
on his canvass, and among his greatest pictures in 
this style may be noticed, ' The Discovery of the 
Cup in the Sack of Benjamin ;' ' The Polish Cap- 
tives;' 'The Slave Market at Constantinople,' 
which was purchased by Alexander HiU, Esq., 
print-publisher; 'Tartar Banditti Dividing their 
Spoil;' 'The Moorish Love-Letter;' 'Byron in 
the Fisherman's Hut, after Swimming the Helles- 
pont,' which was bought by his friend Robert 
Nasmyth, Esq., who was also the purchaser of his 
whole-length cabinet portraits of ' Scott and Bums.' 
The eastern pieces named were executed after his 
return to Edinburgh, with numerous others, de- 
scriptive of oriental scenery, persons, and man- 
ners. The history of his own land also furnished 
him with subjects for his powerful and graphic pen- 
cil. Besides ' The Murder of Archbishop Sharpe, 
and 'The Death of the Regent Moray,' he devoted 




his genius to many other scenes illustrative of our 
Scottish annals, so fruitful in remarkable and 
striking events. His painting of Mary and Rizzio 
is one of the best of these historic pictures. 

In his fonions picture of 'The Ettrick Shep- 
herd's House-heating,' executed in 1819, he intro- 
duced a portrait of his friend Sir Walter Scott, 
who had always a great regard for him. His 
tiguro of ' The Author of Waverlcy in his Study,' 
done shortly before Sir Walter's death, is consid- 
ered one of his most successftU efforts in this de- 
partment of art. He also finished an admirable 
painting of Sir Walter's eldest son, when cornet 
of dragoons, holding his horse, which hangs over 
the mantelpiece of the great library at Abbotsford. 
He was there during the last melancholy scenes of 
Scott's life. Mr. Lockhart says, " Perceiving, to- 
wai-ds the close of August 1832, that the end was 
near, and thinking it very likely that Abbotsford 
might soon undergo many changes, and my.oelf, at 
all events, never see it again, I felt a desire to 
have some image preserved of the interior apart- 
ments as occupied by their founder, and invited 
from Edinburgh, for that puqiose. Sir Walter's 
dear friend, William Allan, whose presence, I well 
knew, would, even under the circnmstances of that 
time, be nowise troublesome to any of the family, 
but the contraiy in all respects. Mi". Allan will- 
ingly complied, and executed a series of beautiful 
drawings. He also shared our watchings, and 
witnessed all but the last moments." 

In 1 8.34 he visited Spain, with the object of col- 
lecting fresh materials for the subjects of his art. 
He sailed for Cadiz and Gibraltar, proceeded into 
West Barbary, and crossing again into Spain, tra- 
velled over the greater part of Andalusia, intend- 
ing to go on to Madrid, bnt was recalled to Scot- 
land, by news from home. 

In 1835 Mr. Allan was elected a member of the 
Royal Academy, and in 1838 he was chosen pre- 
sident of the Royal Scottish Academy of Painting, 
Sculpture, and Architecture, on the death and in 
the room of Mr. Watson, the original president. 
In 1841, on the death of Sir David Wilkie, he was 
appointed her Majesty's limner for Scotland, and 
in the following year he was knighted. He was 
an honorary member of the Academies of New 
York and Philadelphia 

Having long intended to paint a picture of Ihc 
Battle of Waterloo, he several times visited France 
and Belgium to make sketches of the memorable 
field, and to collect the requisite nniterials for his 
]nirpose. The view he chose was from the French 
side. Napoleon and his staff being the foreground 
figures, nils picture was, in 1843, exhibited at 
the Royal Academy, London, and purchased by 
the Duke of Wellington, who expressed his high 
satisfaction at the truthfulness of the arrangement 
and detail in his work. He was subsequently in- 
duced, by the success of the first, to paint another 
great picture of Waterloo, from the British side, 
with the view of entering the lists of the West- 
minster Hall competition of 1846. This i]iece also 
gained the approbation of the Duke of Wellington, 
and was much praised by the public, out though 
voted for by W. Etty, R.A., one of the best judges 
in the committee, as worthj' of public reward, it 
was not judged deserving of a prize. 

In 1844 Allan revisited Russia, and had an op- 
portunity of again seeing his early patron, the 
Emperor Nicholas. While there he painted a 
pictm'e of ' Peter the Great teaching his subjects 
the art of shipbuilding,' which is now in the winter 
palace of St. Petersburgh. 

After his return to his native city, he continued 
his professional labours, with the enthusiasm that 
ever marked his character. His last energies were 
expended on a national piece, and one commemor- 
ative of the most remarkable event in the history 
of Scotland's independence, namely, 'The Battle 
of Bannockburn,' on the same extensive scale as 
his latter picture of Waterloo. On this picture 
he worked with as much diligence as his weak- 
ened condition would admit, for already his last 
illness was npon him. So eager was he to com- 
plete the work in time for the ensuing exhibition 
of the Royal Academy, that, it is stated, he had 
his bed earned into his painting room that he 
might sleep near his work. When the pencil at 
length fell from his hand he was too far gone in 
illness to be removed, and he died in his painting 
room, in front of his latest picture. He was never 
manied, his niece having kept house for him. 

Su- William died at his residence, 72 Great 
King Street, Edinburgh, on the 23d Fcbniaiy, 
1850, in the 69th year of his age. He hait for 




many years been afflicted with chronic disease of 
the windwipe, and had latterly become much en- 
feebled. His genius as an artist was of the highest 
ordei-, and he possessed singularly unassuming 
manners and an amiable disposition. As an in- 
stance of his kindly feeling, it may be stated that 
on a few of the scholars of Mr. Jolm Robertson, 
the first teacher in Gillespie's hospital, Edinburgh, 
who had been educated in that institution under 
his charge, wishing to have the portrait taken of 
their old master, two of them waited on Su- Wil- 
liam AUan to ascertain if his engagements woidd 
peraiit him to do it, and on what terms, when, 
appreciating their motives, he at once generously 
agreed to paint Mr. Robertson's portrait without 
remuneration, and it is now in the hall of the 
hospital. Sir "William was much esteemed, not 
only by his brother artists, but by an extensive 
circle of friends. A picture of his commemora- 
tive of the Ettrick Shepherd's birthday, at Hogg's 
liouse at Altrive, after a day's sport in fronting 
and rambling on the mountains, contains nineteen 
portraits of the Shepherd's intimate friends and 
his 0T\Ti, in rural costumes, among whom, besides 
Hogg and himself, are Sir Walter Scott ; his son- 
in-law John Gibson Lockhart; the two Ballan- 
tyues, James and John ; Professor Wilson and his 
brother James; Captain Thomas Hamilton, au- 
thor of ' Cyril Thornton ;' Alexander Nasmyth, 
the celebrated landscape painter; David Biydges ; 
Constable the publisher ; James Russell, the co- 
median ; and James Bruce, piper to Sir Walter 
Scott ; a list of names calculated to make the 
painting interesting, although not among the most 
finished of the artist's performances. It is now 
the property of Mrs. Gott of Ai-nisly House. 

Sir William Allan was for a long period the 
only resident historical painter of his country, 
and for seventeen years master of the Trustees' 
academy, at Edinburgh, where he and Wilkie 
first began their career. His excellence as a 
painter consisted in his dramatic power of por- 
traying a story, and his general skill in com- 
position, rather than in character or in colour. 
He will be remembered in the history of Scottish 
art by the impulse which he gave to historical 
composition ; while his name will always be en- 
deared to the admu-ers of Sir Walter Scott by the 

strong partiality which the latter evinced on all 
occasions for his fi'iend " Willie Allan." With 
the office of limner to the queen for Scotland, 
which Allan received in 1842, the honour o( 
knighthood is always conveyed to its holder. A 
small salary also accompanies it. The oflice was 
revived by George the Fourth, and given to Sir 
Henry Raeburu, and at Raeburn's death it was 
conferred on Sir David Wilkie, who was succeeded 
by Sir William Allan. At the death of the latter. 
Sir James Watson Gordon, R.A., president and 
trustee of the Royal Scottish Academy, was 
appointed in his place. A portrait of Sir 
William Allan is given separately. Besides 
Wilkie, John Burnet the engraver, Alexander 
Fraserthe painter, and others eminent in art, were 
his fellow students at the Trustees' Academy, 
Edinburgh. When he first went to London, Opie, 
the Coruish painter, was then at the height of his 
reputation, and in the fir.5t picture which Allan 
sent to the Royal Academy, he imitated Opie's 
style, so far as colour went, with something like 
servility. This picture, called 'A Gipsy and 
Ass,' was exhibited in 1805. His 'Russian Pea- 
sants Keeping Holiday,' was exhibited in 1809. 
Besides the pictures above mentioned, he also 
painted the following : — ' Circassian Prince on 
Horseback selling two boys of his own nation to a 
Cossack chief of the Black Sea ;' ' Circassian 
Chief selling to a Turkish Pasha Captives of a 
neighbouring tribe taken in war ;' ' The parting 
between Prince Charles Stuart and Flora Mac- 
donald at Portree;' and 'Jeanie Deans' first inter- 
view with her father after her return from London.' 

Allabdice, surname of, see Barclay-Allardice. 

ALPIN, king of the Dab-iadic Scots, reigned 
contemporary with his cousin, Drust IX., king of 
the Picts. He is usuaUy said to have been the 
son of Achaius, or Eoganan, that is, in the Celtic, 
Eochy-annuine (the poisonous), but Pinkerton 
thinks that the name of his father is lost beyond 
all recovery, and, indeed, the history of the coun- 
try at a period so remote is so enveloped in dai-k- 
ness as to be considered in many respects fabu- 
lous. He succeeded his brother, Dungal the Brown, 
in 834. His kingdom comprehended the moun- 
tainous country of Argj'leshire, as far as the moutb 




of the Clyde, but, anxious to extend his tcmlo- 
ries, he sailed from Kintyre, and lauded in the 
bay of Ayr, with a powerful force. After laying 
waste the district between the rivere Ayr and 
Doon, following the course of these rivers, he 
penetrated to the ridge which separates Kyle from 
Galloway, destruction for a time marking his pro- 
gress. He soon, however, received a check. The 
cliiefs, recovered from their first alarm, and thirst- 
ing for revenge, collected their followers, and com- 
ing np with the invading army, in the parish of 
Dalraellington, in Ayrshire, a furious conflict en- 
sued, when Alpin was numbered among the slain. 
This event happened about 837. The battle was 
fought near the site of Laicht castle, which de- 
rived its name from the stone of Alpin, a grave- 
stone known and recognised nearly four centuries 
after this last of the Dalriad kings had been slain 
on the spot. The word laicht signifies a grave or 
stone, and there are still the remains of an old 
castle in the parish of Dalmellington, at a place 
called Laicht, which was demolished by the pro- 
prietor in 1771, to enclose some gi'onnd. Two 
farms in the parish are still called Over and Ne- 
ther Laicht, and several cairns are found which 
indicate the scene of the battle. It is also re- 
markable that the foundation charter of the town 
of Ayr, granted by William the Lion in 1197, 
when describing the limits of its exclusive trade, 
names Laicht Alpin, the stone or grave of Alpin, 
as one of its distinguishing boundaries. Alpin 
left two sons, Kenneth MacAlpin, under whom 
the Scots and Southern Picts were united, and 
Donald II., who succeeded Kenneth. Alpin's at- 
tempt to extend his territories appears, says Skene, 
from the register of St. Andrews, to have been 
confined to Galloway, the province of which in 
those days comprehended Ayrsliire, and belonged 
to the Southern Picts, and it is said by that chroni- 
cle, that it was his conquest of that territory which 
transferred the kingdom of the Picts to the Scots. 
The latter event is called the Scottish Conquest. 
Kenneth his son apparently fouglit but one battle, 
and that, according to the same chronicle, at For- 
teviot, in the very heart of the territory of the 
Southern Picts. {Skene's History of the Highland- 
ers, vol. i. p. 65.] This Alpin is not to be con- 
founded with another Alpin or Elpin, who was 

king of the Picts, and who reigned from 775 to 779 
— Chalmers' Caledonia. — Ritson's Annals, vol. ii. 

ALSTON, CnAULES, an eminent physician and 
lecturer on botany, was born in Lanarkshire in 
1683, and first studied at the university of Glas- 
gow. While a student there, he had the good 
fortune to be taken under the patronage of the 
duchess of Hamilton, and .«pcnt his early years nt 
Hamilton palace. By the a.ssistance of her grace 
he was enabled to accom[)lish the design of devot- 
ing himself to the medical profession, and in the 
year 1716 he went, with the celebrated Dr. Alex- 
ander Monro, to Lcyden ; where, after studying 
for three years under the celebrated Boerhaavc, 
he took his degiec of M.D. On his return he 
commenced practice in Edinburgh, and, by tlw 
interest of the duke of Hamilton, heritable keeper 
of Holyrood house, he obtained the sinecure office 
of king's botanist. He began his lectures on bo- 
tany in 1720, in the king's garden at Holyrood 
house, which he enriched by large collections he 
had made in Holland. In 1738 he was chosen to 
succeed Professor Preston, in the chair of Botany 
and Materia Medica united, in the university of 
Edinburgh ; and in conjunction wMth Dr. Monro, 
Dr. Rutherford, Dr. Sinclair, and Dr. Plummcr, 
laid the foundation cf the high character since 
enjoyed by Edinburgh as a school of medical sci- 
ence. In 1740, for the assistance of his pupils, he 
published an Index of the plants demonstrated to 
them in the Edinburgh medical garden. He con- 
tinued to lecture till his death on the 22d of No- 
vember 1760. In the fifth volume of the Edin- 
burgh Medical Essays he published a short paper 
on the efficacy of the powder of tin in destroying 
or expelling worms from the bowels. He was the 
author of several botanical works, the principal of 
which is entitled 'Tirocinium Botanicum Edinbur- 
gense,' 1753. In the same year one of his p.apcrs, 
in which he endeavoured to overturn the Linnican 
doctrine of the sexual .system of plants, was pub- 
lished in the first volume of the ' Edinburgh Phy- 
sical and Literary Essays.' He also engaged in a 
controversy with Dr. Whytt about quicklime ; but 
the most valuable of all his works .arc his ' Lectures 
on the Materia Medica,' which appeared in two 
volumes 4to in 1770, edited by his friend and suc- 
cessor in the professor's chair. Dr. John Hope 




In botany a genus of the Polyandria monogynia 

class and order is called Alstonia after Dr. Alston. 

The following id a list of Dr. Alston's works : 

Index Plantamm in Horto Medico Edinburgensi. Edin. 
1740, 8vo. 

Index Medicamentorum simplicium triplex Edin. 1752, 

Dissertations on Qmck Lime and Lime Water. Edin. 1752, 
12mo. The 2d edition, with additions. 1754, 8vo. 

Tyrocinium Botanicum Edinbnrgense. Edin. 1753, 8vo. 
1765, 8vo. 

Dissertation on Botany, translated from the Latin by a 
Physician. Edin. 1754, 8vo, perhaps a translation of the 

A second Dissertation on Quick Lime and Lime Water. 
Kdin. 1755, 12mo. 

A third Dissertation on Quick Lime and. Lime Water. 
Edin. 1757, 8vo. 

Lectures on the Materia Medica, containing the Natural 
History of Drugs, their Virtues and Doses; also Directions 
for the Study of the Materia Medica, and an Appendix on 
the Method of Prescribing. Lend. 1770, 2 vols. 4to, edited 
by Dr. Hope. 

Powder of Tin, an Anthelmentic Medicine. Med. Ess. v. 
p. 89, 1736. 

Dissertation on Opium. lb. p. 110, 1736. 

Case of Extravasated Blood in the Pericardium. lb. v. p. 

A Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants. Ess. Phys. and 
Lit. p. 205, 1754. 

Two Letters on Lime and Lime Water. Phil. Trans. 
1751, Abr. x. p. 204. 

Altrie, in the peerage of Scotland, an extinct barony 
originally conferred on Robert Keith, the second son of Wil- 
liam foiuth earl Marischal, who was commendator of the 
Cistertian Abbey of Deer in Aberdeensliire, and had the whole 
lands belonging to that monastery erected into a temporal 
lordship, with the title of Lord Altrie, 29th July 1587. His 
lordship was selected by King Jaraes VL, to go to Denmark 
to negotiate his marriage with the princess Anne in 1589, 
but excused himself on account of his age and infirmities, 
when his nephew George, fifth earl Marischal, was ap- 
pointed in his stead. The first Lord AJtrie is supposed to 
have been dead before 1606. He was succeeded by his said 
nephew, the fifth earl Marischal, the founder of Marischal 
College, Aberdeen, when the title of Lord Altrie merged in 
the superior title, and became extinct on the death of George 
the tenth earl Marischal. See Marischal, earl, and Keith, 
surname of. 

Alves, a surname derived from a parish in Elginshire of 
that name. 

ALVES, KoBERT, a minor poet, was bom at 
Elgin in 1745, and studied at Aberdeen, where 
he took his degrees of philosophy in 1766. Hig 
poetical talents gained him the friendship of Dr. 
Beattie and other gentlemen of literary tastes. He 
afterwards became parish schoolmaster at Desk- 
ford, and in 1773 removed to Banff. In 1779 he 
went to Edinburgh, where he maintained himself 

by teaching the classics. He is said to have left 
Banff on account of a disappointment in love. In 
1782 he published a volume of poems, which 
attracted little notice. In 1789 appeared another 
of his works, entitled 'Edinburgh, a poem, in two 
parts, and the Weeping Bard, in sixteen cantos,' 
which were not without merit. He died on the 
1st of January 1794, leaving a laborious work 
in the press, entitled * Sketches of a Histoiy oi 
Literature,' which was afterwards published. 
[ CampbelVs History of Scottish Poetry. ] The 
works of Alves are : 

Poems. Edin. 1782, 8vo. 

Edinburgh, a Poem ; also the Weeping Bard. Edin. 1789 

Sketches of the History of Literature, containing Lives and 
Characters of the most eminent writers in different Languages, 
ancient and modem, with Critical Remarks on their works 
together with several Literary Essays ; to which is prefixed, a 
short biographical account of the Author. Edin. 1794, 8vo. 
Edin. 1795, 8vo. 

Banks of Esk, and other Poems. Edin. 1801, 12mo. 

Ancrum, earl of, one of the titles of the marqms of Lo- 
thian, conferred in 1633, on Sir Robert Kerr, of Ancrum, an 
accomplished poet and courtier, the descendant of Sir Andrew 
Kerr of Femihirst, a border chief who acted a prominent part ir 
the reigns of James IV. and James V., particularly in resisting 
the inroads of the English. The title devolved on Robert fourth 
earl and first marquis of Lothian, on the death of Charles, 
second earl of Ancrum, and is now by courtesy borne by the 
eldest son of the marquis of Lothian. [See Lothian, mar- 
quis of, and Kerr, sm-name of.] The name of Ancmm is de- 
rived from Alncromb or Alncrumb, signifvnng the crook of the 
Ale or Aln, and is exactly descriptive of the situation of the 
village of Ancmm, which stands on a rising ground on the 
south side of the Ale, where that stream fetches a curve be- 
fore falluig into the Tenot. A ridge in the sequestered 
of Ancmm in Roxburghshire is called Lilliard's edge, from a 
battle fought there in 1544, on an invasion of the English 
under Sir Ralph Evers and Sir Brian Latoun, in which a 
yonng Scottish woman named Lilliard who had foDowed 
her lover, on seeing him fall, rushed forward, and fighting 
bravely, by her gallantry aided to turn the fight in favour of 
her countrymen. The heroine was slain in the engagement, 
and an old broken and defaced stone is still pointed out to 
mark the spot where she fell. It is said to have once borne 
the following mscription, recast from the well-known lines on 
Sir Thom;is Widdrington in the ballad of Chevy Chase: 

"Fair maiden Lyliard hcs under this stane; 
Little was her stature, but great was her fame; 
Upon the English loons she laid many thumps. 
And when her legs were cutted off she fought upon her 

The leaders of the Scotch were the regent earl of Arran ano 
the oarl of Angus. (See vol. ii. p. 46.) 

ANCRUM, earl of, see Kerr, Sir Robert. 

Anderson, a surname meanmg literally the son of 
Andrew, but as held by families of Lowland origiu, denoting 




more propeily a son of St. Andrew, that is, n niitive Scots- | 
m»n, aa indicated by tiie Cross of St. Andrew, the patron 
saint of Scotland, in tlieirsliield. The Mid Lotiiian Andersons, 
to one brand) of wliicli belongs the family of the autlior 
of this work, lliive for crest a crosslet above the crescent; 
motto, " Gradatini." The crest evidently has reference to 
the crusades. 

The Gaelic sept of Anderson are said to be an offshoot of 
the old potent stem of Clan Anrias, from which spring; the 
Mac Andrews, the Mac Gihindcrs, and the Gillanderses (Ulittie, 
vol. ii. p.2'2S). Thecliiefof the sept is Anderson of Candacraig, 

ANDERSON, Ad.\m, author of tliu largest 
British compilation upon commercial history, was 
born about the year 1692. lie left Scotland early 
in life, and obtained the situation of clerk iu the 
South Sea House, London, in which he remained 
for forty years, and rose to be chief clerk of the 
Stock and New Annuities iu that establishment. 
lie retained that post till his death, which hap- 
pened on the 10th Januar}' 17G5. He was one of 
the trustees for the Settlement of Georgia, and 
also a member of the court of assistants of the 
Scots Corporation iu London. In 17C-1, a year 
before his death, was publislied his elaborate work, 
entitled 'An Historical and Chronological Deduc- 
tion of the Origin of Commerce, from the Earliest 
Accounts to the Present Time ; containing a His- 
tory of the large Commercial Interests of the 
British Empire,' &c. London, two volumes folio. 
An improved edition of this work was subsequent- 
ly published by David M'Plierson, in four vol- 
umes. Mr. Anderson was twice married. By his 
first wife he had a daughter. His second wife 
survived him till 1781. He was her thud hus- 
band. — C/ialmers' Biog. Diet. 

ANDERSON, Alexander, an eminent mathe- 
matician, was born at Aberdeen, near the close of 
the sixteenth century. Having at an early period 
of his life proceeded to Paris, he settled there as a 
private teacher or professor of mathematics. Be- 
tween the years 1612 and 1619 he published vari- 
ous treatises on geometrical and algebraic science. 
His pure taste and skill in mathematical Investi- 
gation pointed him out to the executors of the 
celebrated geometrician Vieta, Master of Requests 
at Paris, who died in 1603, as the fittest person 
to revise and publish his valuable MSS., which he 
did with learned comments, and neat demonstra- 
tions of propositions left imperfect. He subse- 
quently produced a specimen of the application of 

geometrical analysis, distinguished fpr iU clourni-HS 
and classic elegance. His works are now scarce. 
They consist of six thin quarto volunu'S, including 
the edition of the works of Viotn. The date nl 
his death, as of his birth, has not been ascertained, 
[//i/tton's Mathematical Dictionary.'] The follow- 
ing is a list of his works : 

Snpplemcntum A|)ollonii Redivivi ; sive Analysia Prob- 
lematis ad ApoUonii Doctrinam desiderali, a Marino Ohe- 
t;ddo relicti. Huic subnexu est, varionun problematum 
practice. Paris, 1G12, 4to. 

AiTitXiyix, pro Zctetico Apollonian! Problematis a M jnni 
pridem edito in Supplcmento ApoUonii Redivivi, &c. Paris, 
1615, 4to. 

Francisci Viettc do Equationum Recognitione et Emcnd»- 
tione Tractatus dno. Paris, 161.5, 4to. 

Vindicix Archimedis, sivo Elenchus CyclometriiB Lans- 
bergii. Paris, lOlG. 

Diacrisis Animadversionis in Franc. Vietam a Clem. Cy- 
riaco. Paris, 1617. 

Exercitationuin Mathematicamm Decas prima. Paris, 

ANDERSON, David, of Finshaugh, a citizen 
and merchant of Aberdeen, the brother, or, as 
another account says, the cousin of the preceding, 
and uncle of George Jamesone the Scottish Van- 
dyke, had likewise a strong turn for mathem«itics 
and mechanics, and from his being able to apply 
his knowledge to so many practical and useful 
purposes, he was popularly known at Aberdeen by 
the familiar name of Davie Do-a'-things. He re- 
moved a large rock which obstructed the entrance 
to Aberdeen harbour. He left three daughters, 
yet " his widow," we are informed by Mr. David j 
Laiijg, in the information supplied to Allan Cun- 
ningham for his Memoir of Jamesone the painter, 
" was rich enough ami generous enough to found 
and endow an hospital in Aberdeen for the main- 
tenance and education of ten poor orphans." One 
of his daughters was married to the Rev. John 
Gregory, minister of Dnmioak, and their son was 
the celebrated James Gregory, inventor of the re- 
flecting telescope. From her is supposed to have 
been derived that taste for mathematical science 
which afterwards distinguished the Gregorys. A 
portrait of him by his nejihcw, the celebrated 
painter above referred to, is still extant in Aber- 

ANDERSON, Andrkw, a printer at Edin- 
burgh, who, in the reign of Charles II., obtained 
a patent for printing everything in Scutlaiul for -11 




years, thus monopolizing the whole trade to him- 
self— a thing that ■would not be tolerated in our 
more enlightened days. He was the son of George 
Anderson, who, in 1638, introduced the art of 
letter-press printing into Glasgow, having been 
invited from Edinburgh by the magistrates for that 
purpose, and it appears from the council records 
of the former city that he was to be allowed £100 
for the liquidation of his expenses, " in transport- 
ing of his gear to that burgh," and in full of his 
bygone salaries from Whitsunday 1638 till Mar- 
tinmas 1639. His son Andrew succeeded him in 
Glasgow, but afterwards removed to Edinburgh, 
and was made king's printer for Scotland, in 1671. 
For many years after this period the art of print- 
ing remained in the very lowest state in Scotland, 
owing mainly to the exclusive nature of the royal 
grant to Anderson. This privilege was after- 
wards restricted to Bibles and Acts of parliament, 
which continued exclusively in the hands of the 
king's printers for Scotland, till 1839, when the 
license was thrown open, nnder certain condi- 
tions and restrictions, to the printing trade gen- 

ANDERSON, Andrew, lieutenant-general in 
the East India Company's service, founder of an 
institution at Elgin for the snpport of old age and 
the education of youth, was the son of a private 
soldier and a poor half-witted woman of the name 
of Marjory Gilzean, belonging to the town of El- 
gin, to whom he was privately manned. Andi'ew, 
who was bom about the year 1746, was brought 
up by his mother in a state of great misery, in 
what had been the sacristy of Elgin cathedral, 
where she led a wretched and lonely life, support- 
ed by charity; her infant's bed being a hollow 
sculptured stone, which had formerly been used as 
a font. He was educated at the grammar school 
of that town as a pauper, doing all the dnidgery 
of the school in return for his education. After- 
wards he was bound apprentice to his father's 
brother, a staymaker in the adjoining parish of St. 
Andrews Lhanbiyd, whose harsh treatment in- 
duced him, while yet very young, to run away 
from home. Having contrived to reach London, 
he was taken in by a tailor, who afterwards em- 
ployed him as his clerk. Being sent with a suit of 
clothes to an officer in the East India Company's 

service, a countryman of his ovm, then about to 
proceed to India, that gentleman, pleased with his 
appearance, and satisfying himself that he had 
obtained a good education, advised him to enlist 
in his regiment, and offered to take him as his 
servant. Anderson accordingly went out as a 
drummer, and from his steadiness and good con- 
duct, and singular facility in the acquirement of 
languages, soon obtained promotion. He had 
early made himself master of the Hindostanee, 
and was frequentl}' employed as interpreter. His 
conduct at the taking of Seringapatam, in 1799, 
was honourably noticed at the time in the public 
papers. Having amassed a large fortune, he ulti- 
mately retu'ed with the rank of lieutenant-general 
in the Bombay army. In 1811 he returned to 
Elgin, and resided for several summers there, or 
in the neighbourhood, passing the winter in Lon- 
don, where, on the 23d November 1815, he exe- 
cuted a trust-disposition and deed of settlement, 
assigning his whole property, after the payment 
of a few minor legacies, for the purposes of found- 
ing and endowing an Hospital, a School of Indus- 
try, and a Free School at Elgin, to be called the 
Elgin Institution for the support of old age and 
education of youth. He died in London on the 
16th of December 1824. 

The funds left by General Anderson amounted 
to £70,000, and the Elgin Institution, which stands 
at the east end of Elgin, was founded in 1832, 
for the maintenance of aged men and women, and 
the maintenance and education of poor or orphan 
boys and gii'ls. The philanthropic and splendid 
monument which he may be said to have thus 
raised to his own memory is a beautiful and ap- 
propriate piece of architectm-e. Built of native 
sandstone, it is a quadrangular structure of two 
stories, sm'mounted by a cii'cular tower and dome. 
The institution for the childi-en contains a school 
of industry. The children are apprenticed also to 
some trade or useful occupation. The house gov- 
ernor and teacher of the school of industry has a 
salary of £55 per annum, with board and lodging 
in the institution. A public school, on the Lan- 
casterian system, is attached to the institution as 
a free school, for the education of male and female 
children whose parents, though in narrow circum- 
stances, are still able to maintain andclotne them 




ANDERSON, James, the author of the ' Di- 
plomata Scoti»,' was the sou of tlie Rev. Patrick 
Audcrson, oucof the persecuted presbvteriau min- 
isters, who at the Restoration was ejected from liis 
living and afterwards suffered imprisonment in tlie 
Bass, and was bom at Edinbur<:rli, August 5, lGfi2, 
and graduated at tlie university there. It appears 
from the registers of the university of Edinbui'gh 
that he was a student under Mr. William Paterson, 
the professor of philosophy in 1CC7, and took his 
degree in the class of IMr. James Wishart, on the 
27th of May 1680. Having chosen the law for his 
profession, he served an apprenticeship with Sir 
Hugh Paterson of Bannockbnrn, writer to the sig- 
net, and on the 6th of June 1691 he was admitted 
a member of that society. In 1704, an English 
lawyer, of the name of Atwood, having published a 
pamphlet claiming for England a direct superiority 
over Scotland, ISIi'. Anderson was led to publish 
an ' Historical Essay, showing that the Crown and 
Kingdom of Scotland is imperial and independent,' 
which appeared in 1705. This work procured for 
him not only a reward, but the thanks of the Scot- 
tish parliament, which ordered Atwood's pamphlet 
as well as the Historia Anglo-Scotica of Drake, to be 
burnt by the common hangman. Having projected 
a series of engi-avings of fac-similes of the charters 
and seals, medals and coins, of the Scottish mon- 
archs from the earliest times, in November 1706, 
he obtained from the Scottish parliament a vote of 
three hundi-ed pounds sterling towai'ds this object. 
By this aid he was enabled to make great progress 
in his arduous work ; but before ISIarch 1707 he 
had not only expended this sum, but five hundred 
and ninety pounds sterling of his own on tlie un- 
dertaking, and was forced again to apply to par- 
liament, now about to expire. A committee re- 
ported the facts, and the parliament, while they 
approved of his conduct, voted him an additional 
grant of one thousand and fifty pounds sterling; 
and recommended him to the queen ' as a person 
meriting her gracious favour.' One of the hist 
acts of the union jiarliament was ' a recommenda- 
tion in favour of Mr. James Anderson.' This in- 
duced him to .-emove to London, to superintend 
the progi'ess of the work, though the money Is oaid 
never to have been paid. In June 1715 he was 
appointed postmaster-general for Scotland, a situ- 

ation which he held only for two yeni-s, havinfi 
been superseded on the 29th of November 1717, 

for some cause which does not appear, by Sii 
Jcilm Inglis of Cramond. AVhen he lost this ap- 
pointment he issued proposals for publishing lii.t 
' Diplomata.' The following advertisement ap- 
peared in AVatson's Scots Courant of the 25th ol 
February 1718: "Proposals being printed for 
publishing a book, which will consist of above one 
lunubed coppci-])lates, containing the ancient char- 
ters and seals of the kings of Scotland, and the 
alphabets and abbreviations made of in an- 
cient writings, collected pursuant to an order of 
the parliament of Scotland, by l\Ir. Anderson, 
writer to the signet : any who encourage that 
book may have copies of the proposals at Mr. An- 
derson's house above the general post office, Edin- 
biu-gh, and may also see specimens of the work at 
any time between the hours of two and five in the 
afternoon." In 1727 appeared the first and second 
volumes of his ' Collections relating to the History 
of Mary Queen of Scotland ;' to which he soon 
after added two more volumes, 4to. This work 
was intended as a counter publication to Jebb's 
Vita et Rebus Gestis Maria: Scotonon Reginct, 
published at London, in 1725, in two folio vol- 
umes, which represented Mary and her cause in 
a favourable light. In preparing his work on 
Queen Mary, Mr. Anderson, through the influence 
of the Duke of Devonshire, obtained admi.ssion 
to the state paper oflice, " whence," says Chal- 
mers, " he drew some documents that lost their 
efficacy from suspicions of his candour." Mr. Chal- 
mers, in his life of Ruddiman, makes the following 
very just remark: "That such an antiquary as 
Anderson is represented to have been should enti- 
tle Mary, queen of Scotland, is astonishing, when 
the charters and seals of his own Diplomata would 
have shown him that she was Scotonim Rrgina. 
as her predecessors had been Scotorum Heges. 
Ruddiman, with his usual acuteness, remarks, 
'That it is a sure indication of forgery when an 
old charter speaks of the king as Scotitc Rex.'" 
[Chalmers' Ruddiman, p. 156, note, ed. 1794.] An- 
derson was one of a society of the critics of Edin- 
burgh, which was formed for publishing a correct 
edition of Buchanan's works, with the declared 
aim of vindicating " that inccmparably learned 




and pious author from the cahimnies of Mr. Tho- 
mas Ruddiman." It does not appear that they 
ever carried their design into execution, farther 
than preparing a series of "Notts" upon the an- 
notations of Ruddiman, wliich are still in manu- 
script. He died at London of an apoplectic stroke, 
on the 2d of April 1728, at the age of sixty-six, 
leaving unfinished his great work, on which he had 
been engaged for so many years. He had married 
m his youth a daughter of John Ellis of Elliston, 
an advocate in Edinburgh, by whom he had sev- 
eral sons, who survived him, and a daughter Mar- 
garet who married George Crawford, the author 
of the Peerage. One of his sons, Patrick Ander- 
son, was comptroller of the stamps at Edinburgh. 
In his latter years, Anderson found himself in em- 
barrassed circumstances, from the poverty which 
bad gradually fallen upon him from his ill-directed 
projects, arising from his want of prudence and over 
sanguine temperament. In his distress he pledged 
his ancient charters and his copperplates to Tho- 
mas Paterson of Conduit Street, London, a friend 
who had patronized his labours and relieved his 
necessities. In 1729 the plates were sold by auc- 
tion, and brought £530. It was at the request of 
Mr. Paterson that Ruddiman was induced to finish 
what Anderson with less erudition and diligence 
had begun. At last in 1739, eleven years after his 
death, the work was published in one volume folio, 
under the title of ' Selectus Diplomatum et Nu- 
mismatum Scotiae Thesaurus,' with an elaborate 
preface by Thomas Ruddiman. It was printed, 
in one large folio volume, by Thomas and Walter 
Ruddiman, for Thomas Paterson in Conduit 
Street, Andrew Millar in the Strand, London, and 
Gawin Hamilton at Edinburgh. 

The following is a list of Anderson's works : 

An Historical Essay, showing tliat the Crown of Scotland 
is Imperial and Independent, in answer to Mr. Atwood. 
Edin. 1705, 8vo. 

Collections relating to the History of Mary Queen of Scot- 
land. Edin. 1727-28, 4 vols. 4to. 

Selectus Diplomatum et Numismatum Scotiae Thesaurus : 
ie Slandato Parliamenti in subjiciuntur ad faciliorum Rei 
Antiquarise cognitionem Characterei et Abbreviaturse, in 
luas p-irtes distributus; 1. Syllogen complectuntur veterum 
iiplomatum, sive Chartarum regum et procernm Scotia?, una 
um coram Sigillis, a Duncano II. ad Jijcobuml. i.e. ab anno 
1094 ad 1412. 2. Continet Numismata turn aurea quam ar- 
irentea singulonim Scotise regum ab Alexandro I. ad supra 
dictam regnorum coalitionem perpetua sene deducta Quae 
f'peri consummando deerant supplevit et prefatione, Tabu- 

larum explicatione, aliisqne Appendicibns ; rem Scotiie diplo- 
maticim nummariam, et genealogicam baud parum illustran- 
tionibus, auxit et locupletavit Thomas Ruddimanns. Edin 
1739, fol. Tliis splendid work is enriched with fac-similes o) 
charters, &c. beautifully engraved by Sturt. The original 
price was 4 guineas common paper, and 6 fine. Mr. Ruddi- 
nian's Introduction was afterwards translated, and puUished 
by itself. Edin. 1773, 12mo. It is a work of extreme rarity, 
and great value. In the fifth division it exhibits the char- 
acters and abbreriations used in .ancient MSS. 

ANDERSON, James, D.D., the brother of 
Adam Anderson, author of the Commercial His- 
tory, whose life is given at page 123, was born at 
Aberdeen, and having gone to London in 1710, 
was for many years minister of the Scotch church, 
in Swallow street, Piccadilly. In 1734 he removed 
to another chapel in Leicester Fields, and died 
May 23, 1739. He wrote a treatise on 'The 
Constitutions of the Free Masons,' and an elabo- 
rate folio volume, entitled ' Royal Genealogies, or 
the Genealogical Tables of Emperors, Kings, and 
Princes, from Adam to these Times,' London, 1732. 

ANDERSON, James, LL.D., an eminent wri- 
ter, the son of a farmer, was born at Hermiston. 
near Edinburgh, in 1739. His ancestors were 
farmers, and for many generations had occupied 
the same land. His parents died when he was 
very young, and at the age of fifteen he entered 
upon the management of the farm which they had 
possessed. Early perceiving the gi-eat advantag« 
of a scientific acquaintance with agriculture, he 
attended the chemistry class of Dr. CuUen, in the 
university of Edinburgh, studymg at the same 
time several collateral branches of science. He 
adopted a number of improvements on his farm, 
and was among the first to use the small twc 
horse plough on its introduction into Scotland. In 
the midst, of his agricultm'al labours, so great was 
his desire for knowledge and so unwearied his 
application, that he contrived to acquire a consid- 
erable stock of general information. In 1771, 
under the signature of Agricola, he contributed to 
Ruddiman's Edinburgh Weekly Magazine a series 
of ' Essays on Planting,' which in 1777 were col- 
lected into a volume. In 1773 he furnished the 
article lilonsoon to the first edition of the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica, in which he predicted the fail- 
ure of Captain Cook's first expedition in search of 
a southern polar continent. In 1776 appeared his 
Essay on Chimneys. 




Freviows to the year 1777, Mr. Anderson had 
removed to a large uncultivated farm of 1,300 acres, 
named Monkliill, which he rented in Aberdecn- 
sliire, and which, oy his skill and care, he brought 
into excellent condition. In that year appeared 
' Observations on the Jloans of Exciting a Spirit 
of National Industry,' with regard to agriculture, 
commerce, manufactures, and fisheries; and, be- 
sides his Essa3-s on Planting, various pamphlets on 
agi-icultural subjects, which raised his reputation 
very high as a practical agriculturist. In 1780, the 
university of Aberdeen conferred on him the degree 
of LL.D. Fie had married in 1768, Miss Seton 
of ^lounie; by whom he had thirteen children; 
and with the twofold object of educating his 
family, and enjoying literary society, in 1783 
he went to reside in the neighbourhood of Edin- 
burgh. His place of residence was situated within 
the parish of Leith, and when the magistrates and 
heritors attempted to levy an assessment upon 
householders for the maintenance of the poor, he 
brought the measure before the court of session, 
and succeeded in persuading the judges that the 
laws of Scotland did not authorise the establish- 
ment of a poor's rate. He considered himself as 
having rendered an essential service to his countrj-, 
by his resistance in this case, and several editions 
of his papers during the process, though never 
published, were printed for the use of his fi-iends. 
Having, in a tract privately circulated, projected 
the establishment of th; Nc:!'.: British Fisheries, 
he was requested by the Lords of the Treasury in 
1784 to survey the western coast of Scotland, and 
in 1785 he published the result of his inquiries, 
under the title of ' An Account of the present state 
of the Hebrides and Western Coast of Scotland, 
being the Substance of a Report to the Lords of 
the Treasury.' In the Report of a committee 
appointed May 11, 1785, to inqui]-e into the state 
of the British fisheries, very honom-able mention 
is made of his labours. On the 22d December 
1790 he commenced a weekly publication of a 
literary and scientific nature, called ' The Bee,' 
which continued tOl the 1st January 1794. He 
wrote a great part of the work himself, and be- 
sides many of the pruicipal papers without signa- 
ture, all those which were signed Scnex, Alcibi- 
ades, and Timothy Halrbrain, were from his pen. 

\Vhcn the Board of ngricnltnrc applied to par- 
liament for a reward tt Mr. Elkinglon, on account 
of his mode of draining by boring. Dr. Anderson 
addressed several letters to the president of that 
Board. These letters were published, and though 
the language he used in them was considered n.1 
rather intemperate, yet it afterwards appeared that 
his assertions were weU founded, and that Elking- 
ton's plan contained nothing but what had been 
fully explained by Dr. Anderson more than twenty 
years before in his Agiicultural Essays. About 
this time, also, he read an Essay on Moss before 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh, which was soon 
after published. In it he first advanced the very 
singular idea that moss, contrary to the mode of 
all other plants, vegetates below, while its upper 
stratum is undergoing putrefaction by exposui'e to 
the air. 

About the year 1797 he removed with his family 
to London, and for years wrote the agri- 
cultural articles in the Monthly Review. From 
1799 to 1802 he conducted another journal called 
' Recreations in Agriculture, Natural History, 
Arts, and Miscellaneous Literature,' which ended 
with the sixth volume. Although the work con- 
tains a number of communications from others, the 
greater part of it was written by himself. It met 
with the greatest encouragement from the public, 
but the irregularity of his printers and booksellers 
caused him to discontinue it. The thirty-seventh 
number of his ' Recreations' was his last publica- 
tion in March 1802. After this period he published 
nothing more, except his correspondence with 
General Washington and a pamphlet on scarcity, 
but devoted himself almost entirely to the relaxa- 
tion of a quiet life, and particidarly to the cultiva- 
tion of his garden at Lsleworth ; in which he had 
constructed a model of his patent hothouse, to act 
by the rays of the sun, without the application of 
artificial heat. With this he amused himself by 
making experiments, in order to ascertain what 
degree of heat and moisture was most salutary to 
diflferent plants. As an instance of his unwearied 
attention to every department of rural economj', 
may be mentioned a discovery which he made 
about this time, respecting the most eflectual mode 
of extenninating wasps. Having observed that 
in the district where he resided these insccu were 




very destnictive to every species of fruit, he re- 
solved to study theii- natural history. He soon 
ascertained, by his inquii-ies and observations, 
that the whole hive, like that of bees, was propa- 
gated from one female or queen, and that the 
whole race, except a few queens, perished during 
winter, and he naturally concluded that to destroy 
the queens, in the months of May and June, before 
tliey began to drop then- eggs, was the surest way 
of diminishing their number. With this view he 
even procured an association to be formed, which 
circulated handbills with dkections, and offered a 
reward for every queen wasp that should be 
brought in, within a specified period. 

Dr. Anderson died at Westliam, near London, on 
15th October 1808, of a gradual decline. Having 
been some time a widower, in 1801 he had married 
a second wife, a lady belonging to Isleworth, who 
survived him ; as did also five sons and a daugh- 
ter. In his younger days, and while engaged in the 
active pursuits of agricultm-e, Dr. Anderson was 
remarkably handsome in his person, of middle 
stature, and of robust constitution. Extremely 
moderate in his living, the country exercise ani- 
mated his countenance with the glow of health ; 
but the overstrained exertion of liis mental pow- 
ers afterwards impaired his strength, ultimately 
wasted his faculties, and brought on premature 
old age. He possessed a very independent mind, 
and his manners were agreeable and unconstrain- 
ed. In the relative duties of a husband and a fa- 
ther, he displayed the greatest prudence and affec- 
tion ; and in the social cii'cle he was distinguished 
by his humorous pleasantry, and abounded in 
anecdote. In conversation he entered with zeal 
and spirit into any favomite subject, and his re- 
marks vrere generally full of interest. He was 
among the first of that long list of practical writers 
of which the present century has produced so 
many who directed the public attention to the im- 
provement of agriculture, and there was no agi'i- 
cultm-al subject of which he treated without throw- 
ing upon it new light. Besides the works men- 
tioned, he wrote also many papers in the periodi- 
cals, and an Account of Ancient Fortifications in 
the Highlands, which was read to the Society of 
Scottish Antiquaries. — Scots Mag. 1809. — Edin. 

Tlie following is a list of his works : 

A Practical Treatise on Chimneys ; containing full direc- 
tions for constructing them in all cases, so as to draw well, 
and for remo\'ing Smoke in houses. Lond. 1776, 12mo. 

Free Thoughts on the American Contest. Edin. 1776, 8vo. 

Essays relating to Agriculture and Rural Affairs. Edin. 
1775, 8vo. 1777, 8vo. Lond. 1796, 3 vols. 8vo. Fifth edit, 
with additions and corrections. Lond. 1800, 3 vols. 8vo. 

Miscellaneous Thoughts on Planting and Training Timber 
Trees, by Agricola. Edin. 1777, 8vo. 

Observations on the Means of exciting a Spirit of Nationa, 
Industry, chiefly intended to promote the Agriculture, Com- 
merce, Fisheries, and Manufactures of Scotland. Edin. 1777 

An Inquiry into the Nature of the Com Laws, with a view 
to the new Com Bill proposed for Scotland. Edin. 1777, 8va 

An Enquiry into the Causes that have hitherto retarded 
the advancement of Agriculture in Europe, with Hints for 
removing the cu-cmnstances that have chiefly obstructed its 
progress. Edin. 1779, 4to. 

The Interest of Great Britain with regard to her American 
Colonies considered. 1782, 8vo. 

The True Interest of Great Britain considered, or a Pro 
posal for estabhshing the Northern British Fisheries. 1783 

An Account of the present State of the Hebrides, and 
Western Coasts of Scotland, with Hints for encouraging the 
Fisheries, and promoting other Improvements in these coun- 
tries; being the Substance of a Report to the Lords of tha 
Treasury. Edin. 1785, 8vo, illustrated with a geographical 

Observations on Slavery, particularly with a view to it» 
effects on the British Colonies in the West Indies. Man- 
chester, 1789, 4to. 

Papers drawn up by him and Sir John Sinclair, in referenca 
to a Report by a Committee of the Highland Society on Shet- 
land Wool. 1790, 8vo. 

The Bee, consisting of Essays Philosophical and Miscella 
neons. Edin. 1791-94, 6 vols. 8vo. 

Observations on the Effects of Coal Duty upon the remote 
and thinly peopled coasts of Britain. Edin. 1792, 8vo. 

Thoughts on the Privileges and Power of Juries, with Ob- 
sen-ations on the present State of the Country with regard to 
Credit. Edin. 1793, 8vo. 

KemarKs on the Poor Law in Scotland. Edin. 1793, 4to. 

A Practical Treatise on Peat Moss, considered as in ith 
natural state fitted for affording fuel, or .as susceptible of 
being converted into mould, capable of yielding abundant 
crops of useful produce, with full directions for converting and 
cidtivating it as a soil. Edin. 1794, 8vo. 

A General View of the Agriculture and Rural Economy of 
the County of Aberdeen, with Observations on the me.ans of 
its improvement. Chiefly drawn up for the Board of Agri- 
culture, in two pai'ts. Edin. 1794, 8vo. 

An Account of the different kinds of Sheep found in the 
Russian dominions, and among the Tartar Hordes of Asia, by 
Dr. Pallas, illustrated with sis plates, to which are added five 
appendixes, tending to illustrate the natural and oeconomical 
history of sheep, and other domestic animals. Edin. 1794, 

On an Universal Character, in two letters to Edward 
Home, Esq. Edin. 1795, 8vo. 

A Practical Treatise on Draining Bogs and Swampy Grounds, 
with cursory reni.arks on the origin.ahty of Elkington's mode 
of drauiing. Also disquisitions concerning the different breeds 




uf sheep and other domestic animals, bcinp the principal ad- 
ditions made in the fom-th edition of his Kssaj's on Agi-icul- 
ture. Lond. 179-1, 1798, 8vo. 

Recreations in Agi-iculture, Nattind History, Arts, and 
Miscellaneous Literature. Lond. 1799-1802, 6 vols. 8vo. 

Selections from his Correspondence witli General W.-i-shing- 
ton, in which the causes of the present sciircity are fully in- 
vestigated. Lond. 1800, 8vo. 

A Calm Investigation of the Circumstances that h.avo led 
to the present scarcity of Grain in Britain ; suggesting the 
means of alleviating that e\il, .and of preventing the recmTeuco 
of such a cal.imity in fatiu-e. Lond. 1801, 8vo. 

A Description of a p.atent Hot-house, wliich operates chiefly 
by the heat of the Sun, .and other subjects ; without the aid 
of Flues, or Tan-bark, or Steam, for the purpose of heating 
it, &c. Lond. 1804, 12mo. 

The Antiquity of Woollen Manufactures m England. — 
(J^nts. August 1778, and other papers in that work. 

A Disquisition on Animals. American Trans, 
iv. 149. 1799. 

On Cast Iron. Tr.-ms. Ed. R. Soc. i. 26. 1788. 

A further Description of .ancient Fortifications in the North 
of Scotl.and. Archajol. vi. 87. 1782. 

ANDERSON, John, M.A., author of the 
celebrated Defence of Presbyterianism, was born 
in the reign of Charles the Second, but the 
precise year has not been ascertained. All that 
is known of his early life is, that, after receiving 
a university education, he was for some time the 
preceptor of the celebrated John duke of Ai-gyle 
and Greenwich ; and that he subsequently re- 
sided for twenty-five years in Edinburgh, where 
he kept a school. Having been educated for the 
church, he was, about the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century, minister of the parish of Dum- 
barton, and afterwards was transported to Glas- 
gow. The general use of the English liturgy 
in the Episcopalian congregations, as we learn 
from Wodrow's con-espondence, was exciting, 
about this period, the utmost alarm in the minds 
of the Presbyterian clergy and people, and a vio- 
lent controversy on the subject was carried on 
for some time between the ministers of the rival 
chm-ches. Into this controversy Mr. Anderson 
entered with much zeal. The first of his publica- 
tions known is styled ' A Dialogue between a 
Curat and a Countreyman concerning the Eng- 
lish Service, or Common Prayer Book of Eng- 
land,' 4to, printed at Glasgow about 1710. In 
this work, in opposition to the statements in Sage's 
' Fundamental Charter of Presbytery Examined,' 
he proved that the liturgy which had been nsed 
by the first Scottish reformers for at least seven 
years after the overthrow of popery, was not the 

English liturgy, but that used by the English 
church at Geneva, since known by the name o( 
John Knox's liturgy, or the old Scottish liturgy. 
In 1711 appeared a ' Second Dialogue,' in which 
he set himself to oppose the sentiments of South, 
Hammond, Beveridge, and Burnet. Tlicse works 
were followed by 'A Letter from a Countrey- 
man to a Curat,' which called forth several an- 
swers, particularly one by Robert Calder, an 
Episcopalian clergyman, the friend of Dr. Arch- 
ibald Pitcairn, to which he speedily replied in a 
pamphlet entitled ' Curat Calder 'Whipt.' Soon 
after he published ' A Sermon preached at Ayr, at 
the opening of the Synod, on April 1, 1712.' In 
1714 appeared his famous work, under tlie title of 
' A Defence of the Cliurch Government, Faith, 
Worship, and Spirit of the Presbyterians, in 
Answer to a Book entitled " An Apology for 
Mv. Thomas Rhind," ' &c., 4to. In 1717 he re- 
ceived a call from the congregation of the North- 
west church, Glasgow, but was not settled there 
till 1720, after his case had been before both 
the synod and the Assembly, 'some of the mem- 
bers of his presbytery having objected to his 
removal. His colleagues, it seems, had taken 
(jfFence at a letter addressed by him to Walter 
Stewart of Pardonan, published by him in 1717. 
in which he says, " I confess I was under a great 
temptation of being eager for a settJement in Glas- 
gow, for what minister would not be fond of a 
larger stipend and a double charge ?" In the lat- 
ter year (1720) he published, in 12mo, six 'Let- 
ters upon the Overtures concerning Ku-k Sessions 
and Presbyteries,' which, like all his controversial 
writings, abound in curious historical information, 
interspersed with severe satirical remark. He 
wrote several other political and theological tracts 
besides those mentioned, now gone into oblivion. 
The precise year of his death is not known, but 
as his successor was appointed in 1723, his do- 
cease must have taken place before that year 
His grandson. Professor Anderson, the founder of 
the Andersonian Institution, Glasgow, caused the 
following memorial to his memory to be inscribed 
upon the fiimily tombstone erected over his grave, 
on the front of the North-West church, Glasgow: 
" Near this place ly the remains of the Rev. John 
Anderson, who was preceptor to the famous Johr, 




Duke of Ai'gyle and Greenwich, and minister of 
the gospel in Dumbarton in the beginning of the 
eighteenth centuiy, and in this church in 1720. 
He was the author of ' Tlie Defence of the Church 
Government, Faith, Worsliip, and Spirit of the 
Presbyterians,' and of several other ecclesiastical 
and political tracts. As a pious minister and an 
eloquent preacher, a defender of civil and religioua 
liberty, and a man of wit and learning, he was 
much esteemed; he lived in the reiga of Charles 
II., James n., William m., Anne, and George I. 
Such times, and such a man, forget not, reader, 
while thy country, liberty, and religion are dear 
to thee." — Wodroiu's History. 

ANDERSON, John, F.R.S., founder of the 
Andersonian Institution, Glasgow, and grandson 
of the subject of the preceding article, was the 
eldest son of the Rev. James Anderson, minis- 
ter of Roseneath, Dumbartonshire, in the manse 
of which parish he was born in the year 1726. 
His father died when he was yet young, and 
he went to live at Stirling with his aunt, ]\L-s. 
Tm-ner, widow of one of the ministers of the High 
church of that town, where he received the first 
part of his education. At the age of twenty he 
was one of the officers of the Bm-gher coi^ps of 
Stirling, raised for the defence of the town against 
the forces of the Pretender, and the carabine he 
, carried on that occasion is preserved in the Muse- 
um of the university founded by him. He after- 
wards studied at the college of Glasgow. In 1756 
lie was appointed professor of oriental languages 
in that university. In 1760 he was removed to 
the chair of natural philosophy. Embued with an 
ardent zeal for the difiiision of useful knowledge, 
he instituted a cUiss, in addition to his usual one, 
for the instniction of the working classes and 
others, who were unable to attend the regular 
course of academical study, which he continued 
to teach twice a-week, during session, till his 
death. In 1786 he published 'Institutes of Phy- 
sics,' which in ten years went through five edi- 
tions. Having, like many other good men, hailed 
the first bm'st of the French Revolution in 1789, 
as calculated to promote the cause of liberty, 
he went to Paris in 1791 with the model of a gun 
he had invented, the peculiar advantage of which 
consisted in the recoil being stopped b. the con- 

densation of common air within the body of the 
caiTiage. To this ingenious invention he had un- 
successfidly endeavoured to obtain the attention 
of our own government. This model he presented 
to the national convention, who hung it up in 
their hall, with the superscription, " The Gift of 
Science to Liberty !" A six-pounder being made 
from his model, he tried numerous experiments 
with it, in presence, among others, of the celebrat 
ed Paul Jones, then in Paris, who expressed his 
approbation of the new species of gun. 'Wliile 
Professor Anderson remained in the capital of 
France, he witnessed many of those stirring and 
momentous scenes, which at that period attracted 
tlie notice of all Europe, and he was one of those 
who, on the 14th July, from the top of tlie altar 
of liberty, sung Te Deum with the bishop of Paris, 
when the ill-fated Louis XVI. took the oath to 
the Constitution ! An expedient of his for fm-- 
nishing the people of Germany with French news- 
papers and manifestoes, after the emperor Leopold 
had drawn a cordon of troops round the frontiers, to 
prevent their introduction, was tried, and found 
very useful. It consisted of small balloons of pa- 
per, varnished with boiled oil, and filled with in- 
flammable air, and the newspapers being tied to 
them, they were sent off when the wind was fa- 
vourable, and picked up by the people. A small 
flag which these paper balloons carried, bore an 
inscription in German to the following purport : 

" O'er hills ani d.ales and lines of hostile troops, I float m."*- 
Beai-ing the laws of God and Nature to oppressed men, 
And bidding them with arms their rights maintain." 

On his return to Glasgow, Professor Anderson 
resumed his college duties with his usual fervour. 
He died on the 13th January 1796, in the 70th 
year of his age, and 41st of his professorship. By 
his will, dated 7th May 1795, he bequeathed all 
his money and effects for the establishment at 
Glasgow of an institution, to be called Anderson's 
University, for the education of the unacademical 

The institution was endowed by the founder 
with a valuable philosophical apparatus, museum, 
and libraiy, valued at three thousand pounds stei - 
ling ; and it was incorporated by charter from the 




magistrates aud council of Glasgow, on the 9th 
June following the testator's death. The plan of 
Professor Anderson contemplated four colleges, 
for arts, medicine, law, and theology, each college 
to consist of nine professors, the senior professor 
being president or dean, bnt tlie funds not allow- 
ing of this at the outset, tlie managers wisely be- 
gan on a small scale, and the institution lias gra- 
dually grown in influenee and importance, and is 
now in a state more corresponding with the origi- 
nal design of the founder. The first teacher was 
Dr. Thomas Garnet, professor of natural philoso- 
phy, and author of a 'Tour through the High- 
lands,' as well as various scientific works, who 
commenced on 21st September 1796, by reading 
in the Trades' Hall, Glasgow, popular and scien- 
tific lectm-es on nattiral philosophy and chemistry, 
addressed to persons of both sexes, and illustrated 
by experiments. With the view that the institu- 
tion should be permanently established the trus- 
tees purchased, in 1798, extensive buildings in 
John Street, and in the same year a professor of 
mathematics and geography was appointed. After 
a successful period of tuition of four years. Dr. 
Garnet, on the foundation of the Ro3'al Institu- 
tion of Great Britain in 1800, was chosen its first 
professor of chemistry, and accordingly removed 
to London in October of that year, but was obliged 
to resign the situation on account of iU health, and 
died in 1802, aged 36. He was succeeded in An- 
derson's Institution, Glasgow, by the celebrated 
Dr. George Birkbeck, the founder of Mechanic's 
Institutes, who, at the age of twenty-one, was 
appointed professor of natural history, and in ad- 
dition to what had formerly been taught, intro- 
duced a familiar system of instruction, which he 
conducted gi'atis, chiefly for the benefit of opera- 
tives. One of the great benefits of this institution 
from the commencement, indeed, has been that 
instruction is communicated to students of all 
classes, divested of those technicalities by which 
it is frequently overlaid and obscured by educa- 
tional institutions of greater name. Dr. Birkbeck 
resigned in August 1804, and was succeeded in 
the following month by Dr. Andrew Ure, the 
well-known chemist. Dr. Ure continued to dis- 
charge the duties of his office with great success 
for the long period of twenty-five years, when he 

removed to London. In the moantinic the Insti- 
tution had grown in jiublic estimation, and sever- 
al professors had been ajipointed. The original 
buildings too had become insnflicicnt, and the 
trustees finally purchased from the city the Gram- 
mar school buildings, situated in George Street, 
which, with extensive additions and alterations, 
were rendered fit for a complete college eetablish- 
mcnt, containing halls for the professors, the mu- 
seum, library, itc. The new buildings were opened 
in November 1828, and continue to be used with 
marked success. There aie now thirteen profes- 
sors, and the subjects taught are natural philoso- 
phy, chemistry, natural history, logic and ethics, 
niathematies and geography, oriental languages, 
drawing and painting, anatomy, theory and prac- 
tice of medicine, sm-gery, materia medica, medical 
jurisprudence, veterinary medicine, aud Gcrniau 
aud modern literature. The Institution, or as it 
is called, the Andersoniau University, is placed 
under the inspection of the Lord Provost aiui 
other officials as ordinary visitors, but it is more 
immediately superintended by eighty-one trustees, 
who are elected by ballot, aud remain in ofiice 
for life, unless disqualified by non-attendance. 
They are chosen from nine classes of citizens, 
namely, tradesmen, agriculturists, artists, manu- 
facturers, physicians and surgeons, la^\'yers, di- 
vines, philosophers, and kinsmen or namesakes. 
Nine of their number are annually elected by the 
trustees as managers of the establishment for the 
year, and they in turn elect from their number, by 
ballot, the president, secretary, and treasurer. 

A posthumous work of Professor Anderson, en- 
titled ' Observations on Roman Antiquities dis- 
covered between the Forth and the Clyde,' wai 
published at Edinburgh in 1800. — Glasgow Me- 
chanic's Magazine, 1825. — ClelancTs Annals oj 

ANDERSON, Jonx, historian of the Ilamil- 
tons, was born June 6, 1789, at Gilmerton House, 
in the county of Mid-Lothian. He was the eld- 
est son of James Anderson, supervisor of excise, 
Oban, whose father, William Anderson, was a 
farmer at Upper Liberton, and a burgess and 
guild-brother of the city of Edinburgh. His mo- 
ther was Elizabeth, daughter of John Williams. 
the well-known author of the 'Mineral ICingdom,' 




who then resided at Gilmerton. After receiving 
the proper education, and attending the university 
of Edinburgh, he was in 1813 admitted a licentiate 
of tlie Etlinliurgh Royal College of Surgeons, and 
had scarcely passed his college examinations, when 
he was appointed, by the Marquis of Douglas, 
afterwards, on the death of his father in 1819, 
Duke of Hamilton, first Surgeon of the Royal 
Lanarksliire Jlilitia, and he retained that situation, 
and the patronage and confidence of his grace, 
until his death. He settled at Hamilton, and ob- 
tained an extensive practice. In 1825, he pub- 
lished, in quarto, a lai'ge and elaborate work, en- 
titled ' Historical and Genealogical Memoirs of the 
House of Hamilton,' to which, m 1827, he added 
a supplement. For more than two years previous 
to his death, he had been engaged collecting ma- 
terials for a Statistical Account of Lanarkshire ; 
and he also contemplated wi-iting a Genealogical 
History of the Robertsons of Struan. In the pe- 
culiar line of literatm'e which he selected for him- 
self, he was distinguished by sound and pertinent 
information, deep research, untiring perseverance, 
and a ready and perspicuous style. He died 24th 
December 1832, his last illness being caused by 
extraordinai-y fatigue in attending patients under 
the cholera morbus. He was (says a writer in the 
New Monthly Magazine) universally known in the 
neighbourhood of his residence; and from his un- 
assuming manners, his social disposition, and ex- 
tensive benevolence, was as generally respected. 
His matenial grandfather, John Williams, F.S.A., 
Scotland, was, though a native of Wales, long 
connected with Scotland, and in his lifetime emi- 
nent both as an antiquarian and a geologist. He 
was a mineral sui-veyor by profession, and on his 
first coming to Scotland he took the coal-mines of 
Brora, in the parish of Golspie, from the Earl of 
Sutherland, and a farm near them named Water- 
ford. His daugliter, Elizabeth, the mother of Dr. 
Anderson, (and of the author of the ' Scottish Na- 
tion,') was born at Brora, 13th April 1765, just a fort- 
night before the late Duchess-Countess of Suther- 
land. The farm proved a bad speculation, as Mr. 
Williams lost a large sum of money in improving 
it to no pui-pose. After he had put up an engine 
at the coal-mine, the latter took fire, by which he 
lost a considerable sum, indeed nearly all that he 

posseseed. At that time the earl and countess 
were at Bath, on account of the health of the earl, 
who died there. The young countess, their daugh- 
ter, on succeeding to the Sutherland title and 
estates, was an infant scarcely a year old. The 
factor, a Mr. Campbell Combie, was a veiy harsh 
and arbitraiy person, and would not do anything 
for Ml'. Williams. He refused even to entertain 
his claim either for the loss he had sustained by 
the coal-mines, or for the money he had expended 
in improvements on the farm. Fortunately, at 
this juncture Mr. Williams was appointed by gov- 
ernment one of the persons to survey the forfeited 
estates in Scotland, and in this employment he 
was engaged for eighteen months. He afterwards 
took a coal-mine at West Calder, and subse- 
quently went to Gilmerton about 1775. In 1777 
he published ' An Account of some remarkable 
ancient Ruins lately discovered in the Highlands 
and Northern parts of Scotland,' being the vitri- 
fied forts found in various parts of the country. 
He was one of the first to direct attention to 
these remains, and his theory regarding them has 
generally been adopted by subsequent writers 
on the subject. In 1789 appeared, in 2 vols. 8vo.. 
his most celebrated work, ' The Natural His- 
tory of the Mineral Kingdom.' Of this last work 
he sent a copy to George the Thii'd, one to the 
unfortunate Louis the Sixteenth of France, and 
one to the Empress Catherine of Russia. The two 
former never acknowledged receipt. The Empress 
was the only one of these potentates who took any 
notice of the gift. Whatever was her character 
otherwise, it is worthy of note that she patronized 
literary and scientific men, and invited them to her 
court. lili-. WQliams received a communication 
ft'om St. Petersburg, requesting him to proceed to 
Russia, to sm-vey for minerals in that empire, and 
he accordingly left Scotland for that purpose about 
the end of 1792, or early in 1793. On his way 
home, after fulfilling his mission, he was seized 
with a fever and died at Verona in Italy, May 29, 
1795. He was one of the twelve original members 
of the Scotch Antiquarian Society, and his portrait 
is in that Institution in Edinburgh. In the Trans- 
actions of that society there appeared fi'om his 
pen, a paper entitled > A Plan for a Royal Forest 
of Oak in the Highlands of Scotland.' An edition 




of 'the Jlineral Kingdom,' edited by a Dr. Millar 
of Ediiiburgli was published in 1810, containing a 
Life of 5Ir. Williams, which was incorrect in many 
respects, and not sanctioned by his family. 

ANDERSON, John, an enterprising character, 
founder of the town of Fermoy, in Ireland, son of 
David Anderson of Portland, was born in lowly 
circumstances in the West of Scotland. AN'hllc 
very young he learned to read and write, and hav- 
ing made a few pounds in some humble employ- 
ment, he settled in Glasgow about 1784. By a 
speculation in herrings he acquired five hundred 
pounds, and with this sum he went to Cork, and 
became an export merchant, dealing in provisions, 
the staple trade of the place. In a few years he 
realized twenty-five thousand pounds. This sum 
he laid out in the pm'chase of four-sixths of the 
Femioy estate, in the province of Munster. With 
characteristic energj- he resolved to make a to^Ti 
at Fermoy, which at that period was no more than 
a dirty hamlet, consisting of a few hovels, and a 
carman's public house, at the end of a narrow old 
bridge. He began by building a good hotel, and 
next erected a few houses, and a square. At his 
own expense he rebuilt the ruinous bridge over 
the Blackwater, on which the town is situated. 
Having learned that government intended to erect 
large barracks in Munster, he oft'ered, in 1797, a 
most eligible site for them, rent free. The ofifer 
was accepted, and two very large and handsome 
barracks were built. He next erected a theati-e, 
and a handsome residence for himself. He invited 
various families, having more or less capital, to 
settle at Fermoy, and placed himself at the head 
of the little community. As his manners were 
pleasing, his societj' was courted by the uobilit}- 
and gentry of the neighbourhood. He was never 
ashamed of his origin, and often spoke of his suc- 
cess in the world with laudable jiride. On one 
occasion, in the very heiglit of his prosperity, he 
was entertaining a large company at his residence 
in Fermoy. Amongst the party were the late 
Earls of Kingston and Shannon, and Lord Kivers- 
dale. The conversation turned on tlieir host's 
great success in life, and Lord Kingston asked him 
to what he chiefly attributed it. " To education, 
my lord," he replied, " every child in Scotland can 
easily get the means of learning to read and write. 

■Wlien I was a little boy my parents sent me to 
school every day, and I had to walk three niilen 
to the village school. Many a cold walk I had in 
the bitter winter mornings ; and I a.^surc you, my 
lords," he added, smiling, " that shoes and stock- 
ings were extremely scarce in tliose days." Still 
continuing his attention to business, he established 
a bank, an agricultural society, and a mail coach 
company. The first coach which ran between 
Cork and Dublin was set a-going by him. He 
also built a large schoolhousc and a military col- 
lege; the latter afterwards became a public school. 
For the erection of a Protestant church he gave 
three thousand pounds, and five hundred pounds 
and a site rent free for a Catholic chapel. The 
government oflcred him a baronetcy, which he de- 
clined. It was, however, conferred. In 1813, by 
George TV., when Prince Regent, upon his son, 
Sir James Caleb Anderson, the well-known ex- 
perimentalist in steam-coaching, as a mark of his 
Royal Highncss's gracious approbation of the ser- 
vices rendered to Ireland by his father. Having 
embarked in some dangerous speculations, Mr. 
Anderson, in his latter years, sustained great re- 
verses. In Welsh mining alone he lost £30,000. 
On the sale of the Barrymore estates, he was a 
h('a^•y purchaser, by which, owing to the fall in 
the price of land hi L-eland, after the close of the 
war, he became a considerable loser ; while his 
b.anking operations were affected by the changes 
in the currency. He left behind him, liowever, a 
noble monument in the handsome town of Fermoy, 
which now 7,000 inhabitants. Mi-. Madden, 
in his ' Revelations of Ireland,' has devoted a 
chapter to the enterprise of this "Scotchman in 
Munster," to which we are mainly indebted for 
the materials of this sketch. Mr. Amlerson mar- 
ried a Miss Senipii', li_\- whom he liad two sons and 
two daughters. 

ANDERSON, Robert, M. D., editor and bio- 
grapher of the British Poets, bom at Camwath in 
Lanarkshire on 7tli Januan' 17.50, was the fourth 
son of William Anderson, feuar there, and JLir- 
garet Melrose, his wife. After receiving the rudi- 
ments of his education at his native village, he 
was sent to the grammar school at Lanark, the 
master of which was Robert Thomson, who had 
married a sister of the poet Thomson. Tivo of hit 




schoolfellows at this school were Pinkerton the 
historian, and James Graeme, who died young, and 
whose poems were afterwards included in his edi- 
tion of the British poets. Wlien only ten years 
old his father died in his fortieth year, leaving his 
widow with four sons very slenderly provided for. 
Robert, the youngest, showed very early a taste 
for reading and study, and being destined for the 
church, he was sent, in the year 1767, to the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, where he became a stu- 
dent of divinity. Subsequently changing his views, 
he entered upon the study of medicine ; and after 
finishing his medical studies he went to England, 
and was for a short time employed as surgeon to 
the Dispensary at Bamborough castle, Northum- 
berland. On the 25th September 1777 he mar- 
ried Anne, daughter of John Grey, Esq. of Aln- 
wick, a relative of the noble family of that name. 
He took his degree of doctor of medicine at Edin- 
burgh, in May 1778. He afterwards practised as 
a physician at Alnwick, but his wife's health fail- 
ing, and having by his marriage secured a mode- 
rate independence, he finally returned to Edin- 
burgh in 1784, where, in December 1785, his \vife 
died of consumption, leaving him with three 
daughters, the youngest of whom soon followed 
her mother to the gi'ave. In 1793 he man'ied 
Margaret, daughter of Mr. David Dale, master of 
Yester school, Haddingtonshire. He now devoted 
himself to literary pursuits, and produced various 
works, chiefly in the department of criticism and 
biography. The principal of these is ' The Works 
of the British Poets, with prefaces Biographical 
and Critical,' in foui-teen large octavo volumes, 
the earliest of which was published in 1792-3 ; 
the thu-teenth in 1795, and the fourteenth in 1807. 
His correspondence with literary men of eminence 
was extensive. He was the friend and patron of 
aU who evinced any literary talent. Li particu- 
lar he was the friend of Thomas Campbell the 
poet, who through his influence procured literary 
employment on his first coming to Edinburgh ; 
and to Dr. Anderson Mr. Campbell dedicated his 
' Pleasures of Hope,' as it was chiefly owing to him 
that that most beautiful poem was first brought 
before the world. It was in the year 1797, when 
Campbell was only nineteen years of age, that 
his acquaintance with Dr. Anderson commenced. 

which forms such an important epoch in the his- 
tory of both. The following account of it by Dr. 
Irving is extracted ft'om Beattie's Life of Camp- 
bell : " Campbell's introduction to Dr. Anderson, 
which had no small influence on his brilliant ca- 
reer, was in a great measure accidental. He had 
come to Edinburgh in search of employment, when 
he met Mr. Hugh Park, then a teacher in Glas- 
gow, and afterwards second master of Stirling 
school. Park, who was a frank and warmhearted 
man, was deeply interested in the fortunes of the 
youthful poet, which were then at their lowest 
ebb. His own character was held in much esteem 
by the doctor ; and he was one day coming to pay 
him a visit, when the young ladies (Dr. Anderson's 
daughters) observed from the window that he was 
accompanied by a handsome lad, with whom he 
was engaged in earnest conversation, and who 
seemed reluctant to take leave. Theii- curiosity 
was naturally excited, and Campbell's story was 
soon told — being merely the short and simple an- 
nals of a poor scholar, not unconscious of his own 
powers, but placed in the most unfavourable cir- 
cumstances for the development of poetical genins. 
Park knew that he had obtained distinction in the 
university of Glasgow; and he fortunately had 
in his pocket a poem [an Elegy wi-itten in Mnll 
the previous year] which his young friend had 
written in one of the Hebrides. Dr. Anderson 
was struck with the turn and spirit of the verses; 
nor did he hesitate to declare his opinion that they 
exhibited a fan- promise of poetical excellence. 
The talents, the character, and the prospects of so 
interesting a youth formed the chief subject of 
conversation dming the afternoon. He expressed 
a cordial wish to see the author without delay, 
and Park's kindness was too active to neglect a 
commission so agreeable to himself. Campbell 
was accordingly introduced, and his first appear- 
ance produced a most favourable impression.' 
[Beattie's Life of Campbell^ vol. i. p. 194.] As 
Campbell was anxious to obtain some literai-y 
emplojTiient, Dr. Anderson, with his characteristic 
zeal and sympathy in the cause of friendless me- 
rit, did not rest imtU the object had been attained. 
He warmly recommended the young poet to Mi'. 
Mundell, the publisher, who made Campbell an 
offer of twenty pounds for an abridged edition of 




Bryan Edwards's ' West Indies,' -which Campbell 
accepted, and wliuli was Ills first undertaking for 
the pnblic press. lie afterwards consulted Dr. 
Anderson as to the publication of his ' Pleasures 
of Hope,' as his experience as an author fiave pe- 
culiar weight to his opinions on this point. The 
manuscript, we are told, was then shown to Mr. 
Mnndell, and after some discussion between Dr. 
Anderson and the publisher, the copyright was 
sold to him on the terms mcntioucd in the life of 
Campbell. " In the literary society," says Dr. 
Beattie, " which Dr. Anderson drew around liini, 
the poem was a familiar topic in conversation, 
and he had soon the pleasm-e of finding that the 
opinion of otlier judicious critics, respecting its 
merits, was in harmony with his own." At that 
period, says Dr. Irving, " the editor of the British 
Poets had a very extensive acrpiaintance ; and it 
was through him that Campbell formed his earli- 
est connexions with men of letters. His house at 
Heriot's Green was freiiuentcd by individuals who 
had then risen, or who afterwards rose to gi'eat 
eminence. As he had relinquished all professional 
pursuits, his time was very much at the disposal 
of his friends, whatever might be their denomina- 
tion. He was visited by men of learning and men 
of genius, and perhaps in the course of the same 
day by some rustic rhymer, who was anxious to 
consult him about publishing his works by super- 
scription. I remember finding him in consulta- 
tion with a little deformed student of physic, fi'om 
the north of Ireland ; who, in detailing his lite- 
rary history, took occasion to mention that at 
some particular crisis lie had no intention of per- 
secuting the study of poetry." [Ihid. vol. i. )i. 
241.] Before committing it to press, the manu- 
script of the ' Pleasures of Hope,' by the advice of 
Dr. Anderson, underwent a careful revisal, and at 
his suggestion the opening of the poem was en- 
tu'cly rewritten. 

In 1796 Dr. Anderson published 'The mis- 
cellaneous works of Tobias Smollett, M.D., with 
memoirs of his life and writings,' six volumes 
octavo ; which passed through six editions. His 
life of Smollett was also published separately, 
the eighth edition of which appeared in 1818, 
under the title of 'The Life of Tobias Smol- 
lett, JI.D., with critical observations on his 

Works.' He also published an elaborate ' Lifb ol 
Samuel John.son, Ll..l>., with critical obscn-a- 

tions on his Works,' the third edilidu <if whiih 
appeared in ISl."). In 1820 he published an edi- 
ti(m of Dr. Moore's Works, with memoirs of his 
life and writings. Among his other public ntiiiiis 
may be mentioned ' The Poetical Works of Robert 
Blair,' with a Life, 1794. His latest pro<luctlon 
was a new edition of Blair's Grave and other po- 
ems, with his life and critical observations, Edin- 
burgh, 1826. He was for several years editor of 
the Edinliurgh Alagazine, afterwards incoi-porated 
witli the Scots Magazine, and a contributor to 
various periodicals. Dr. Anderson died of dropsy 
in the chest on the 20tli February 18,'!0, in the 
81st j'car of his age, and was buried, by his own 
desii'e, in Carnwath churchyard. In the year 
1810 his eldest daughter was married to David 
Irving, LL.D., author of the Life of George Bu- 
chanan, the Lives of Scottish Writers, and other 
works. Mrs. Irving died suddenly in 1812, leav- 
ing a son. Dr. Anderson's habits were so regu- 
lar, and his disposition so cheerful and animated, 
that old age stole on him iniperceptilily. As an 
instance of the strong interest which he ever took 
in the cause of civil and religious liberty, it may 
be mentioned, that, on the evening before his 
death, he asked for a map of Greece, that he 
might, to use his own words, form some notion 
of the general elements of this new state, which 
had then worked out its independence^ As a 
literary critic he was distinguished by a warm 
sensibility to the beauties of poetry and by ex- 
treme candour. His ]iersonal character was mark- 
ed by tlio most urbane manners, the most hon- 
ourable probity, and by unshaken constancy in 
friendship. — New Mont/i/ij Magazine for July 1830. 
— Annual Obiluary. — Encyclopedia Britannica, 7th 

ANDERSON, Walter, D.D., a respectable 
clergyman of mediocre talents, who was afflicted 
with an incurabley«ror scrihendi, which exjiosed 
him to the ridicule of his acquaintances, was up- 
wards of fifty years minister of Chirnside. The 
date and place of his birth are unknown. His 
first work was a ' Life of Croesus, King of Lydia,' 
in four parts, 12nio, 1755, which owed its origin, 
it is said, to a joke of David Hume. One day. 




being iit the house of Nincwells, which stood with- 
m his parish, and was tlie property of Hume's 
brother, aud conversiug with the gieat histoiian 
on his success as an author, he is said to have thus 
addressed liiui : " Mr. Da^-id, I daresay other 
people might write books too; but you clever 
folks have taken up all the good subjects. When 
I look about me, I cannot find one unoccupied." 
Hume waggishly replied, " What would you 
think, Mr. Anderson, of a history of Croesus, king 
of Lydia? Tliat has never yet been written." 
He caught at the idea, and hence the life of the 
Lydiau king. This siugular work was honoui-ed 
with a serio-burlesque notice in the second number 
of the first Edinburgh Review, started by Hume, 
Smith, Carlyle, and others ; and received rather a 
.severe critique in the second number of the Criti- 
cal Review, then first established in Loudon by 
Smollett. In 1769, undeterred by the ill success 
of his first attempt, he published a History of the 
Reigns of Francis IV. and Charles IX. of France, 
two volumes quarto. In 1775 appeared a contin- 
uation, being ' The History of France, from the 
beginning of the reign of Henry III. down to the 
period of the edict of Nantes,' one volume quarto. 
In 1783 he published two additional volumes, 
bringing the history down to the peace of Mun- 
ster. Not one of these works ever sold, aud as 
he published at his own risk, it is related that the 
cost of print aud paper was defrayed by the sale, 
one by one, as each successive heavy quarto ap- 
peared, of some houses which he possessed in the 
town of Dunse, until they had aO ceased to be his 
property. He also produced an essay, in quarto, 
on the phLosophy of ancient Greece, which dis- 
played considerable erudition, though sadJy defi- 
cient in style, and may be said to have been the 
only production of his which merited or received 
any praise. He subsequently published a pam- 
phlet against the principles of the first French 
Revolution, which fell still-born from the press. 
With the view of drawing attention to the work, 
and thereby promoting its sale, he wrote an addi- 
tion or appendix to the pamphlet, of much greater 
extent than the pamphlet itself, with which he went 
to Edinbm-gh to get it prmted. Having called 
upon Principal Robertson he informed him of his 
plan, which caused him to exclaim in surprise : 

" Really, this is the maddest of all yom- schemes 
— what! a small pamphlet is found heavy, and 
you propose to lighten it by making it ten times 
heavier! Never was such madness heard of!" 
" Why, why," answered Dr. Anderson, " did you 
never see a kite raised by boys?" "I have," 
answered the principal. "Then you must have 
remai'ked that, when you try to raise the kite by 
itself, there is no getting it up : but only add a 
long string of papers to its tail, and up it goes 
like a laverock !" The venerable historian was 
highly amused by this ingenious argument, but 
succeeded in dissuading the infatuated author 
from his design. Dr. Anderson died at an ad- 
vanced age in July 1800, at the manse of Chim- 
His works may be enumerated as follows : 

The History of Croesus, king of Lydia, in four parts ; con- 
taiiiing Observations on the Ancient Notion of Destiny oi 
Dre-ams, on the Origin and Credit nf the Oracles, and the 
principles upon wliich their Oracles were defended agamsi 
any attack. Edin. 1755, 4to. 

The History of France, during the reigns of Fr.ancis II. 
and Charles IX. To which is prefixed, a Review of the Gen- 
eral History of the Monarchy, from its origin to that period ; 
comprehending an Account of the various Revolutions, Poli- 
tical Government, Laws, and Customs of the Nation. Lond. 
1769, 2 vols. 4to. 

The History of France, from the commencement of the 
reign of Heniy III. and the rise of the Catholic League, to 
the peace of Vervins, and the estabhshment of the famous 
Edict of Nantz, in the reign of Heniy IV., and from the 
commencement of the reign of Lewis XIII. to the genenii 
peace of Munster. Lond. 1775-1783, 3 vols. 4to. 

The Pliilosophy of Ancient Greece investigated, in its on- 
gin and progress to the 0eras of its greatest celebrity in the 
Ionian, It.alic, and Athenian schools; with Remai-ks on the 
Delineated Systems of their Founders, and some Account oi 
their Lives and Characters, and those of then' most eminent 
Disciples. Edin. 1791, 4to. 

Angus, a very ancient name in Scotland , the first on re- 
cord who bore it being the brother of Loam and Fergus, the 
eai'hest Idngs of the Dalriadic Scots. Pinkerton says : " The 
Irish accounts bear that Loarn, Angus, and Fergus, three 
sons of Ere, led the Scots back to Britain in 603, [.after 
having been compelled to retreat to Ireland about fifty ye.ore 
before — that is, about the middle of the fifth centmy, or about 
two hundred years after their first arrival in Argyleshire,] and the first king .and was succeeded by Fergus. 
Wliat became of Angus we are not told. It would seem that, 
either from incapacity or preference of private life, he aspired 
not to any share of the power of his brothers. But though 
Lo.arn be left out of the regal list in the Scottish accoimts, 
yet neither he nor Angus is unknown to them. Fordun, hb. 
iii. cap. i., says that Fergus, son of Ere, came to Scotland 
cvm duobus fratribns Loarn et Tenegus^ ' with his brothers and Tenegus,' which last word is a not uncommon 
corruption of Angus with Fordun. The register of the pnory 

^arl\)oiu of %nM. ^rerteir from an mxkx Paomorbom htto an 
iaribom in mp of Sakolm Canntort 

ftaoimiris of g.«gns. 

Dublcao, son of 


Died 939. 

his son, i| 

Cruchne, or |il| 
Conquhare,fathe. 'i| 
>fFinelIa, lady ot "" 
murderess of ! 
Kenneth III. 

I. ©rigiuHl ^mt of fads of ^itgus. 

I ScoTriSH Line. W ^ovits 

3. 4. 5 6 

int of Jonglas tonthm^jtr. 

fiir William 
Douglas of Glen- 
bervie, grandson 

of knight of 
8<iine name, 2d 
Bon pf.fiflh earl 

William, son of 
10th cjirl. 

creaifd Mjirquia 
of Douglas, 

Died 1060. 

eldest son, or, on 
liiR death, by the 
next. Archibald, 
third marquis, and 
thirteenth earl of 
Ar.gus, was. in 
1703, created duke 
of Douglas, and 

died childless, in 
176J, "hen hia 
titles of marquis 
of Douglns and 
earl of Angus, 
with others, de 
volved through 
heirs male, cu the 

the title of Earl of 

Angus became 
merged in that of 
Marquis of Doug 
las.aiid was borne, 
as a courtesy title, 
by the marquis' 

dukes of Hamil- 
ton, who are now 
the holders of the 
title of Ear! of 


OuflrtWUiest— L for GUchrist. 2. for Abemethy. 3. for Wishart of Brechto, a daughter of this bouse havlnf vnarried one of the 
^ old Efirls of An^s. 4. for Stewart of Bonkill. Escutcheon over all for Douglas. 




of St. Andrews, written about 1250, also says of Kenneth, son 
(tf Alpin, sep^dUts in Yona tnsjila^ uhi tres Jilii Ere, scilicet 
Fert/uSy Loarn, et Erwffus, sejmlti Jiiermit ; * he was buried 
in lona, where the three sons of Ere, namely Fergus, Loam, 
and Eneg;iis were biu'ied.' " \^Knquiry into the Tlistoiy of 
Scotland, vol. ii. p. 92.] It would appear that Cant^Te, (from 
tlie Gaelic word Ceantir^ Headhind), was the portion of Fer- 
gus, Loam possessed the district chilled after him Lorn, and 
Anj^ is supposed to have colonized Islay, a& it was enjoyod 
by Muredach Ins son, after his decease. See Lorn, marquis 
of, and Aroyle, duke of; also D.vluiada. 

Angus, styled by the annalists An,sjns RlacFei^is, was 
also the name of the most powerful kinj^ the Picts ever liad. 
He reiffiied between 731 and 7G1, in which latter year he 
died. Belonging originally to the southern Picts, he had, in 
729, raised himself to the command of that portion of the 
Pictish tribes, and in the year 731, by the conquest of T;ilor- 
gan WacCongusa, his last opponent, he obtiiiued the throne 
of the whole Pictish nation. In consequence of his success a 
league was entered into between the principiU tribes of the 
nortbeni Picts and the Dalriads or Scots of Argyle, who were 
ever ready for war with their Pictish enemies. Angus, how- 
ever, crushed this formidable union, and almost annihilated 
the Scots of Dalriada; "and yet," says Skene, '* it was his 
power and his victories wliich laid the germ of that revolu- 
tion tliat resulted in the overthrow of the Pictish influonce in 
Scotland." [History of Highlanders, vol i. p. 55.] 

Angus, was also the name of a king of the Dalriads, who 
began to reign in 804 and died in 811. At a very early 
period the district of country lying between the North Esk on 
the north, and the Tay and Isla on the south, was called An- 
gus, which it still retains, though also called Forfarshire from 
the county town. Its more ancient name is commonly sup- 
posed to have been so named from Angus, a brother of Ken- 
neth the Second, to whom this tenitory was granted by Ken- 
neth, after the union of the Picts and Scots. Gaehc scholars, 
however, think that the name denotes a hill ofa particular de- 
scription, or which was applied to a special use; audit is 
supposed to have been derived from the Hill of Angus, a lit- 
tle to the eastward of the church of A berlemno, in ancient 
times the usual place of rendezvous for the inhabitants of 
the surrounding country, during the predatory incursions of 
the Danes and Norwegians. It seems more probable that 
the hill itself took its name from the district. 

Angus, earldom of, one of the most ancient titles in 
Scotland. According to Chalmers, Dubicnn, the son of 
Indechtraig, and maormor or earl of Angus, died in 939. 
Maolbride his son died during the reign of Culen, who was 
miu-dered by Rohard, thane of Fife, in 970. His successor 
Cunechat, Cmchne, or Conquhare, maormor of Angus, had a 
daughter Finella, styled the lady of Fettercaim, to whose 
name an historical interest is attached as being the murderess 
of Kenneth the Third, king of Scots, in consequence of having 
caused her son Crathilinthus to be put to death as related 
in the life of that monarch. Sec Kenneth III. This event 
happened in the year 994, and the Lady Finella was after- 
wards put to death for her ci-ime, in the romantic ra^-ino 
called Den Finella. Her memory is still presen'cd in tho 
names of various other places in the county of Kincardine. 

In the reign of Malcolm Canmore flourished Gilchrist, eari 
of Angus, who was living after the year 1120. He married 
Finella or Fynbella, the sister of the thano of Meams, by 
whom he had a son Gilibrede, the second earl of Angus, pro- 
Derly so called instead of maormor, who succeeded him, and 
was engaged in the battle of the Stand-ard, under Iving Da\-id 

the First, in 1138. Karl GUibrodo wiu one of the twenty 
b.aron8 wlio were given up to Henry as lioBtapi'a for tho prr- 
fnnnauce of tho disgraceful conditions cntfred into by King 
William tho Lion, in 1174, when imprisoned at Fnlaibo in 
Normandy, in order to obtain Ins release. Ho died about 
1 180. Ho m:uTied a daughter of Cospatrick, the third earl of 
March, by whom he liad ei-x sons, namely, Gilchrist, third 
earl of Angus; Magnus, earl of Caithness, [see Caitiinf-s«, 
earldom of]; Gilbert, ancestor of the Ogiivj-a, earis of Airlie, 
[see Ogiiat, sm-namo of, and AlKLu;, cjirl of] ; Adam. 
William, and Ancgus. 

Gilchrist, third earl of Angus, married a sister of Willi:im 
the Lion. He was the father of Duncan the fourth earl, 
whoso son, Malcolm the fifth carl, married Mary, daughter 
and heiress of Sir Humphrey Berkeley, knight, by whom lie a daughter, M.itildis, countess of Angxis in her own right 
She mairied first John Cumin who, in her right, became earl. 
He died in France in 1242. She married, secondly, in 1213, 
Gilbert de Umfraville, lord of Redesdalc, Prudhow, and Her- 
bottle in Northumberland, who in consequence also became 
earl of Angus. He died in 1245. He was one of the most 
famous barons of age and guardian of the northern parts 
of England. \_DugdaWs Baronage, vol. \. p. 504.] 

His only son by the countess, also bore the name of Gil- 
bert de Umfraville. He succeeded as the eighth earl. H«' 
was governor of the castles of Dundee and Forfar, and of tin- 
whole territory of Angus, in 1291, when the regents of Scot- 
land, dming the competition for the crown, agreed to deliver 
up the kingdom and its fortresses to Edward I. of England. 
On tliis occasion the earl declared that he had received his 
castles in charge from the Scottish nation, and that he would 
not surrender them to England, miless Edward and all the 
competitors joined in an obligation to indemnify him. The 
English monarch and the competitors submitted to these con- 
ditions of Angus, who was the only person in Scotland wlio 
acted with integrity and spirit at this national crisis. \_Fcr- 
dei'a, vol. ii. p. 531.] He married the third daughter of Al- 
exander Cumin, earl of Buchan, and died in 1307. He had 
three sons. The eldest, Gilbert, ha\'ing died before his father, 
he was succeeded by Robert his second son, who was the 
ninth earl of Angus. By Edward the Second, Earl Kobert was 
appointed joint-guardian of Scotland, 21st July 1308, and had 
a commission to be sole guardian 20th August 1309, but did 
not act upon it, as Kobert. de Clifford was constituted to that 
office. Robert de Umfraville, earl of Angus, was forfeited bv 
King Robert the Fii-st, for his adherence to the English inter- 
est. In 1319, he was one of the commissioners of England 
to treat with those of Scotland for peace between the txvo 
nations. Ho appears to have died about 1326. By hit- 
first wife Lucia, daughter of Philip de Kyme, he had a son 
Gilbert, who succeeded him, and a daughter, Elizabeth, 
mairied to Gilbert de Burdon. His second wife, Alianore, 
who was aftei*wards the wife of Roger Mauduit, brought 
him two sons, Sir Kobert, and Thomas. 

Gilbert de Umfraville, the tenth earl of Angus, was among 
the disinherited barons who invaded Scotland in 1332. He 
claimed the earldom of Angus, of which his father had been 
deprived by forfeiture in the reign of Robert the First. He 
had a like right to the superiority of the barony of Dunipace 
in Stirlingshire, which Bruce had granted to William de 
Lindesay. He had a share in the decisive vietorj* obtained by 
Edward Baliol over the forces of King David 1. at Dupplir 
Moor, 12th August 1332. He was much engaged in the 
wars of Scotland, and in the fourteenth year of Edward the 
Third ho was joined in commission w*ith Lord Percy and 
Lord Neville, to conclude a truce with the Scots. At th- 




bnttle of Durham, 20th August 1346, when David the Second 
was defeated and made prisoner, he was one of the chief 
commanders of tlie Knglish army, and ten years iftenvards 
hf was one of the commissioners for treating of the liberation 
of that monarch. He was also frequently a commissioner for 
guarding the marches. He died 7th January 1381, possessed 
of great estates in the counties of Nortlnunberland, Cumber- 
land, York, Lincoln, and Suffolk, leaving his niece his next 
heir, his son, Su- Robert de Umfravillc, h.i\'ing predeceased 
him. This lady was Ahanore, the daughter of his sister, 
Klizabeth, and Gilbert de Bui'don, and the wife of Henry 

The title of carl of Angus after the forfeiture, came into the 
possession of the Stewart family, h-iving been bestowed before 
1329 upon Sir John Stewart of Bonkil, gi-eat-gi-andson of Sir 
John Stewart of Bonkil, second son of Alexander, high steward 
of Scotland. He died in December 1331. He had married 
JIargaret, eldest daughter of Sir Alexander de Abernethy, 
and had an only son Thomas, the second earl of Angus of 
the Stewiirt family. The latter took to wife Margaret, 
d.aughter of Sir William St. Clair of Roslin, by whom he 
had one son, the third earl, and two daughters, 
Lady Margaret, manned first to Thomas the thii-teenth earl 
of Marr, who died without issue in 1377, and secondly to 
Wilham, first earl of Douglas, by whom she was the mother 
of George de Douglas, the first earl of Angus of the Douglas 
family. The second daughter. Lady Elizabeth, married Su: 
Alexander H.amilton of lunerwick, and had issue. 

Thomas, the third earl of Angus, of the Stewai-t family, 
succeeded his fjither in 13G1, being then iin infant. He died 
without issue in 1377, when the title devolved on his sister 
Lady Margaret. On her resignation of it in parhament in 
1389, King Robert the Second griinted the earldom of Angus, 
with the lordships of Abernethy in Perthshire, and of Bonkil 
in the county of Berwick, in favom- of George de Doughas her 
son and the heirs of his body, whom failmg to Su- Alexander 
de Hamilton and his wife Elizabeth, the sister of the said 
countess, and their heirs. The earldom being afterwards re- 
stricted to heirs male, is now vested in the Duke of Hamilton, 
the representative in the male line of the above named George 
earl of Angus. See Douglas, earl of, (page 45, vol. ii.^^ and 
Hajviilton, duke of, (page 422, vol. iii.) 

Angus, styled Angus Mohr, the groat, lord of Ishay, was 
son and successor of Don.ald, (from whom the Macdonalds 
take their name) second son of Reginald, son of Somerled, king 
of the Isles, whose yoimgest son was also named Ajigus. 
During the life of Angus Mohr the expedition of, king 
of Norw.ay, to the Isles took place, as related in the life of 
Alexander the Third, [see ante, page 88.] Angus joined Haco 
with his fleet, but in consequence of the treaty which was 
afterwards entered into between the kmgs of Norway .and 
Scotland he allowed to retain his possessions undisturbed, 
[see page 93.] His son, Angus Oig, or the younger, was 
faithful to Robert the Bruce, and when the latter, with the 
few followers who adhered to him, .after taking refuse in the 
Lennox, proceeded to Kintyre, he was hospit.ably received by 
Angus, and entert-ained for three djiys in his castle of Duna- 
verty, the ruins of which still remain ; and this at a tune 
when he had been denied an .asylum everywhere else. At 
the head of two thous,and men, whom he had raised, Angus 
Oig engaged on Brace's side at the b.attle of Bamockburn, 
where he displayed great valour. On the forfeiture of Alex- 
ander lord of Lorn, and his son and heir, John, who were 
opposed to the claims of Bruce, a portion of their temtories 
K9S bestowed on Angus Oig, and in this way the Isles of 

Mull, (the possession of which had, for some time, lieen dis- 
puted betwixt the lords of Islay and Lorn,) Jura, Coll, and 
Tiree, with the districts of Duror and Glencoe, fell to the 
sh.are of Angus Oig. He also received a portion of Lochaber, 
and the lands of Morvem and Ardnamurchan. As a measure 
of precaution, however, Bruce procured from Angus Oig the 
resignation of his lands m Kintyre, and bestowed them upon 
Robert, the son and heir of Walter, the high steward and the 
princess Maijory Bruce, to whom he also gave the keeping o( 
Tiirbert castle, then the most import.ant position on the Ar- 
gyle coast. Before King Robert's death, Angus Oig was the 
most powerfid chieftain in Argyle or the Isles. He and the 
Bruce died about the same time, that is about 1329. Under 
David the Second the lands of Kintyre reverted to the de- 
scendants of Angus Oig. ^Gregory's Western Bir/hlmids 
and Isles, pages 22 — 27.] 

ANGUS, earl of, see Douglas, George, Wil- 
liam, and Archibald. 

ANNAND, William, dean of Edinbnrgh, was 
born at A}t in 1633. His father, who bore the 
same name, was rector of that town under the 
episcopacy, and rendered himself very unpopulai 
by his strong attachment to the episcopal form of 
worship. Having in August 1637 been appointea 
to preach at the oiiening of the synod of Glasgow, 
he chose for his text 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2, and, says 
Baillie, " in the last half of his sermon, from the 
making of prayers, ran out upon the liturgy, and 
spake for defence of it in whole, and sundry most 
plausible parts of it, as well, in my poor judgment, 
as any in the isle of Britain could have done, con- 
sidering all cu'cumstances ; howsoever, he did 
maintain to the dislike of all in an unfit time, that 
which was hanging in suspense betwixt the king 
and tlie country. Of his sermon among us in the 
.sjTiod, not a word ; but in the town, among the 
women, a great din." On the following day Mr. 
Lindsay, minister of Lanark, preached, and as he 
was entering the pulpit, "some of the women 
in his ear assured him that if he should twitch 
(touch) the service-book in his sermon, he should 
be rent out of his pulpit : he took the advice, and 
let the matter alone." During the day the wo- 
men contented themselves witli railing and invec- 
tives, and " about thirty or forty of om- honestest 
women, in one voice, before the bishop and magis- 
trates, did fall, in railing, cursing, scolding, witli 
clamours on Mr. Aunand : some two of the mean- 
est were taken to the tolbooth." Late in the 
evening Mr. Aunand went out with three or four 
of the clergy, when he was immediately assaulted 
by some hundreds of enraged women, "of all 




qualities," who with fists and staves " beat liiiii 
sore; his cloake, nil)', halt were rent. However, 
upon tiis cries, and candles set out fi-om many 
windows (it was a dark night), he escaped all 
liloody wounds, yet he was in great danger even 
of killing." The following day the magistrates 
accompanied him to the outskirts of the town, to 
prevent farther molestation. [Bai/lie's Letters and 
Journals, ed. 1841, vol. i. pp. 20, 21.] In 1638, 
five years after his son's birth, lie was obliged to 
remove to England, on account of his adherence 
to the king and his zeal in the cause of episcopa- 
cy. In 1651 the younger Annand was admitted 
a student of University college, Oxford. In 1656, 
being then Bachelor of Arts, he received holy or- 
ders from Dr. Thomas Fulwar, bishop of Ardfert, 
or Kerry, in L-eland, and was appointed preacher 
at Weston on the Green, near Bicester, in Ox- 
fordshire. He was afterwards presented to the 
vicarage of Leighton-Buzzard, in Bedfordshire, 
[n 1662 he returned to Scotland, in the capacity 
of chaplain to John, earl of Middleton, high com- 
missioner from the king to the Estates. In the 
end of 1663 he was inducted to the Tolbooth 
church at Edinburgh, and some years after trans- 
feiTed to the Tron church. In April 1676 he was 
appointed by the king dean of Edinburgh. In 
1685 he acted as professor of divinity in the uni- 
vei-sity of St. Andrews, and on the 30th of June 
of that year he attended, by order of government, 
the earl of Argyle at his execution. He was tlie 
author of seven theological treatises, principall}- in 
favour of the episcopal worship and government, 
all published in London but the last, which came 
out at Edinburgh in 1674. He died on 13th Jnne 
1689, and was interred in the Greyfriars' church- 
yard, Edinburgh. — Bioijrapliia Britnnnica. 

The titles of Dean Annand's works, which, not- 
withstanding their Latin names, were all written 
in English, are as follows: 

Fides Citholica; or the doctrine of the C.itholic Church, 
111 eighteen great ordinances, &c. Lond. lfi61-2, 4to. 

A Sermon in Defence of the Liturgy, on Ilosca xiv. 2. 
16fil, 4to. 

Panum Quotidianum ; or Daily Bread, in defence of set 
forms of prayer. Lond. 1662, 4to. 

Pater Noster; or Our Fatlier, an explanation of the Lord\s 
Prayer. Lond. 1670, 8vo. 

JIy.steriuin Pietatis; or the Mystery of Godliness. Lond. 
1672, 8vo. 

Doiologia, Lond. 1672, 8vo. 

Dualitas; including Lex Loqiions; or tho Hononr of Mb 
gistracy; and Dnoriim Unitas; or Tlio Agreoineiit of Magi*. 
tracy luid Ministry, &c. Edin. 1664. 

An-nandai.e, lord of, a title possessed by the do BniM'x, 
the .ancestors of Roiikkt theUitrcE; the lordship of Ann- 
aiidalc in Dumfries-shire, lianng been l)i\stowed by David tbc 
First, soon after his accession to the throne, in 1121, on Ro- 
bert do Bins, the son of a. Norman knight who ramo into 
England with William the Conqueror. Besides liis largo 
estates in Yorkshire, he thus became possessed of im exten- 
sive property in Scotland, which he held by tho tenure of 
military sen-ice. [See Bkuce, surname of.] After tho 
liattle of Bannockburn, the lordsliip of Annandale was be- 
stowed by Robert the linu-e on liis neplicw, Kir Ran- 
.lolpli, earl of iMor.ay. With the hand of bis dauglitcr Agnes, 
wlio married Patrick, ninth earl of Dunbar and March, il: 
went, after the death of lier brother John, tliird earl of Mo- 
ray, to the Dnnbars, earls of March. On their attainder, it 
came into possession, in 1409, of Arcliibald, fourth earl of 
Dimplas, and on the forfeiture, in 145.5, of James, ninth and 
last earl of Douglas, it was lost to that family. Annandale 
now belongs chiefly to the earl of Hopetoun. 

Anna:<d.\le, earldom of, an extinct title, formerly in tin- 
possession of a family of the name of Mun-ay. Sir William 
JIun-.ay, the first of tliis noble family, is said to have been de- 
scended from the house of DufTus [see Duffus]. He 
ried Isabel, the sister of Thomas Randolpb, earl of Moray, and 
daughter of Sii- Thomas Randolpli, great chamberlain of Scot- 
land, by Isabel, sister of King Robert Bmce, and by her !iad 
two sons, William and Patrick. His great grandson, Sir Adam 
Murray of Cockpool, made a considerable figure in Scotland 
in the reigns of King Robert the Second and Robert the Third. 
A descendiint of his, Jlungo Murr.ay of Brougliton, the second 
son of Cuthbert MuiTay of Cockpool, w;is the ancestor of the 
MuiTays of Bronghton in the .stew.artry of Kirkcudbright. Sir 
James Murr.ay of Cockpool, the twelfth designed of Cockpool, 
who died in 1620, married Janet, second daugliter of Sir Wil- 
liam DougKas of Druml.anrig, ancestor of the dukes of Queens- 
berry, by whom he had three daughters, the eldest of whom, 
Margaret, was married to Sir Robert Grierson, younger of 
Lag, by whom she had an only son, Sir John Grierson of Lag, 
who had no sons. His eldest daugliter, Nichohis, miuried 
Dand Scot of, and had one daughter, Marjory, 
by whose mamage with Da\-id fifth viscount Stormont, the 
Murrays of Cockpool, earls of Annandale, are lineally repre- 
sented by the present earl of Mansfield [see Stormont, 
viscount of]. 

Sir James Murray's brother, .Tohn, who succeeded to the 
estates of the family on tKe death, in 1G36, of an intermediate 
brother, Richard, was raised to the peerage by .I.-unes the 
Sixth, with wliom he w.a.s a great favoupite, and whom, on 
his majesty's accession to the throne of England, he accom- 
p.anied to London, as one of the gentlemen of the privy cham- 
ber, by the titles of Viscount of Annand, and Lord Murray or 
Lochmaben. The date of his creation does not appear; but 
he had a ch.arter " to John Viscount of Annand," of the pa- 
lace in Diunfries, and the lands of Haikheuch and Caerlaver- 
ock, 20th February 1623. He was created e.arl of Annan- 
dale by patent dated at miitehall, l.Sth March 1624. Ili.« 
lordship m.-micd Eliz.-ibeth, daughter of Sir John Shaw. 
knight, and died at London in September 1640. He vim 
succeeded by his son James, second carl of Annandale, whc 
in March 16-12 succeeded as third viscount of Stormont. He 
died at London 28th December 1658, leaving no issue. Th» 




titles of carl of Annandale, viscount of Annand, and Lord 
Murray of Lochmaben, in consequence became extinct, and 
tliose of Viscount Stormont and Lord Scoon devolved on 
David, second Lord l!alv:»ird [see Murray, surname of]. 

Tlic title of Marquis of Annandale (now dormant) was 
formerly possessed by a brave and powerful Border family of 
the name of Johnstone, which, as far back as can be traced, 
were in possession of most extensive estates in the upper 
ilistrict of Annandale ; and of the numerous families be:uTng 
that name the Johnstones of Lochwood were acknowledged the 
chiefs. This distinguished family maintained their ground, 
not only against the EngUsh borderers, but also ag.ainst the 
lords of Sanquhar, whose descendants became earls of Dumfries, 
and against the powerful and ancient family of the Maxwells, 
lords of Nithsdale. 

In the reign of King Robert the Second, Su- John de .John- 
stone, the ancestor of the Annandale family of that name, 
made a conspicuous figure. In 1371, he was one of the 
guardians of the west marches, and frequently had an oppor- 
tunity of exerting himself against the English borderers, par- 
ticularly in 1378, 

" When at the wattyr of Sulway, 
Schyr Ihon of IhonystowD on a day 
Of Inglis men weneust a grete dele. 
He bare hym at that tyme sa wells 
That he and the Lord of Gordowne, 
Had a sowerane gud renown 
Of ony that was of thar degre 
For full thai war of gret bownte." 

Wpittojtn, b. ii. p 311. 

He oied about 1383, leaving a son Sir John Johnstone of John- 
stone. A Uneal descendant of his in the eleventh degree, James 
Johnstone of that ilk, was by Chai'les the First created Lord 
Johnstone of Lochwood, by patent dated at Holyroodliouse, 20th 
June 1633. In March 1G43 he was created eai-1 of Hartfell. 
In 1644 he was imprisoned by order of the committee of 
estates, «s a favoiu-er of the marquis of Montrose. After the 
battle of Kilsyth, August 1645, he jomed Montrose, and being 
taken at Philiphaugh, 13th September of the same year, he 
was carried to St. Andrews, where, vnth several others, he 
was sentenced to death, •26th November 1645, .and ordered to 
be executed first of all, with Lord OgUvy. But the night 
before the time fixed for the execution. Lord Ogilvy escaped 
out of the castle of St. Andrews, and the marquis of Argyle, 
suspecting it to have been done by means of the H.amiltons, 
obtained a pardon for the earl of Hartfell, who was as ob- 
noxious to the Hamiltons as Lord OgUvy was to Argyle. He 
died in March 1653. 

His only son, J.ames the second earl of Hartfell, was, on 
the restor.ation of Clkoi-les the Second, sworn a privy council- 
lor. The title of earl of Annandale having become extinct 
by the death of James Murray, the second earl, in 1658, the 
earl of Hartfell m.ade a resignation of bis peerage into the 
h.ands of his majesty, who, 13th February 1661, grautod a 
new patent to him as eai-1 of Annandale and Hartfell, viscount 
of Annand, Lord Johnstone of Lochwood, Lochmaben, Moffat- 
dale, and Evandale. He died 17th July 1672. His son Wil- 
liam, who succeeded as second earl of Annandale and third of 
Hartfell, was appointed an extraordinary lord of session, 23d 
November 1693. He was also constituted one of the lords of 
the Treasury, and president of the parhament of Scotland, 
which assembled at Edinhwgh 9th May 1695, and sat till 
17th July following. On the 24th of June 1701 he was cre- 
ated marquis of Annandale, and on the accession of Queen 
iVnne was appointed lord privy seal. In 1703 he was ap- 

pointed president of the privy council. In 1704 he was in- 
vested with the order of the Thistle. In 1705 he represented 
her m.ajesty as high commissioner to the General Assembly 
of the church of Scotland, as he had already done King Wil- 
liam in 1701. He w,as also constituted in 1705 one of the 
principal secretaries of state, but not approving of the Union, 
he was dismissed from that ofiice in the following year, and 
strenuously opposed the Union treaty in parliament. He 
was afterwards on several occasions elected a represent.ative 
peer. In 1711 he was again lord high commissioner to the 
General Assembly. On the accession of George the First he 
was, 24th September 1714, appointed keeper of the privy 
seal, and a few days after sworn a privy councillor. He died 
at B.ath on the 14th January 1721. His lordship married, 
first, Sophia, only d.aughter and hen-ess of John Faii-liolm of 
Craigiehall, in the county of Linlithgow, by whom he had 
James, second marquis of Annandale, two other sons, who 
both died unmiirried, and two daughters, of whom the eldest. 
Lady Henrietta, married, in 1699, Charles Hope of Hopetoun, 
created earl of Hopetoun in 1703, and had issue. His first 
wife having died in 1716, the marquis married secondly, in 
1718, Charlotte Van Lore, only child of John Vanden Bempde 
of Pall Mall, London; by whom he had George, thnd mar- 
quis of Annandale, and another son named John, who died 

James, the second marquis of Annandale, resided much 
abroad, and dying unmarried at Naples, 21st Febmary 1730 
was binnod in Westminster Abbey. The estate of Craigie- 
hall went to his nephew, the Hon. Charles Hope, and his 
titles and the other estates to his half brother George, third 
mai-quis of Annandale, who was bora 29th May 1720. The 
loss of liis brother. Lord John, in 1742, occasioned a depres- 
sion of spirits, which finally der.anged his mind. In 1745 
David Himae, the historian, went to live with him, the friends 
and family of the miu-quis being desirous of putting his lordship 
under liis care and direction. He resided with him a yciU'. On 
5th March 1748 an inquest from the cotirt of Ch.ancery found 
the marquis a lunatic since 12th December 1744. He dieo 
24th April 1792, when the title of Marquis of Annandale be- 
came donn.ant ; claimed by Sir Frederic John William John- 
stone of Westerhall, baronet ; and by Mr. Goodinge Johnstone. 
It is understood that the titles of earl of Ann.andale and Hart- 
fell devolved upon James, third earl of Hopetoun, who, how- 
ever, did not assume them, but took the name of Johnstone 
in addition to that of Hope. 

In the p:u-ish of Johnstone, Dumfries-shire, are the ruins of the 
castle or tower of Lochwood, said to have been built during the 
fourteenth century, and which, from the thickness of its w.alls 
and its insulated situation amidst bogs and marshes, must 
have been a place of great strength. It was in allusion to 
this circumstance James the Sixth is said to have re- 
marked, " that the man who built Lochwood, though he 
might have the outward appearance of an honest man, must 
have been a knave at heart." In 1593, it was burnt by Ro- 
bert, the natural brother of Lord Maxwell, who, with savage 
glee, exclaimed while it was in flames, "I'll give Dame John- 
stone light enough to show her to set her silken hood," In 
revenge for the destruction ol Lochwood's "lofty towers, 
where dwelt the lords of Arnandale," the Johnstones, aided 
by the bold Bucclcuch, the EUiots, the Armstrongs, and thi' 
Grahams, attacked and cut to pieces a party of the Maxwells 
near LochmaDen, and among the slain fell Robert the incendiary. 
The surviving few then took refuge in the church of Loch- 
maben, but the church with all that was ui it was burnt t*. 
ashes by the Johnstones, and it was this sacrilegious act 
which in its turn occasioned the memorable battle ot Drvfe 




Sands, 7tii December 1593, in which the Johnstones finally 
prevailed. Lord Maxwell, wliile engaged in single combat 
writli the hiird uf Jolnistone, was shiin behind liis back by the 
cowardly hands of Will of Kirkhill. Tbe Maxwi-lis lost, on 
the field and in the retreat, aliont 700 men. Many of those 
who perished or were wounded in the retreat, were cut down 
in the streets of Lockerby ; and hence the jihnise currently 
used in Annandule to denote a severe wound, — " A Lot-kerby 
lick." Sir James Johnstone of Johnstone, wai'den of the west 
marches, wns murdered, 6th April 1008, by John, seventh 
Lord Maxwell, the son of the Lord JLixwell slain on Dr}'fe 
Sands, at a meeting bet^vixt them, in presence of Sir Robert 
Maxwell of Orchardton, brother-in-law of Sir James, to 
which meeting each of them came with one attendant. Their 
attendants quarrelling, Sir James Johnstone tm-iied about to 
sepai'ate them, when he was treaclierously shot in the back 
with two bullets by Lord Maxwell, who, being taken at 
Caithness some years afterwards, w;xs beheaded for the same, 
at the cross of Edinburgh, 21st May 1613. 

Anstruthkr, a surname derived from the lands of An- 
struther, in the county of Fife, on a portion of which the 
burgh of Anstruther-easter, of which the laird of Anstruther 
IS superior, is built. The family of Anstruther of Anstruther 
is very ancient, having been settled in Fife in the very early 
periods of Scottish histoiy. During the reign of David the 
First, WiUiam do Candela, obviously of Norman origin, pos- 
sessed the lands of Anstruther, as appears from a charter 
granted in favour of the monks of Balmerinoch, by his son 
William, wherein he is designated " Filius Williehni de Can- 
dela, domini de Anstruther." Henry his son first assumed the 
name of his lands, and in a charter of confirmation of his fa- 
ther's grant, dated in 1221, he is styled " Henricus de Ayni- 
strother, dominus ejusdem, FiHus Wilhelmi," &c. From 
these eai-ly proprietors the family of Anstruther are lineally 

About the year 1515 Robert Anstruther and David his 
brother, yoimger sons of Robert de Anstruther, the sixth in 
descent from the original William de Candela, having gone 
to France, were promoted to be ofiicers of the Scots guards in 
the service of the French king. David married a lady of dis- 
tinction in France, and his descendant, Francis Csesar An- 
struther, contracted into Anstrude, was by Louis the Fif- 
teenth, in 1737, raised to the dignity of a French baron, by 
the title of Barop. de Anstrude of the seigniory of Barry. 

Sir James Anstruther, the twelfth in direct descent from 
William de Candela, was, in 1585, appointed heritable can'er 
to James the Sixth. In 1592, he had the honour of knight- 
liood conferred upon him. and w;is appointed one of the mas- 
ters of the household to his majesty. He died in 1606. 

His son. Sir William, succeeded to his father's otfices. and 
was, besides, appointed one of the gentlemen of the bed- 
chamber. On James' accession to the English throne, he 
accompanied his majesty to London, and at his coronation 
was created a kniglit of the Bath. He was also in great fa- 
vour with Charles the First, by whom he was appointed gen- 
tleman usher of his majesty's privy chamber. He died in 
1649 ; and was succeeded by his younger brother, Sir Robert, 
who was, by Charles the First, appointed one of the members 
of the pnvy council, and one of tlie gentlemen of his majesty's 
bed-chamber. He was an able diplomatist, and frequently 
employed in negociations of state, both by James the Sixth 
and Charles the First. In 1620, he was sent ambassador 
extraordinary to the court of Denmark, to borrow money 
from King Christian, with power to grant security for it in 
the king's name. At this time he got from the Danish king. 

in a compliment, a ship's load of timber for buildinf; hit hoiLt« 
in Scotland. In April 1027, lie wa« commiiwinned jui mini- 
ster plenipotentiary, to treat witli the emperor and tlie Btativ* 
of Germany, at Nuremberg, about the concerns of the elect-pr 
palatine, and other aifairs of Kurope. He was also appoint* d 
by Charles the First, and Frederick, king of Bohemia, elector 
palatine, their plenipotentiary to tlie diet at Katisbon. for wi- 
tling all differences between the Roman emperor Ferdinand 
and the elector palatine. His commission for this purpose is 
dated at Westminster 2d June 1630, and is signed by King 
Chiu-les and Frederick, and has both their seals appenned. 
He went also as ambassador to the meeting of tlie princes of 
Germany at Hailbum. 

His second son, Sir Philip, socceeded to the Anstnither 
estates. He was a zealous and gallant cavidicr, and had a 
command in the royal army at the battle of Worcester, wliere 
he was taken prisoner. He was fined in a tKonsand merke 
by Cromwell, and his estates were sequestrated till the Res- 
toration in 1660. He married Christian, daughter of Major- 
general Lumsden of Innergelly, and had five sons, two of 
whom were created baronets, and the other three knights. 
He died in 1702. 

Sir WiUiam Anstruther, the eldest son, represented the 
county of Fife in the Scottish parliament, in 1681, when 
James duke of York was his majesty's higli commissioner in 
Scotland, and strongly opposed the measures of the court. 
He sat in parhament for the county of Fife till 1709, and 
took an active part in the proceedings, those more particu- 
larly for securing and establishing the Protestant religion, 
and the government, laws, and liberties of the kingdom. In 
1689 he was appointed by William the Third one of the or- 
dinary lords of Session, and soon after was made one of liis 
majesty's privy council ana of Exchequer. In 1694 he was 
created a baronet of Nova Scotia. From Queen Anne, lie 
received a charter dated at Kensington, 20th April 1704, o( 
the baronies of Anstruther and Ardross, and many other 
lands, and of the hentable baiUary of the lor^iship and regal- 
ity of Pittenweem ; and of the office ot searcher, and giver 
of coquets for the ports of Anstruther and Elie. The same 
charter constitutes him heritably, one of the cibi cidce, or car- 
vers, and one of the masters of the household to her majesty 
and her successors within the kingdom of Scotland ; offices 
which belonged to his predecessors, and which his descend- 
ant, the present baronet, continues to liold. On the 9th No- 
vember of the same year he was nominated one of the lords 
of Justiciary, in the room of Lord Aberuchil. Ho married 
Lady Helen Haniiltun, daughter of John, fourth earl of Had- 
dington, and died at Edinburgh in Januar)' 1711. He was 
the author of a volume, entitled ' Essays, Moral and Divine,' 
interspersed with poetr}-, ])ubU8hcd at Edinburgh in 1701, in 
4to. Its contents are, 1st, Against Atheism. 2d, Of Provi- 
dence. 3d, Of Learning and Rehgion. 4th, Of trifling stu- 
dies, st'ige plays, and romances ; and 5th, Ujwn the intima- 
tion of Jesus Christ, .and redemption of mankind. The work 
does not seem to have done much credit to his literary pow- 
ers, as his friends did all they could to dissuade him from 
publishing it ; and after Ins death, his son bought up evei-v 
coj)y that could be found, for the purpose of supprc-^sing it. 
[^CampheWs History of Scottish Poetnj, page 141.] He was 
succeeded by his son Sir John, after mentioned. 

Sir James Anstruther of Airdrie, the second son ot Sir 
Philip, was an advocate, and principal clerk of the Bills. 
His son, Philip, adopted a mihtary life, and rose to the rank 
of heuten ant-general m the army, but dying unmanned, hit 
estates went to his cousui, Sir Jolm Anstruther of AuBtni- 




Sir Robert Anstruther of Balcaskie, the third son of Sir 
Philip, acquired the estito of Balciiakie, and was created ,i 
biironct of Nova Scotia in 1G94, the same year as his elder 
brother, Sir William. 

Sir Philip Anstruther. the fourth brother, was made a 
knight. He designed of Anstrather-field, from lands he 
ttu named near Inverkeithing. 

Sir Alexander Anstmtber, knight, the fifth brother, mar- 
ried in 1G94, Jean Leslie, Baroness Newark, daughter and 
heiress of Da\'id second lord Newai'k, and was father of Wil- 
Uam, thii'd lord Newark, and Alexander, fom-th lord. The 
title of Lord Newark, wliich became dormant on the deatli of 
the latter in 1791, was claimed in 1793, by bis eldest son, 
but misuccessfully. [See Newark, Lord.] 

Sir John Anstnither of Anstnither, the son of Su- WilHam, 
married, in 1717, the lady Slai-garet Cannicbael, eldest daugh- 
ter of James second eai-1 of HjTidford, and on the failure in 
the male line of that noble house, and the title becoming ex- 
tinct in 1817, their descendant. Sir John Anstnither of An- 
Btmther, succeeded to the entailed estates of the earldom, 
and assiuned the name of Carmichael. [See Hi'NDFori*, 
Karl of, and Cakmiciiael, surname of.] Sir John died m 
1746, and was succeeded by his son, also named John. 

Sir John, the tbu-d baronet of this branch of the family, 
was the author of a work on drill husbandry, pubbshed m 
1796, which is understood to have been useful at the time of 
its pubUcation, but is chiefly remembered from a bo7i mot 
connected mth it. On its appearance one of Sir John's 
fiiends jscularly remai'ked that no one could be better quah- 
fied to write on the subject, as there was not a better drilled 
husband in the county of Fife. Sir John man-ied, in 1750, 
Janet, daughter of James Fall, Esq. of Dunbar. She was a 
very superior woman, and seems to have had a considerable 
influence with her lord. Sii* John died in July 1799. 

His eldest son, Sir PhiUp, succeeded. He married in 1778, 
Anne, only child of Sir John Paterson, of Eccles, baronet, 
and assumed in consequence the additional smrname of Pater- 
son. He died without issue in 1808. 

He was succeeded by his brother, the Right Hon. Sir John 
Anstruther, adistinguished lawyer, created abart. of Great Britain. 
ISth May 1798, and appointed chief justice of the supreme court 
)f Judicature in BengaL He m. Maria, daughter of Edward 
3rice, Esq., and had issue, 2 song and 1 dr. He retired Irom the 
[lench in 1806, and died Jan. 26, 1811. 

Sir John, his eldest son, died in 1817, but his only son. a 
.losthumous child, b. 6th Feb. 1818, and named John, inherited the 
:itles and estates. He was accidentally killed while on a shooting 
excursion in November 18.31, and the baronetcies and possessions 
L>f the family reverted to his uncle. Sir Windham Carmichael An- 
struther nf Elie and Anstruther, the eighth baronet of Xova Scotia, 
and fourth of Great Britain. He was b. Mar. 6, 1793, and m^ Ist 
in 1824, Meredith Wetherell, by whom (who rf. 1841) he had a son 
and heir, Windham Charles James, 6. in 1824, who s. him Sept- 
15, 1869. He is M.P. for the 2d division of Lanarkshire (1875) 

Sir Robert Anstruther, above mentioned, the founder of 
the Balcaskie branch, was thrice married. His first wife, 
whose name was Kinnear, an heiress, died without issue. 
His second wife, Jean Monteith Wrea, also an heiress, brouf^ht 
him six sons and two daughters; and by his third wife 
Marion, daughter of Sir William Preston of Vidleytield, he 
had one son and two daughters. He was succeeded by his 
eldest son, Sir Philip, whose eldest son, Sir Robert, born 21st 
April 1733, married Lady Janet Erskine, youngest daugliter 
of Alexander, Hfth earl of Kellie, and had three sons and 
three daughters. Robert, the eldest, was the celebrated Gen- 

eral Anstruther. He was bom 3d March 1768, and entered 
st a very early period of life into the army. In 1793 he ac- 
companied his regiment to Holland. In 1796 he joined the 
Austrian army in the Brisgau, under the Archduke Charles 
then at war with France; and received a wound in the left 
side in one of the conflicts. In 1797 lie purchased a company 
in the 3d Guards, and was appointed deputy quarter-ma^ter- 
generai. In 1798 he was on a diplomatic mission to Ger- 
many; and in the autunm of 1799 with the expedition to the 
Helder. In 1800 Captain A. went to Egypt as quarter- 
mas ter-gener;il to the army under the command of Sir Ralph 
Abercromby, at which time the order of the Crescent was 
conferred upon him. In 1802 he was adjutant-general in 
Ireland. In 1SU8 he went to Portugal as brigadier-general, 
and distinguished himself at the battle of Viniiera. In the 
subsequent campaign in Spain, under Sir John Moore, 
General A. commanded the rear-guard of the army, whicli he 
brouglit safely into Coruuna on the niglit of the 12th January 
1809; but survived only one day the exertions be had made, 
and the fatigue he had endured during the retreat. He died 
14th January 1809. and lies interred in the north-east bastion 
of the citadel of Corunna. Sir John Moore by his own desire 
was buried by the side of General Anstmtber. He nuirried 
16tii March, 1799, Charlotte Lucy, only daughter of Col. 
James Hamilton, and had issue Sir Ralph Abercromb y Anstruther, 
Bart., who succeeded his grandfather in August 1818, one other 
son and 3 daughters. Sir Ralph m., 2d Sept. 1831, Mary Jane, 
eldest daughter of Sir Henry Torrens, K.C.B., and hai issue 3 sons 
and 2 daughters. He d. Oct. IS, 1863, and was s, by his eldest »■ 
Sir Robert as 5th hart., 6. Aug. 28, 1834, snd m. July 29, 1857, 
Louisa, daughter of Rev. Wm. Knox Jrarshall, and has is3ue 
4 sons and 1 daughter. He is M.P. for Fifcshire (1875). 

AKBUCKLE, James, A.M., a minor poet, was 
born in Glasgow, in 1700. He studied at the uni- 
versity of that city, where he took his degi'ees. 
He afterwards kept an academy in the north of 
Ireland, hence he is called an L'ishman by Camp- 
bell, in his Introduction to the History of Toetr^ 
in Scotland. He was the friend of Allan Ramsay. 
He published a volume of poems, and had begun 
a translation of Horace, but died before it was 
finished, in 1734. Some of his translations and 
imitations of Horace are among his best pieces. 
He wrote 'Snuff, a Poem,' which, according to 
the advertisement, was " printed at Edinburgh 
by Mr. James M^Ewen and Company for the au- 
thor, and sold by Mr. James M'Ewen, bookseller 
in Edinburgh, and by the booksellers in Glasgow," 
1719. This poem was dedicated to " His Grace. 
John, Duke of Roxburgh," and contained som€ 
pleasing enough conceits, very prettily turned 
As an instance the following may be quoted : 

" Though in some sohtary pathless wild 
WTiere moi-tal never trod, nor natm'e smiled, 
My cruel fate should doom my endless stay, 
To saunter all my ling'ring life away, 




Yet still I'll have society enough, 

While blest with virtue, and a Pinch of Snuff, 

EnouKh for me the conscious joys to hnJ, 
And silent raptures of an honest mini' " 

Akbuthnott, viscount of, a title possessed by a family of 
ancient descent, bearing; that siu-name, in Kincardineshire ; 
the first of whom, Hugo de Aberbothenoth, flourished in the 
reign of King William the Lion, and derived his name, in 
1105, from lands which came to him by marriage with a 
daughter of Oshertns Oliphard, sheriff of Mearns. Those 
lands now form the p-eater part of the parish of Aj-buthnott, 
and have passed to the present viscount through no less than 
twenty-two generations. Prerious to the twelfth centuiy 
the name was Aberbothenothe ; about 1335, it had become 
Aberbuthuot, and about 1443, Arbuthnott. 

The name of Aberbothenothe is understood to mean " the 
confluence of the water below the baron's house," being de- 
rived fi-om Aber, the influx of a river into the sea, or of a 
smaller stream into a larger Both, or Bot/iena, a dwelling, a 
baronial residence; and Aeth or A'eoth-ea, the stream tliat 
descends or is lower than something else in the ncighboiu"- 
hood; a derivation which is peiiectly appHcable to the site of 
the ancient castle, and to the present residence of the noble 
family of Arbuthnott. [See StatUtlcal Accoimt, vol. xi.] 

In the reign of Alexander the Second, Duncan de Aber- 
bothenothe was witness to a donation of that sovereign in 
1242. His son, Hugh, is witness, along with his father, de- 
signed Dnncanus Dominus de Aberbothenoth, to a charter of 
Kobert, the son of Wamebald, to the monastery of Aberbroth- 
mck. His son and successor, Hugh, called from the flaxen 
colour of his hair, Hugo Blundus or le Blond, to distinguish 
him from two predecessors of the same name, was laird of 
Arbuthnott in 1282, in which year he bestowed the p.atron- 
age of the church of Garvock, in pure alms, on the monastery 
of Arbroath, " for the safety of bis soul," which patronage, 
with many otliers, at the Reformation, fell into the bands of 
the king. Along with the patronage he gave one ox-gang of 
land, lying adjacent to the chm-ch of Gan'ock, with pasturage 
for 100 sheep, 4 horses, 10 oxen, and 20 cows. Hugo le 
Blond died about the end of the thirteenth century, and was 
buried at Arbutlmott, where there is an ancient full-length 
stone statue of him, in a reclining postm*e, with the face look- 
ing upwards, and the feet resting on the figiu-e of a dog. His 
own and his wife's arms, the latter being the same with those 
of the once poweiful family of the Morevilles, constables of 
Scotland, are cut on the stone on which the statue lies. 

In 1355 Philip de Arbuthnott, fom-th direct descendant fi'oni 
Hugh le Blond, was a benefactor to the church of the Carme- 
Ute friars, Aberdeen. His son and heir, Hugh Arbuthnott, 
was necessary with several other gentlemen of the Mearns, 
upon great provocation, to the slaughter of John Melville, of 
Glenbervie, sberilT of that county, .about 1420. According to 
tradition, Melville had, by a strict exercise of his authox-ity as 
eheriff, rendered himself obnoxious to the surrounding barons, 
who teased the regent, Murdoch, duke of Albany, by repeated 
complaints against him. At last, in a fit of unpatience, the 
regent incautiously exclaimed to Barclay, laird of Mathers 
(ancestor of Captain Barclay AlKardice of Urie), who had 
come to him with another comj)laint ag.ainst Melville, " Sor- 
row gin that sheriif were sodden, and supped m broo." Most 
of those who have related tliis story state, that it was the 
king, James the First, who made this exclamation, but his 
majesty was then a prisoner in England. B.arcl.ay, immedi- 
ately retuminfi home, assembled his neighbours, the lauds of 

Launston, Arbuthnott, Pitarrow and H.olkcrton, who ip- 

pointed a great hunting party in the of Gnrwiclt, U- 
which they invited tho devoted Melville; and having prcpnn-d 
a largo fire and ciuddron of boiling water in a retired place, 
they decoyed the unsuspecting MeKillo to tho fatal spot, 
knocked him down, sti-ipped him, and aen throw him into 
the cauldron. After he was 4oi7«/ or sodden for some times 
they each took a spoonful of the soup. To screen himaclf 
from justice, Barclay built a fortress in the parish of St, 
Cyras, called the Kaim of Mathers, on a perpendicular and 
pcnmsular rock, sixty feet above tho sea, wlicre, in those 
days, he lived quite secure. The lahd of .Vrbnthnott claimed 
and obtained the benefit of the law of clan Macduif, which, 
in case of homicide, allowed a pardon to any one within the 
ninth degi-ee of kindred to Macdufl', Thane of Fife, who 
should flee to his cross, which then stood near Lindores, on 
the m.Ti-ch between Fife and Strathern, and pay a fine. Tho 
pardon is stUI extant in Arbuthnott House. The rest were 
outlawed. He died m 144G. 

His descend;mt. Sir Robert Ai-buthnott of Arbuthnott, was 
knighted by King Ch:u-lcs tlie First, and for bis enduring 
loyalty ennobled in 1641, by being created Viscount Arbuth- 
nott and Lord Inverbervie. Robert the second viscount of 
Arbuthnott succeeded his father in 1655, and died in Juno 
1682. By his first wife. Lady Elizabeth Keith, second 
daughter of William seventh carl M.orischal, he had a son 
Robert, tliu-d viscount, and a daughter, and by his second 
wife, Catherine, daughter of Kobert Gordon of Pitlurg and 
Straloch, be had three sons and three daughters. The Hon. 
Alexander Arbuthnott, the second son by the second niarri.age, 
who w,as appointed one of the barons of the Coui't of Exche- 
quer in Scotland at the union of 1707, married Jean, eldest 
daughter of Sir Charles iMaitland of Pitrichie in Aberdeen- 
shhe, heir to her brother, Sir Charles, who died in 1704, and 
he in consequence assumed the name and arms of .Maitland. 

John, the seventh viscount of Arbuthnott, man-led in De- 
cember 1775, Isabella, 2d daughter of William Graham, Esq. 
of Morphie, Kincardineshire, and by her. who died in 1818, 
he had John, 8th viscount, General Hugh Arbuthnott, long 
M.P. for Kincardineshire, 5 other sons, and 2 d.aughters. 

The 8th viscount succeeded on his father's death, Feb. 27, 
1800, and in June 1805 he married Margaret, daughter of 
the Hon. Walter Ogilvy of Clova, sister of the ninth earl ol 
Airlie, with issue, 6 sons and 7 daughters. He died Jan. 10, 
1860, when his eldest son, John, became 9th viscount. His 
lordship married, in 1837, the eldest daughter of the 8th earl 
nf Airlie; issue, 3 sons and a daughter. 

ARBUTHNOT, Alex.\nder, an tiniiu'iit di- 
vine, and zealous promoter of the Reformation 
In Scotland, was the second son of Andrew Ar- 
buthnot of Pitcarles, the fourth son of Sir Robert 
Arbuthnott of Arbuthnott, and the brother of the 
baron or proprietor of Arbutlmott, in Kincardmc- 
shire, and not the baron himself, as generally 
stated by his biographers. Ilis mother was Eliza- 
beth, daughter of James Straclutn of Wonboddo, 
and sister of Alexander Strachan of Tlioniton. 
He was born in 1538. According to ArehbLshop 
Spottiswood, he studied at the university of St 
Andrews, but Dr. Mackenzie says that he received 
his education at King's college, Aberdeen, '^^^(u• 




kenzie's Lives of Scots WrUers, vol. iii. p. 186.] 
Tlio foniier is likely to be correct, as in the year 
15G0 liis name appears the ninth in a list of young 
men at St. Andrews best qualified for the minis- 
try and teaching, given in to the first General As- 
sembly. [Calda-wood's History of the Church of 
Scotland, vol. ii. p. 45.] In 1561 he went to France, 
and for the space of five years prosecuted the study 
of the civil law at Bourges, under the famous Cu- 
jacius. This has led his biographers to state that 
it was with the view of following the profession 
of an advocate in his native country ; but it was 
then usual for students of divinity to make civil 
law a brancli of their studies. He returned to 
Scotland in 1566, and was soon after licensed as a 
minister of the Reformed church. On the 15tli 
July 1568 he received a presentation to the church 
of Logie Buchan, one of the common kirks of the 
cathedral of Aberdeen. He was a member of the 
General Assembly which met at Edinburgh on 
the first of July of that year, and was intrusted 
with the charge of revising a book entitled ' The 
Fall of the Roman Church,' published by one Tho- 
mas Bassendon, a printer of that city, which had 
given great offence and incuiTed the censure of 
the Assembly, chiefly on account of an assertion 
contained in it, that the king was the supreme 
head of the church. For this, and for having 
printed at the end of the Psalm-Book, an indecent 
song called ' Welcome Fortune,' the Assembly or- 
dained Bassenden to call in all the copies of these 
books which he had sold, and to sell no more of 
them, and to abstain for the ftiture fi'om printing 
anything witliout the license of the magistrates, 
and the revisal by a committee of the church of 
such books as pertain to religion. [Booke of the 
Universall Kirk of Scotland,, p. 100.] 

In the year 1569, Mr. Alexander Anderson, the 
principal of Iving's college, Aberdeen, with the 
sub-principal and three of the regents of that uni- 
versity, having been ejected fi'om their offices, on 
account of tlieir adherence to popery, and refusal 
to sign the Confession of Faith, Mx. Arbuthnot 
was promoted to the vacant principalship on the 
3d July of that year, and three weeks afterwards 
he was presented to the church of Ai'buthnott in 
Kincardineshire, " provyding he administrat the 
sacraments of Jesus Christ, or ellis travell [that 

is, labour] in some others als necessar vocation 
to the utility of the kirk, and approvit by the 
samen." The emoluments of his two parochial 
charges were probably his only support as princi- 
pal, the funds of the college having been greatlj 
dilapidated by his predecessor, Principal Anderson, 
wlien he found that he was likely to be deprived 
for his adherence to popery. To the university 
Principal Aj-buthnot rendered the most important 
services, both in the augmentation of its funds, 
and by his assiduity and success in teaching. 
" By his diligent teaching and dexterous govern- 
ment," says Arclibishop Spottiswood, " he not 
only revived the study of good letters, but gained 
many from the superstitions whereunto they were 
given." In 1572 he was a member of the Gen- 
eral Assembly held at St. Andrews, which strenu- 
ously opposed a scheme of church government 
called ' The Book of policy,' proposed by the 
regent Morton and his party, for the pm-pose o\ 
restoring the old titles in the church, and retaining 
among themselves all the temporalities annexed 
to them. The same year he established his char- 
acter as a man of learning, by the publication at 
Edinburgh, in quarto, of his ' Orationes do Ori- 
gine et Dignitate Juris,' a production which was 
honoured witli an encomiastic poem by Thomas 
Maitland, who represents Arbutlinot as one of the 
brightest ornaments of his native country. [i>e- 
liticB Poetarum Scotorum, torn. ii. p. 153.] " To 
enhance the value of this eulogium," says Dr. 
Irving, " it must be recollected that Maitland was 
a zealous Catholic." 

From this time Arbuthnot began to take a lead 
in the General Assembly, and dm-ing the minority 
of James the Sixth, he appears to have been much 
employed on the part of the church, in its tedious 
contest with the regency, concerning the plan of 
ecclesiastical government to be adopted. Of the 
General Assembly which met at Edinburgh 6th 
August, 1573, he was chosen moderator. In that 
of Edinburgh March 6th, 1574, he was appointed, 
with three others, to summon before them the 
chapter of Mun-ay, accused of giving their letters 
testimonial in favour of George Douglas, bishop 
of that see, "without just trial and due exami- 
nation of his life, and qualification in literature." 
ICaldencood's Hist, of the Church of Scotland, 




vol. iii. p. 304.] This assembly also aiitlioiized 
liim, witli Mr. Joliu Row and otlieis, to draw 
lip a plan of ecclesiastical polity for tlie appro- 
val cf the monibei's. Ho was at the Assem- 
bly which met at Edinburgh in August, 1575. 
•' Efter the Assemblie," (sa3's James Melville,) 
"we passed to Anguss in companie with Mr. Al- 
exander Arbuthnot, a man of singular gifts of 
lerning, ■wesdome, godliness, and sweitness of na- 
ture, then principall of the collage of Aberdein ; 
whom withe Mr. Andre [Melville] comraunicat 
anent the liaill ordourof his collage in doctrine and 
discipline, and aggroit as thoreftcr was sett down in 
the new reformation of the said collages of Glasgow 
and Aberdein." \_]\Idville's Diary, p. 41.] He was 
again chosen moderator of the General Assembl}' 
which met at Edinburgh 1st April 1577. In the 
Assembly which met in that city in October of 
the same year he was appointed, with Andrew 
Melville and George Hay, to attend a council 
which was expected to meet at Magdeburg for 
the purpose of establishing the Augsburg Confes- 
sion. \_Booke of the Universall Kirk of Scotland, 
page 169.] The council, however, was not con- 
vened. A copy of the heads of the policy and 
jurisdiction of the church having been, by order 
of that General Assembly, presented to the earl 
of Morton as regent of the kingdom; for the so- 
lution of doubts and the removal of difficulties, 
he was referred to Principal Arbuthnot, Patrick 
Adamson, and Andrew ISIelville, and nine other 
commissioners of inferior eminence. [Ibid. p. 171.] 
In the General Assembly which mot at Edinburgh 
•24th April 1578, it was resolved that a copy of 
the same should be presented to the king, and 
another to his council; and that if a conference 
should be demanded, they, on their part, would 
nominate Arbuthnot, Andrew ^lelville, and ten 
others, to attend at any appointed time. [Ibid. 
p. 175.] In the Assembly which convened at 
Stirling, 11th June of the same year, Arbutlinot, 
with some others, was empowered to confer with 
several of the nobility, prelates, and gentry, rela- 
tive to the polity of the church. In the General 
Assembly which met at Edinburgh on the 24th 
April 1583, Arbuthnot, with David Fergn^on and 
John Durie, was directed to wait upon the king 
and council, to request, in name of the Assembly, 

the dismissal of M. JIanningville, the Eiciich am- 
liassador, whose popisli practices had excited much 
alarm, as w.'ll as to complain of snndry other 
grievances. He was also named in a commission, 
with Mr. Robert Pont and five others, or any fom 
of them, to visit the university of .'^t. Andrews, 
for the purpose of inrpiiring how the rents therool 
were bestowed, what order and diligence were 
used by the regents or iirofcssors in teaching, ami 
how order was kept among the students. AVith 
Messrs. Andrew and George Hay he was also em- 
powered to present to the king and council such 
heads, articles, and complaints as the Assembly 
might determine, and to confer, treat, and reason 
thereupon, and to receive his majesty's answer to 
the same. [Calderwood, vol. iii. pp. 707, 708. J 
The leading part which ho took in ecclesiastical 
matters seems to have rendered him an object of 
suspicion and displeasnrc to James the Sixth; for 
when, in the same year (1583), he was appointed 
by the Assembly minister of St. Andrews, the king 
commanded him to remain in his college, under 
pain of horning. The Assembly saw in this arbi- 
trary exertion of the royal prerogative, an in- 
fringement of their rights. They therefore re- 
monstrated against it, but his majesty answered 
generally that he and his council had good grounds 
and reasons for what had been done. Arbuthnot 
is said to have had some bias towards the episcopal 
form of ecclesiastical polity, but whatever might be 
his private sentiments, he adhered with steadiness 
to the prcsbyterian party. It is thought, and in- 
deed Ur. Mackenzie confidently asserts, that he 
had given oftence to the king by printing Buch- 
anan's History of Scotland, in the year 1582, 
[Lives of Scots Writers, vol. iii. p. 192,] and otliei 
authors have also sujiposed that he was the iden- 
tical Alexander Arbuthnot who at that period 
held the office of king's printer. On this point 
Dr. Irving particularly quotes James Man, who. 
in his ' Censure of Ruddiman's Philological Notes 
on Buchanan,' (p. 99. Aberdeen, 17.53, 12mo,) 
maintained, " with ridiculous pertinacity," as 
Chalmers in his Life of Ruddiman says, that 
Principal Arbuthnot was indeed the printer of 
Buchanan's History. The mistake has been cor- 
rected by Chahiiers, who, on referring to the writ 
of privy seal, found that tlue Alexander Arbutl> 




not tliureiu mentioned as king's printer was deno- 
minated abm-gessof Edinburgli, and therefore was 
a different person from the principal of King's col- 
lege, Aberdeen. [Life of Ruddiman, p. 72.] 

The restriction placed on him by King James 
is snpposed to have seriously affected his health 
and spirits. He fell into a decline, and died un- 
married, at Aberdeen, on the 10th of October 
1583, before he had completed the age of forty- 
five. On the 20th of the same month his remains 
were interred in tlie chapel of King's college. 

Principal Arbuthnot appears to have possessed 
a degree of good sense and moderation which em- 
inently qualified him for the conduct of public 
business, and liis death was regarded as a severe 
calamity to the national church and to the nation- 
al literature. Andrew Melville honoured his mem- 
ory by an elegant epitaph in Latin, which will be 
found in Irving'5 Life of Arbuthnot (Lives of Scots 
Poets, vol. ii. p. 177), quoted from tlie Delitifp. 
Poetarum Scotonim, (torn. ii. p. 120). James 
Melville, in his Diary, has pronounced Arbuthnot 
one of the most learned men of whom Europe 
could at that time boast. His character has been 
thus delineated by Archbishop Spottiswood : " He 
was greatly loved of all men, hated of none, and 
in such account for his moderation with the chief 
men of these parts, that without his advice they 
could almost do nothing; which put him in a great 
fashrie, whereof he did oft complain ; pleasant 
and jocund in conversation, and in all sciences 
expert ; a good poet, mathematician, philosopher, 
theologue, lawyer, and in medicine skilful ; so as 
in every subject he could promptly discourse, and 
to good pui-pose." Notwithstanding the violence 
of the times in which he lived, the name of Prin- 
cipal Arbuthnot has never been found subjected 
to censure. Even the papists themselves appear 
to have revered his virtues. Nicol Burne, in his 
' Admonition to the Antichristian Ministers of the 
Deformit Kirk of Scotland,' written in 1581, while 
he has treated the rest of the Protestant clergy 
with the utmost contempt, thus respectfully speaks 
of Arbuthnot : 

' Bot jit, glide Lord, qulii nnis thy name hes kend, 
M.iy. or tli,\v de, find for thair sau]is remeid : 
VVitli thy elect Arbuthnot I commend, 
Althocht the lave to Geneve haist with speed." 

Three Scottish poems, published in Pinkerton'^ 
' Ancient Scottisli Poems,' have been attributed to 
Principal Arbuthnot. Dr. Irving in hia Life of 
Arbuthnot gives extracts from two of these, ' The 
ISIiseries of a Pure [poor] Scholar,' and ' The 
Praises of Wemen,' which show the author to have 
been an ingenious and pleasing poet. The Mait- 
land MSS. preserve several of his pieces not hith- 
erto published. [See Irving'f: Lives of Scottish 
Poets, vol. ii. p. 169.] Principal Arbuthnot left 
in manuscript an account of the Arbuthnott fa- 
mily, entitled ' Originis et increment! Arbuthno- 
ticse familicB descriptio historica,' which is still 
preserved. It was afterwards translated by George 
BIoiTison, minister of Benholme, and continued 
to the period of the Restoration by Alexander 
Arbuthnott, episcopalian minister of Arbuthnott, 
the father of the celebrated wit, the subject of the 
succeeding notice. 

ARBUTHNOT,' John, M.D., one of the most 
conspicuous, and certainly the most learned, of 
the wits of Queen Anne's reign, was the son of 
Alexander Arbuthnott, episcopalian clergyman at 
Arbuthnott in Kincardineshire, and a near rela- 
tive of the noble family of that name, and his wife, 
Alargaret Lamy, from the parish of Maryton, near 
Montrose. He was born in the parish of Ai'buth- 
nott in April 1667, and received the elementary 
part of his education at the parish school. About 
the year 1680 he and his elder brother Robert, af- 
terwards a banker in Paris, went to Marischal 
college, Aberdeen, where he applied himself dili- 
gently to all the academical branches of instruc- 
tion, and after finishing his medical studies, he 
took his doctor's degree. At the revolution his 
father, not complying with the new order of 
things, was deprived of his living, and in conse 
quence retired to the castle of Hallgreen near 
Bervie, in the neighbourhood of which he pos- 
sessed, by inheritance, a small property called 
Kingomey ; and his two sons were compelled to 
trust to their ovni exertions for getting forward in 
the world. The subject of this memoir accord- 
ingly resolved to push his fortune in London, and 
on his arrival there, he was hospitably received 
into the house of a l\Ir. William Pate, a woollen - 
draper. For some time he supported himself by 
teaching the mathematics, and soon distinguished 




Iiimself by his writings. His first work appeared 
in 1697, entitled an ' Examination of Dr. Wood- 
ward's Account of tlie Delnge,' being an answer 
to a worlc of tliat gentleman bearing the title of 
an ' Essay towards a Natural History of the 
Earth,' which had appeared two years before. 
This laid the foundation of Arbuthnot's fame, 
which was much extended by an able treatise 
published by him in 1700, 'On the usefulness of 
the Mathematics to young students in the univer- 
sities.' In 170-1, in consequence of a curious and 
instructive dissertation ' On the Regularity of the 
Births of both sexes,' communicated to the Royal 
Society, and published in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions of that year, No. 328, he was elected a 
member of that learned body. It would appear 
from the signatm'e to his letters, that on first 
going to London he himself continued to spell his 
name with the two t's at the end of it, as is the 
correct way, but in process of time one of the t's 
was dropped as unnecessary. 

In 1705 Prince George of Denmark, the consort 
of Queen Anne, was suddenly taken ill at Epsom. 
Dr. Arbuthnot, happening to be on the spot, was 
called to his assistance, and, under his care, his 
royal highness soon recovered. Arbuthnot was, 
in consequence, appointed physician extraordinary 
to the queen, and in the month of November, 
1709, he was promoted to be fourth physician in 
ordinaiy to her majesty; that is, one of her do- 
mestic physicians. His skill having been the 
means of recovering hei majesty from a dan- 
gerous illness, drew from his friend Gay the follow- 
ing elegant pastoral compliment: 

" While thus we stood, as in a stound, 
And wet with tears, like dew, the ground, 
Full soon, by bonfire and by bell, 
We learnt our liege was passing well: 
A skilful leech, so God him speed, 
They s.ay had wrought this blessed deed 
This leech Akbuthnott was yclept; 
Who many a night not once had slept. 
But watch'd our gracious sovereign still, 
For who could rest when she was ill ? 
Oh ! may'st thou henceforth sweetly sleep ! 
Sheer, swains ! oh, sheer your softest sheep. 
To swell his couch^ for well 1 ween 
He eaved the realm who saved the queen." 

In tlie month of April, 1710, he was admitted 

a Fellow of tlic Royal college of physicians. The 
confidence reposed in hiiu by his royal mistress 

ajipears by the terms iu which he is spoken of by 
Dean Swift, who calls him " the queen's favourito 
physician," and again, "the queen's favourite." 
Being thus distingnished by his professional abi- 
lities, his influence at court, and his literary at- 
tainments, Arbuthnot acquired the friendship not 
only of the leading men of the Tory party, to 
which he bchragcd, .such as Ilarley and Boling- 
broke, but that of all the wits and scholars of 
his time. On Swift's visit to Loudon in 1710, a 
.strict intimacy was formed between them, and 
.soon after Pope was added to the number of his 
friends, as were also Prior and Gay. 

In the year 1712, appeared the first part of 
'The History of John Bull,' of which it has been 
justly said, that "never was a political allegory 
managed with more exquisite humour, or a more 
skilful adaptation of characters and circumstances." 
The doubt entertained respecting the author of 
this satire has been dispelled by Swift and Pope, 
who both distinctly attribute it to Dr. Arbuthnot 
Pope declared that Arbuthnot was the " solo 
author." The object of this highly humorous pro- 
duction was to throw ridicule upon the splendid 
achievements of ]\IarllK)rough, and to render the 
country discontented with the war then raging 
Mith France. Arbuthnot, who was one of the 
literary phalan.x attached to the fortunes of Harley 
and the Tories, was aware how entirely that min- 
ister's power depended on a peace with France, 
and, therefore, he applied all the vigour of his wit 
to the accomplishment of that end. The ingenuity 
of the story contaiued in the 'History of John 
Bull,' united to its intelligible, straightforward, 
comic humour, procured for it a favourable recep- 
tion everjTvhere ; but to politiciians, the exquisite 
skill of its satire gave it a peculiar reli-sh. After 
the accession of the house of Hanover, a supple- 
ment to the ' History ' appeared ; but it has been 
doubted whether this is a genuine production of 
Arbuthnot's pen. Some are of opinion that the 
first two parts as printed in Swift's works, are all 
that proceeded from Arbuthnot. 

Early iu the year 1714 he entered into an en 
gagcment with Pope and Swift, jointly to write i 
satire on the abuses of human learning, iu the sty'e 




of Cervantes. The name by which the intendcil 
hci-o was to be called was assigned to that assem- 
blage of wits and learned men of which these 
three fonned the nucleus, and it was called the 
Scriblci-us' Club.' Harley, Atterbury, Con- 
greve, and Gay, were members; and of them all no 
one was better qualified than Arbuthnot, both in 
Doint of wit and erudition, to promote the object 
of the society, which was to ridicule the absurdities 
of false taste in learning, under the cliaracter of a 
man of capacity enough, but no judgment, who 
had industriously dipped into every art and science. 
But the prosecution of this noble design was pre- 
vented by the queen's death, which deeply affected 
Pope, Swift, and Arbuthnot, who were all warmly 
attached to Lord Oxford's ministry; and a final 
period was afterwards put to the project, by the 
separation and growing infh-mities of Dean Swift, 
by the bad health of Dr. Arbuthnot, and other 
concun-ing causes. The work in consequence was 
never completed, the first book of ' the Memoirs of 
Martinus Scriblerus' being only a part of it. " Polite 
letters," says AVarburton, the editor of Pope's works, 
" never lost more than in the defeat of this scheme ; 
in the execution of which work each of this illustri- 
ous triumvirate would have found exercise for his 
own peculiar talents, besides constant employment 
for those they had all in common. Dr. Arbuthnot 
was skilled in every thing which related to science ; 
Mr. Pope was a master in the fine arts ; and Dr. 
Swift excelled in the knowledge of the world. 
Wit they had all in equal measure ; and this so 
large that no age perhaps ever produced three men 
to whom nature had more bountifully bestowed it, 
or in whom art had brought it to higher perfection." 
The first book of ' Martinus Scriblerus' was pub- 
lished after the death of Dr. Arbuthnot in 1741, 
in the quarto edition of Pope's prose works, and 
there seems to be every reason to believe that 
Arbuthnot was the sole author. It has, it is time, 
oeen printed in the collected editions of the works 
both of Swift and Pope; yet the internal evi- 
dence is sufficient to prove it the entire production 
of Arbuthnot, to whom Warton has attributed the 
fiftli, sixth, seventh, eighth, tenth, and twelfth 
chapters, whatever may be determined of the other 
parts of the memoirs. The medical and antiqua- 
rian knowledge displayed in the other chapters, 

and the ridicule on Dr. Woodward in the third, 
afford strong presumption of their having had the 
same authorship as the rest. The humorous essay 
concerning the origin of the sciences, usually ap- 
pended to the ' Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus,' 
appears from Spence to have been a joint pro- 
duction of Arbuthnot, Pope, and Parnell. 

The death of Queen Anne in July 1714 put an 
end to Arbnthnot's connexion with the court, and 
completely destroyed the hopes of the Tory pairty. 
He felt severely the change in his circumstances, 
but his satirical humour and spirit of wit enabled 
him to derive some relief even from his altered 
prospects. In a letter to Swift, dated 12th August, 
he thus wi-ites : " I have an opportunity calmly ana 
philosophically to consider that treasure of vile- 
ness and baseness that I always believed to be in 
the heart of man, and to behold them exert their 
insolence and baseness ; every new instance, in- 
stead of sui-piiaing and giieving me, as it does 
some of my friends, really diverts me, — and in a 
manner proves my theory." In a subsequent let- 
ter, alluding to the dispersion of the queen's cour- 
tiers on her death, he says, "The queen's poor 
servants are like so many poor oi-phans exposed 
in the very streets." To divert his chagi-in he 
paid a visit to his brother Robert at Paris, under 
whose care he left two of his daughters. On his 
return, in the beginning of September, having been 
deprived of his apartments in St. James' palace, 
he took a house in Dover Street, where he assidu- 
ously devoted himself to the practice of his pro- 
fession and to literaiy occupation. His spirits 
appear to have suffered considerably at this time, 
for, in a letter to Pope, dated September 7th, 
1714, he says, " I am extremely obliged to you 
for taking notice of a poor, old, distressed courtier, 
commonly the most despisable thing in the world. 
This blow has so roused Scriblenis that he has re- 
covered his senses, and thinks and talks like other 
men. From being frolicsome and gay, he is turn- 
ed grave and morose." This depression of spirits, 
however, had not given him a distaste for the so- 
ciety of his fiiends : " Martin's office," he adds, in 
allusion to his ' Martinus Scriblerus,' " is now the 
second door on the left hand in Dover Street, 
where he will be glad to see Dr. Parnell, Mr. 
Pope, and his old friends, to whom he can still 




afford a half pint of claret." He is said, with 
Pope, to have assisted Gay in the farce of ' Throe 
Hours after Marriage,' wliich was brought out in 
1716, but met with no success. 

In the autumn of 1722, Ai-buthnot visited Batli, 
for the benefit of his health. He was accompa- 
nied by his brother, who liad sliortly before ar- 
rived in England. Mr. Robert Arbuthnot was a 
person of a singularly benevolent character, and 
is thus commemorated in a letter from Pope to the 
Hon. Robert Digby, "Dr. Arbuthnot is going to 
Bath, — his brother, who is lately come to Eng- 
land, goes also to the Bath, and is a more extra- 
ordinary man than he, and worth your going thi- 
ther on purpose to know him. The spirit of 
philanthropy, so long dead to our world, is revived 
in him. He is a philosopher all of fire ; so wann- 
ly, nay so wildly in the right, that he forces all 
others about him to be so too, and draws them 
into his own vortex. He is a star that looks as if 
it were all fire, but Is all benignity, all gentle and 
beneficial influence. If there be other men in the 
world that would serve a friend, yet he is the 
only one, I believe, that could make even an ene- 
my serve a friend." 

On the 30th September 1723, Arbuthnot was 
chosen second censor of the College of Physicians. 
In the autumn of 1725 he had a dangerous illness. 
On this occasion he was visited by Pope, who 
thus communicated the intelligence of his illness 
to Dean Swift : " Dr. Ai'buthnot is, at this time, 
ill of a very dangerous distemper, an imposthume 
in the bowels, which is broke ; but the event is 
very uncertain. Wliatever that be (he bids me 
tell you, and I write this by him) he lives and 
dies your faithful friend, and one reason he has to 
desire a little longer life is, the wish to see you 
once more." In 1727 he was chosen an elect of 
the Royal college of Physicians, when he pro- 
nounced the Harveian oration for that year. In 
the same year he published his great work, en- 
titled 'Tables of Ancient Coins, Weights, and 
Measures, explained and exemplified in several 
dissertations,' 4to. This volume, which does great 
honour to the antiquarian knowledge and indus- 
try of the writer, though not wholly free from in- 
accuracies, has ever since been considered a stand- 
ard work In 173? he nublished a professional 

treatise ' On the nature and choice of Aliments ; 
and in the following year an essay ' On the effect 
of Air on Human Bodies;' both founded on the 
doctrine of Boerhaave, the prevailing system ol 
tlie time. He is supposed to have been led to 
write these works from the consideration of his own 
malady, an asthmatic alTection, which gradually 
increasing with his years, became at last incura- 
ble. A little before the appearance of the latter 
publication he sustained a severe loss in the death 
of his son Charles, a clergyman of the Church of 
England, " whose life," he saj's, " if it had so 
pleased God, he would willingly have redeemed 
with his own." Another son had died previously 
in the year 1730. 

In his latter years Dr. Arbuthnot was grievously 
afflicted with asthma, and in 1732 he retired to 
Hampstead, a village situated on the declivity of 
a high hill in the neighbourhood of London, for 
the benefit of the pure air of that elevated s|iot. 
" I came out to this place," he says, in an affect- 
ing letter to his friend Swift, dated October 4, 
" so reduced by dropsy and an asthma, that 1 
could neither sleep, breathe, eat, nor move. I 
most earnestly desired and begged of God that he 
would take me." His attachment to Swift !.■< 
strongly and tenderly manifested at the conclusion 
of this letter. " I am afraid, my dear fiiend, we 
shall never see one another more in this world. 1 
shall to the last moment preserve my love and 
esteem for you, being well assured you will never 
leave the paths of virtue and honour; for all that 
is in this world is not worth the least deviation 
from that way." In the same strain of earnest 
friendship he had a little while previously ad- 
dressed a letter to Pope. " As for you, my good 
friend, I think, since our first acquaintance, there 
have not been any of those little suspicions or 
jealousies that often affect the sincerest friend- 
ships; I am sure not on my side. I must bo so 
sincere as to own, that though I could not help 
valuing you for those talents which the world 
prizes, yet they were not the foundation of my 
friendship; they were quite of another sort; nor 
shall I at present offend you by enumerating them; 
and I make it my last request that you will con- 
tinue that noble disdain and abhorrence of vice 
which you seem naturally endued with; out BtiD 




nith a regard to your own safety; and study more 
to reform than chastise, though the one cannot be 
effected without the other. A recovery in my case, 
and at my age, is impossible; the kindest wish of 
my friends is euthanasia [meitning a liappy and 
easy deatli]. Living or dying I shall always be 

Finding no relief ft-oni the change of air, Arbuth- 
not left Ilampstead, and returned to his house in 
London, situated in Cork Street, Bm-lington-gar- 
dens, where he died, on the 27th February, 1735. 
His only surviving son, George, filled the lucrative 
post of secondary in the Exchequer-office, under 
Loi-d Masham, and was one of the executors of 
Pope. He died 8th September 1779, aged 76. 
He also left two daughters, one named Anne, who 
both died unmarried. The subjoined portrait of 
Dr. Arbuthnot is taken from an engraving from a 
scarce print fomierly in the collection of Sir Wil- 
liam Musgi'ave, Bart. 

Among Arbuthnot's more humorous pieces, be- 
sides the ' History of John Bull' ah'cady mention- 
ed, ' A Treatise concerning the Altercations or 
Scoldings of the Ancients,' and ' The Art of Poli- 
tical Lying,' are the most celebrated. He did not 
e.'veel in poetry, and seldom attempted it. Li 

Dodsley's Collection there is a didactic poem writ- 
ten by him, remarkable for its philosophical senti- 
ment, with the title of ' Know Thyself !' His well 
known epitaph on Colonel Chartres, a noted usurer 
of the time, beginning " Here continues to rot," &c 
is a masterly specimen of his powers of satire. He 
was also skilled in music; and Sii' John Hawkins 
mentions an anthem and a burlesque song of his 
composition. [Hist, of Music, vol. v. p. 126.] 
In 1751 two 12mo volumes were published, en- 
titled ' The Miscellaneous Works of the late Dr. 
Aibnthnot,' containing some of his genuine pro- 
ductions, but the greater portion of the contents 
were declared by his son to be spurious. 

By his brother wits Dr. Arbuthnot was held iu 
high estimation. Pope dedicated to him his ' Pro- 
logue to the Satires,' and Swift has more than 
once mentioned him with praise in his poems, foT 
instance when he feelingly laments that he was 

" Far from his kind Arbuthnot's aid, 
A\Tio knows his art, but not his trade." 

"His good morals," Pope used to say, "were 
equal to any man's ; but his wit and humour su- 
perior to all mankind." " He has more wit than 
we all have," said Swift to a lady, who desired 
his opinion of him, " and his humanity is equal to 
his wit." His character is thus given by Dr 
Johnson : " Arbuthnot was a man of great com- 
prehension, skUful in his profession, versed in the 
sciences, acquainted with ancient literature, and 
able to animate his mass of knowledge by a brighl 
and active imagination ; a scholar, with great 
brilliance of wit ; a wit, who, in the crowd of life, 
retained and discovered a noble ardom- of religi- 
ous zeal ; a man estimable for his learning, amia- 
ble for his life, and venerable for his piety." He 
was distinguished in an eminent degree for genu- 
ine benevolence and goodness, while his warmth 
of heart and cheerfulness of temper rendered him 
much beloved by his family and friends, towards 
whom he displayed the most constant affection 
and attachment. Notwithstanding his powers of 
satire, all his contemporaries seem to have united 
in his praise. " His very sarcasms," says Lord 
Orrery, " are the satii-ical sarcasms of good na- 
ture ; they are like slaps on the face given in jest, 
the effects of which will raise a blush, but no 




hiackness will appear after the blows. He laughs 
as jovially as an attendant upon Bacchus, but 

continues as sober and considerate as a disciple 
of Socrates, Ho is seldom serious, except in his 
attacks upon vice, and there his spirit rises with 
a manly strcMjrth, and a noble indipiation. No 
man exceeded him in the moral duties of life, a 
merit still more to his honour, as the united powers 
of wit and genius are seldom submissive enough 
to confine themselves witliin the limitations of 
morality." In the Biogi-aphia Britannica Arbuth- 
not is said, but at what particular jieriod we are 
not informed, to have been for some time stewaid 
to the corporation of the Sons of the Clergy. He 
was in the liabit of writing essays on the current 
events of tlie day in a great folio paper book, 
which used to lie in his parlour, and such was his 
good nature and indulgence to his children, that 
he suffered them to tear out his manuscript at one 
end for tlieii* kites, while he was writing them at 
the other. 

No correct list of his productions has ever been 
given. The following is as near as can be ascer- 
tained : 

Examination of Dr. Woodward's Account of the Deluge, 
&c., with a Comparison between Steno's Philosophy and the 
Doctor*s, in the case of JIarine Bodies dug up out of the 
Earth. By J. A., M.D. With a Letter to the Author, con- 
cerning an Abstract of Agostino Scilla's Book on the same 
subject, by W. W. Lond- 1695, 1697, 8vo. 

Essay on the Usefuhiess of Mathematical Knowledge. 
Lond. 1700. 

Sermon preached to the People at the Mercat-croBS of Ed- 
inburgh, on the subject of the Union. Lond. 1707, 8vo. A 
Satire supposed to have been written by Aa*buthnot. 

Law is a Bottomless Pit, or the History of Jolm Bull, ex- 
empUfied in the case of the Lord Strutt, John Bull, Nicholas 
Frog, and Louis Baboon, who spent all they had in a law- 
suit, in 4 parts; with an appendix. Lond. 1712, 8vo. 

Tables of the Grecian, Roman, and Jewish Measures, 
Weights, and Coins, reduced to the English Standard, and 
Explained and Exemplified in several Dissertations. Lond. 
1705, 8vo. The same, by his son, with a Poem to the King. 
Lond. 1727, 4to. 

Miscellanemis Pieces by him. Swift, Pope, and Gay. Lond. 
1727, 3 vols. 8vo. 

Essay, concerning the Nature of Aliments, the Choice of 
them, &c. Lond. 1731. Another edition, with Practical 
Rules of Diet in the various Constitutions and Diseases of 
Human Bodies. Lond. 1732, 8vo. 1751, 1756, 8vo. In 
German. Hamb. 1744, 4to. 

An Essay on the Effects of Air on Human Bodies. Lond, 
1733, 1751, 1756, 8vo. In French. Paris, 1742, 12mo. 

Miscellaneous Works of the late Dr. Arbutluiot. Glasg. 
1750, 2 vols. 8vo. These volumes, now very scarce, were 
ffisclaimed in an advertisement by the author's son, dated, 
I^idon, Sept. 25, 1750. 

Oratio Annivorsnria Har\'cjana, Anni 1727, in h'u nilMsel- 

laueous works. 1751, 8vo. 

Argument for Divine Prondcnce. dmwn from the eqtu. 
number of births of both soxes. Phil. Trans. 1700, Abr. v. 

p. 606. 

Aroyi.k, duke of, a title belonging to the uicient family 
of Campbell of Lochawe. [See Cami'Iii-:i.i. sunianio of.] 
The name of Arg\*le is derived from two Gaelic words, Earra 
Ghaidheal^ " the country of the western Gael ;" or, according to 
Skene, from Oirirf/ael, us the ancient district of Arg)'le(wliich 
comprehended also Lochaber and Wester Ross) was called by 
the Higlilanders. By the historians tliewliole of thi.s extensive 
district is included under the term of Ergadia. [Ifiitoiy ofOie 
UhjJiUimhrs^ vol ii. p. 33.] In the middle ages the Mac- 
dougalls of Lorn held sway over Argjde and Mull; wliile tlie 
Macdonalds, lords of the Isles, were sujtremc in Islay, Kisi- 
t)Te, and tlic Snntheni Islands. The power of the Macdon- 
alds was broken by Robert the Bruce, and their estates be- 
stowed on the Campbells, who originally belonged to tlie 
ancient earldom of Gamioran, which comprehended Moydert. 
Arasaig, Morar, and Ivnoydert. Arg}'le was erected uito nil 
earldom in 1457, and into a dukedom in 1701. 

ARGYLE, earl, marquis, ami duke of, seo 
Campbell, Archibald, aud John. 

Armstrong, the name of a famous border family, which 
with its various branches, chiefly inliabited Liddosdaie. Ac- 
cording to tradition, the original surname was Fairbaim, and 
belonged to the armour-bearer of an ancient king of Scotland 
who, ha^ang his horse killed under him in battle, was straight- 
way remounted by Fairbaim on his own horse. For this 
timely assistance, tlie king amply rewarded Iiim with lands 
on the borders, and in allusion to the manner in which so 
important a service was performed, Fairbaim havmg taken 
the king by the thigli, and set him at once on the saddle, hit 
royal master gave him tlie name of Armstr()NG, and assigned 
him for crest, ''an armed hand and arm, in the hand a leg 
and foot in armour, couped at the tlngb, all proper.'' Amongst 
the clans on the Scottish side of the border, the Amistrongs 
were formerly one of the most numerous. They possessed the 
greater part of Liddesdale, winch fonns the southern district 
of Hoxbnrghsliire and of the debateable land. All along tlie 
hanks of the Lidde], the ruins of their ancient fortresses may 
still be traced. Tlie habitual depredations of this border- 
race had rendered them so active and daring, and at the same 
time so cautions and circumspect, that they seldom failed 
either in their attacks or in securing their prey. Even when 
.assailed by superior numbers, they baflled every assault hy 
abandoning theh" dwellings, and retiring with their families 
into thick woods and deep morasses, accessible by paths only 
known to themselves. One of their iDOst noted places of re- 
fuge was the Tamus-moss, a frightful and desolate marsh, so 
deep that two spears tied together could not n*ach the bot- 
tom. Although several of the Scottish inon.archs had at- 
tempted to break the chain whicli united these powerfid Hnd 
turbulent chieft;uns, none ever had greater occasion to lower 
their power, and lessen their influence, than James the Fifth. 
The hostile and turbident spirit of the Annstmngs, however, 
was never entirely broken or suppressed, until the reign oi 
James the Sixth, when their leaders were brong*it to the 
scaffold, their strongholds razed to the ground, and theii 
estates forfeited and transferred to strangers; so thatthrtuigh- 
Out the extensive districts fomicrly possessed by this one* 
powerful and ancient clan, there is scarc^'ly left, at this dnr 




a single landholder of the n.ime. Their descendants have 
been long scattered, some of them haring settled in EngKind, 
and others in Ireland. The most celebrated of these border 
chiefs was ' Jolniie .\rmstrang' of Gilnockie, who lived in the 
early part of the si.\teenth century, and is the hero of one of 
our best historic^ ballads. A notice of him follows. ' Jock 
o' the Syde,' the hero of another b.allad, was also an Arm- 
strong, and a noted moss-trooper in the reign of Mary, queen 
of Scots. The site of his residence, the Syde, is pointed out 
on a heathy upland, about two miles to the west of New Cas- 
tletown, in Liddesdale, while the ruins of Mangerton Tower, 
the seat of his m.iternal uncle, are still visible, on the haugh 
below. Sir Richard M.aitland of Lethington, in a poetical 
complaint which he wrote " agiiins the Thievis of Liddis- 
daill," tlius speaks of this famous border reaver: 

" lie is wcel kenned, Johne of the Syde; 
A grreater thief did never ryde; 
He never tyres, 
For to break byres: 
Ower muirs and myres 
Ower gude ane guyde.' 

A lineal descendant of Johnie Armstrong, in the reign of 
Charles the First, kidnapped the person of Lord Durie, the 
president of the Court of Session, and kept him upw.ards of 
three months in secret coniinement in an old castle in Annan- 
dale, called Graham's tower. The motive for this extraordi- 
nary and daring stratagem was to promote the interests of 
Lord Traqnair, who had a lawsuit of importance before the 
court, in which there was reason to believe the judgment 
woxdd be unfavourable and decided by the casting vote of 
the president. [See Gibson, Sir Alexander, Lord Durie.] 
Near Penton Linns, a romantic spot on the Liddel, was 
another border stronghold, called Harelaw tower, once the 
residence of Hector Ai-mstrong, who betrayed his guest, the 
earl of Northumberland, to the regent Mun'ay. 

ARMSTRONG, John, a celebrated border chief 
of the early part of the sixteenth centiny, was a 
native of the parish of Canonbie, iu the county of 
Dumfries, and the brother of Christopher Arm- 
strong, laird of Mangerton, chief of the clan or 
sept of tlie Armstrongs. His stronghold was Gil- 
nockie Tower, now a roofless ruin, situated a few 
miles fi'om Langholm, at a place called the Hol- 
lows, on the banks of the river Esk. Tlie terror 
of his name was spread far and wide, and at the 
head of a band of brave and faithful followers, he 
levied black mail, or protection money, for many 
miles within the English border. All who refused 
were sure of being plundered and harassed to the 
utmost. The marauding system on the borders 
had, during the long minority of King James V., 
been carried to a formidable extent, especially 
nnder the connivance of the earl of Angus, the 
wai'den of the marches, who had bound the border 
chiefs to his interests by those feudal confederacies, 
named ' bands of manrent,' which compelled the 
parties to defend each other against the authority 

of the law. Having resolved to suppress the fo- 
raying chieftains, the king raised a powerful arnij, 
chiefly composed of horsemen, " to danton the 
thieves" of Teviotdale, Annandale, Liddesdale, and 
other parts of the country, and about the begin- 
ning of June 1529, he set out, at the head of eight 
thousand men, on an expedition through the bor- 
der disti'icts. To prevent the mosstroopers and 
their chiefs from taking alarm, he ordered all the 
gentlemen of the borders to bring with them theii 
best dogs, as if his only purpose was to hunt the 
deer. The leaders thus thrown off" their guard, 
were not apprehensive of any danger, and to in- 
sure their destruction the more readily, the princi- 
pal border nobles who were known to be their 
protectors and secret encouragers, namely the 
earl of Bothwell, lord of Teviotdale, Lords Home 
and Maxwell, Scott of Buccleuch, Ker of Fairnie- 
hurst, with the lairds of Johnstone, Polwarth, 
Dolphington, and other poweiful chiefs, were 
seized and imprisoned in separate fortresses in 
different parts of the kingdom. This being done, 
the king, accompanied by some of the borderei's 
who had secured their pardon, marched rapidly 
through Ettrick Forest and Ewesdale, and seized 
Piers Cockbuni of Henderland and Adam Scott 
of Tushielaw, commonly called the king of the 
border, and ordered both to be hanged before the 
gates of their- own castles. So little did they ex- 
pect the fate that awaited them that, it is re- 
corded, when James approached the castle of 
Cockburn of Henderland, the latter was in the 
act of providing a gi'eat entertainment to welcome 
him. Armstrong, on his part, came to meet the 
king at a place about ten miles from Hawick 
called Carlinrigg chapel, at the head of thirty-six 
attendants, his usual retinue, he and his followers 
arrayed in all the pomp o\ border chivalry. As 
the ballad says, 

The Elliots and Ai-mstrongs did convene , 

They were a gallant companie : — 
*' We'll ride and meet our lawful king, 

And bring him safe to Gilnockie. 

Make kinnen and capon ready then, 

And vemson in great plentie ; 
We'll welcome here our noble king; 

1 hope hell dine at Gilnockie 1 " 




They ran tlieir horse on tlie Langhohn hohn, 
And brak their spears wV niickle main ; 

The ladies lookit frae their loft windows : — 
" God bring our men weel hame again !" 

We are told by Pitscottio that Annstroiis was the 
most redoubted chieftain that had been for a long 
time on the borders of Scotland or England. He 
alwaj's rode with twenty-four able gentlemen, well 
horsed, and from the borders to Newcastle every 
Englishman, of whatever state, paid him tribute. 
Armstrong is said to have incautiously made this 
display, by the crafty advice of some of the cour- 
tiers, who knew that it would only the more ex- 
asperate the king against him ; aud the effect was 
precisely so, for James, seeing this bold border 
chief so gallantly equipped, on his approach, 
fiei'cely ordered the tyrant, as he styled Arm- 
strong, to be removed out of his sight and instantly 
executed, exclaiming, " What wants that knave 
that a king should have?" 

There hang nine targats .at Johnie*s hat. 
And ilk ane worth three hundred pound, — 

" What wants that kn.ave that a king should have, 
But the sword of honour and the croun ? " 

Armstrong saw at once the snare into which he 
had fallen, and made every eftbrt to preserve his 
life. He offered, if James would pardon him, to 
maintain at his own expense, forty men, ready at 
R moment's notice, to serve the king, and engaged 
never to injure any Scottish subject. 

" Grant me my life, my liege, my king, 

And a bonnie gift I'll gie to thee, — 
Full four-and-twenty milk white steeds, 

Were a' foaled in ae year to me. 

I'll gio thee a' thae milk white steeds, 

That prance and nicher at a speir, 
And as muckle gude English gold 

As four o' their braid backs can" 

He further undertook to produce to his majcst.v, 
within a certain day, any man in England, of 
whatever degree, duke, earl, or baron, either alive 
or diNid. But .Tames was inexorable. 

** Away, aw.ay, thou traitor Strang! 

Out o' my sight snne may'st thou bo ' 
1 grantit never a traitor's life, 

And now I'll not begin wi* thee ' '' 

Seeins[his death resolved upon, Armstrong haugh- 

tily exclaimed, " It is folly to ask grace at a grace, 
less face, but had I guessed you would liave used 
mo thus, I would have kept the Border-sido, in 
despite of the king of England and you both; for I 
well know that King Henry would give the weight 
of my best horse in gold to know that I am sen- 
tenced to die this day." 

* To seik het water aneath cauld i« 

Surely it is a gi*eat follie ! — 
I have asked gi'ace at a graceless face, 

But there is nane for my men and me. 

But had I konn'd n\: I cam frae hame 
How thou unkind wadst been to me . 

] wad hae keepid the border sydo 
In spite of all thy force and thee. 

Wist England's king that I was ta'en. 

then a blj-the man he wad be' 
For anes I slew his sister's son. 

And on his breast bane brak a tree." 

He and all his followers, some accounts make 
them forty-eight, were hanged ou the trees of a 
little grove at Carlinrigg chapel, two miles north of 
IMoss Paul, on the road between Hawick and Lang- 
holm, and tradition still points out their graves in 
the solitary churchyard of the place. He left a son 
Christopher who succeeded as laird of Gilnockie. 
On the borders Armstrong was long missed and 
mom-ned as a brave warrior, and a stout defender 
of his country against England. It is said by 
Buchanan that James executed Armstrong and 
his retinue, in direct violation of his solemn pro- 
mise of safctj'. We are told that this bold chiel 
never molested any of his own countrymen, and it 
appears from his own statement that his plunder- 
ings were chiefly committed on the English ; yet 
the Armstrongs are accused of having, in the 
course of a few years, destroyed not less than 
fifty-two parish churclics in Scotland, and thoy 
opeuly boasted that their chieftain, Johnny Arm- 
strong, woiUd be subject neither to James nor to 
Henry, but would continue his excesses in defi- 
ance of both. The fate of this renowned border 
leader has been commemorated in many of the 
rude ballads of the border districts. The cele- 
brated ballad of ' Johnie Aniistrang,' some of thi 
verses of which have been quoted, was first pub- 
lished bv Allan Ranisav, in his ' Evei-green,' ii 




1724, having been copied, as he tells us, by him- 
self from ilie mouth of a gentleman of the name of 
Armstrong, who was the sixth generation from the 
renowned borderer. The tower of the Hollows, 
or Holehouse, once the residence of this famous 
border chieftain, was a place of considerable 
strength in its day ; its ruins are now used as a 
cowhouse to a neighbouring farmer. The younger 
son of Cliristopher Armstrong of Mangei-ton, the 
brother of this Armstrong of Gilnockie, went to 
Ireland, some years after the death of Queen 
Elizabeth, and settling in county Fermanagh, 
became the founder of a numerous family, whose 
descendants now possess extensive estates m Fer- 
managh, King's county and Wicklow; and one of 
whom was created a baronet of Great Britain in 

ARMSTRONG, John, M.D., poet and miscel- 
laneous writer, was born about 1709 at Castletou, 
a parish forming the southern extremity of Rox- 
burghshu-e, of which his father and afterwards his 
brother were ministers. In history and poetry, 
and very frequently still in conversation, its name 
is Liddesdale, from the river Liddel which runs 
through it from east to west. Dr. Armstrong has 
sung the beauties of his native vale, in his highly- 
finished poem on 'The Art of Preserving Health,' 
Book ni. : 

'Such the stream, 

Oil whose Arcadian banks I first drew air. 

Liddal, till now — except in Doric lays, 

Tnned to her murmurs by her love-sick swains — 

Unknown in song; though not a purer stream 

Through meads more flowery, — more romantic groves, 

Rolls toward the westward main. Hail, sacred flood! 

May still thy hospitable swains be blest 

In rural innocence ; thy mountains still 

Teem with the fleecy race ; thy tuneful woods 

For ever flourish, and thy vales look gay, 

With painted meadows, and the golden grain!" 

After receiving the rudiments of his education at 
home, he was sent to the university of Edinburgh, 
where he distinguished himself before his twentieth 
year, by gaining a prize medal for a prose com- 
position, prescribed by a literary society in that 
city, and by other promising marks of genius during 
his studies. Having chosen the medical profession, 
he took his degree as physician February 4, 1732. 

His inaugural dissertation, De Tabe Purulenta, 
gained him some reputation, as being superior to 
the general run of such essays. Soon after he went 
to Loudon, where he commenced practice as a phy- 
sician. In 1735 he published anonymously 'An 
Essay for abridging the study of Physic,' being a 
humorous attack on quacks and quackery, in the 
style of Lucian. This work gained him credit as 
a wit, but did not advance his practice as a phy- 
sician. In 1737 he published a work on the vene- 
real disease. This was followed by 'The Economy 
of Love ;' for which poem he received fifty pounds 
fi-om Andrew Millar, the bookseller, but which 
greatly injured his reputation. In a subsequent 
edition, published in 1768, he carefully expunged 
man}' of the youthfid luxuriances with which the 
first abounded. In 1744 appeared his principal 
■work, entitled ' The Art of Preserving Health,' in 
blank verse, one of the best didactic poems in the 
language. This valuable work established at once 
his reputation both as a physician and a poet. In 
1746 he was appointed one of the physicians to 
the hospital for sick and lame soldiers. In 1751 
he published his poem on Benevolence, and in 
1753 his Epistle on Taste, addressed to a Young 
Critic. In 1758 he produced his prose ' Sketches 
or Essays on various subjects, by Lancelot Tem- 
ple, Esq.,' in two parts, which evinced considera- 
ble humour and knowledge of the world, and in 
which he is said to have been assisted by Mi-. 
Wilkes, whose acquaintance he had made soon 
after his first arrival in London. In 1760 he 
received the appointment of physician to the 
army, then in Germany, where, in 1761, he wrote 
' Day, a Poem, an Epistle to John Wilkes, Esq. ;' 
his Mendship with whom was not of long con- 
tinuance, the subject of polities having divided 
them; Wilkes's continued attacks upon Scotland 
being the cause of then- quarrel. Having in that 
epistle hazarded a reflection on Chm'chill, the 
satirist retorted severely in his poem of ' The 

At the peace of Paris in 1763 Armstrong re- 
turned to Loudon, and resigning his connec- 
tion with the army, resumed his practice, but 
not w'ith his former success. In 1770 he pub- 
lished a Collection of his Miscellanies, containing 
amongst others, the Universal Almanack, a new 




prose piece, and the Forced Marriage, a trageily, 
wliicli had been refused by Garrick. In 1771 
he made the tour of France and Italy, in com- 
pany with the celebrated artist Fuaeli, who sur- 
vived him for half a century. In his journey 
he met his friend Dr. Smollett, to whom he was 
much attached. On his retiu'u he published an 
account of it under tlic name of ' A short Ramble, 
by Lancelot Temple.' 

Wilkes, his former friend, joined Churchill in 
assailing Dr. Armstrong, having published a scur- 
rilous attack upon him in the Public Advertiser, 
contained in a series of three letters, commencing 
with one signed Dies, in which, to cloak his purpose, 
Wilkes reflected on himself That letter appeared 
I\Iarch 23, 1773, and followed by one signed 
Truth, March 24, and by another signed Nox, 
April 1. In the Gentleman's Magazine for Janu- 
ary 1792, the following substance of a conversa- 
tion which took place between Armstrong and 
Wilkes on the appearance of these letters, is in- 
serted. It was taken down at the time by Mr. 
AVilkes, and is quite characteristic of both i)ar- 

On Wednesday, April 7, 1773, Dr. Ainnstrong 
called on Mr. Wilkes in Prince's Court, about two 
in the afternoon, and without the least ceremony 
or complimeut, began — 

Dr. Armstrong. Did you, Sir, vrc'itc the letters in 
the Public Advertiser? 

Mr. Wilkes. What letters do you mean. Doctor? 
There are many letters almost every day in the I'ublic 

Dr. A. Sir, I mean the three letters about me, and 
Day, Day, Sir. 

Mr. W. You m.ay ask the printer, Mr. Woodfall. 
He has my orders to name me, whenever he thinks it 
proper, as the author of every tiling I write in liis 

Dr. A. I believe you wrote all those letters. 

Mr. W- What all three, Doctor? I am very 
roughly treated in one of them, in the first signed 

Dr. A. I believe you wrote that on purpose to 
begin the controversy. I am almost sure of it. 

Mr. W. I hope you are more truly informed in 
other tilings. I know better than to abuse myself in 
ttiat manner, and I pity the autlior of such wretched 

Dr. A. Did you write the other letters. Sir? 

Mr. W. The proper person to inquire of, is Mr. 
Woodfall. I will not ansioer interrogatories. My time 
fvould pass in a strange maimer if I was to answer 

every question which any gentleman cht«o to put to 

me about anonynums Uncrs. 

[)r. A. Whoever ha.'i aliusod me. Sir, In a villain; 
and your endeavours, Sir, to set Scotland and England 
togcilier arc very bad. 

Mr. W. The Sctits have done that thoroughly. 
Doctor, by their conduct here, panicidarly by their 
own nationality, and the outrajjes of Lord Bute to ao 
many English families. Whenever you think projicr 
to call upon me in particular as a gentleman, you will 
find me most ready to answer the call. 

Dr. A. D n Lord Bute! It had been better 

for Scotland he had never been born. He has dime 
us infinite misdiief. 

Mr. \V. Ami us, too; but I suppose wo arc not met 
for a dish of politics? 

Dr. A. No; but I wisli there had been no Union. 
I am sure England is the gainer by it. 

Mr. \V. I will not make an es-say on the advan- 
tages and disadvantages of the Union. 

Dr. A. I hate politics; but I have been ill used by 
you, Mr. Wilkes, on the occasion. 

Mr. W. On the contraiy, Doctor, I was the injured 

Dr. A, I thought you for many years the most 
amiable friend in the world, and loved your company 
the most; but you distinguished yourself by grossly 
abusing nil/ countrj-men in the North Briton — although 
I never read much of that paper. 

Mr. W. You passed your time, I am satisfied, much 
better. Who told you. Doctor, what particular num- 
bers I \vrote? It is droll, but the bitterest of those 
papers, which was attributed to me, was a description 
of Scotland, first jirintcd in the last centurj-, on Charles 
I.'s return from thence in XG'A'i. Were you ever, Doc- 
tor, personally attacked by me? Were you not, al- 
though a Scotsman, at the very time of the North 
Britons, complimented )iy me, in conjunction with 
Churchill, in the best thing I wrote, the mock 'Dedi- 
cation to Mortimer.' 

Dr. A. To be praised along with sucli a writer. I 
think an abuse. 

Mr. W. The worlil thinks far otherwise of that 
wonderful genius, ChniThill ; but you. Doctor, have 
sacrificed private friendship at the altar of politics. 
After many years' mutual intercourse of good offices, 
you broke every tie of friendsliiii with me on no pre- 
tence but a Eusjiicion, for you did not ask for proof, ol 
my having abused your country, that eountrj- 1 have 
for years together heard you inveigh against, in the 
bitterest terms, for nastiness and nationality. 

Dr. A. 1 only did it in joke. Sir; you did it with 
bitterness ; but it was my country. 

Mr. W. No man has abused England so much as 
Shakspeare, or France so much as Voltaire; yet they 
remain the favourites of two great nations, conscioii.- 
of their own superiority. Were you, Doctor, attacked 
by me in any one instance? Was not the most fricndl> 
correspondence carried on with you the whole time. 
till you broke it off by a letter, in I7G3, in which tou 
declared to me, that vou could not with honour Mtu- 




ciate with one who had distinpiished himself by abus- 
iiij; your country, and that you remained with all clue 
$incmt!/f I remember thai was the strange plirase. 

Dr. A. You never answered that letter, Sir. 

Mr. ir. What answer could I give. Doctor? You 
had put a period to the intercourse between ns. I 
etill continued to our common friends to speak of 
you in terms of respect, while you were grossly abusing 
me. You said to Boswell, Millar, and others, "I hope 
there is a hell, that Wilkes may lie in it." 

Dr. A. In a passion I might say so. People do 
not often speak their minds in a passion. 

Mr. W. I thought they generally did. Doctor. 

Dr. A. I was tlioroughly provoked, although I still 
acknowledge my great pecuniarj' obligations to you — 
although, I dare say, I could have got the money 

Mr. W. I was always happy to render you every 
een'ice in my power ; and I little imagined a liberal 
mind, like yours, could have been worked up by de- 
signing men to write me such a letter in answer to an 
affectionate one I sent you, on the prospect of your 

Dr. A. I was happier with you than any man in 
the world for a great many years, and complimented 
you not a little in the Dat/, and you did not wihe to 
me for a year and a half after that. 

Mr. W. Your memory does not serve you faith- 
fully. Doctor. In three or four months at farthest, 
you had two or three letters from me together, on your 
retuni to the head-quarters of the army. I am abused 
in Dies for that publication, and the manner, both of 
which you approved. 

Dr. A. I did so. 

Mr. W. I was abused at first, I am told, in the 
manuscript of Dies for having sold tlie copy, and put 
the money in my pocket; but that charge was sup- 
pressed in the printed letter. 

Dr. A. I know nothing of that, and mil do you 

Mr. PF. WiU you call upon M*. D , our com- 
mon friend, your countryman, and ask him what he 
thinks of your conduct to me, if it has not been wholly 

Dr. A. Have I yocr leave to ask Mr. Woodfall in 
your name about the letters? 

Mr. W. I have already told you, Doctor, what 
directions he has from me. Take four-and-twenty 
hours to consider what you have to do, and let me 
know the result. 

Dr. A. I am sorry to have taken up so much of 
your time, Sir. 

Mr. W. It stands in no need of an apology, Doctor. 
I am glad to see you. Good morrow. 

N.B. — These minutes were taken down the same 
afternoon, and sent to a friend. 

Dr. Armstrong's last publication was his 'Me- 
dical Essays,' which appeared in 1773. In this 
he complains of the little attention that had 

been paid to him, while so many other physi- 
cians of inferior abilities had risen to fame and 
fortune, forgetting that his own indolence and lev- 
ity, and not the fickleness or want of discern- 
ment of the public, occasioned the neglect. A 
large portion of his time was spent at Slaughter's 
coffee-house, in St. Martin's lane, where he took 
his meals, and where messages for him were ordi- 
narily directed to be addressed. He died on 7th 
September, 1779, and left, it is said, three thou- 
sand ponnds, which his prudence and good man- 
agement had enabled him to collect. He left his 
fortune by his will to his three nieces, the daugh- 
ters of his brother Dr. George Armstrong ; who, 
after having been an apothecary for several years 
at Hampstead, at length obtained a diploma con- 
stituting him doctor in medicine. Settling in Lon- 
don, he was appointed physician to a dispensary 
for the benefit of poor infants, opened at a house 
taken for him by the subscribers in Soho square. 
To aid the design, he published a small treatise on 
the diseases of children, in which he was supposed 
to have been assisted by his brother John. Tlie 
dispensary, however, did not succeed, and the 
doctor died some years after in obscurity. Arm- 
strong possessed a glowing imagination and a 
lively fancy, chastened, at times, by the guidance 
of a sound judgment, and a well regulated taste. 
Of his ' Art of Preserving Health,' Dr. Aikin, 
in his Critical Essay prefixed to Cadell and 
Davis' edition of his works published in 1796, 
says, " The manner of Ai'mstrong is distinguished 
by its simplicity, by a free use of words wliich 
owe their strength to their plainness, by the re- 
jection of ambitious ornaments, and a near ap- 
proach to common phraseology. His sentences 
are generally short and easy, his sense clear and 
obvious. The full extent of his conceptions is 
taken in at the first glance, and there are no lofty 
mysteries to be unravelled by repeated perusal. 
What keeps his language from being altogether 
prosaic, is the vigour of his sentiments. He thinks 
boldly, feels strongly, and therefore expresses him- 
self poetically. Where the subject sinks, his style 
sinks with it; but he has for the most part exclud- 
ed topics incapable either of vivid description oi 
of the oratory of sentiment. He had from nature 
a musical ear, whence his lines are never harsh. 




ami iire usuallj' melodious, though apparently ivitli- 
out iiuich study to render them sniootli. Perhaps 
he has not been careful enough to avoid the mono- 
tony of making several successive lines close with 
a rest or pause in the sense. Ou the whole, it mjiy 
not be too much to assert, that no writer in blank 
verse can be found more free from stiffness and 
atfeotation, more energetic without harshness, and 
more dignified without formality." In Thomson's 
' Castle of Indolence,' to which he contributed 
four stanzas, at the conclusion of the first part, 
describing the diseases incidental to sloth, he is 
depicted as the shy and splenetic person.ige who 
" quite detested talk." The following is the stanza : 

"With liim was sometimes joined in silent walk, 

(Profoundly silent, for they never spoke) 
One shyer still, who quite detested t.ilk ; 

Oft stung by spleen, at once aw.iy he broke. 
To groves of pine and broad o'ershadowing oidv. 

There, inly thrilled, he wandered .ill alone. 
And on himself his pensive fm'y wroke : 

Nor never uttered word, save, when first shone 
The glittering star of eve — ' Thank heaven ! the day is 

A portrait of Dr. Armstrong is here given, taken 
liT)m an engraving by Fisher from a painting by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

A list of Dr. Armstrong's works is subjoined. 

An Essay for abridging the stndy of Medicine ; to whii-li It 
added, .\ Dialogue between Ilygeia. Mcri-urj', and IMuto; re- 
lating to the Practice of Physic, a.s it ia managed by a certain 
illustrious Society, as also an Kpistlo from I'ubcch, thi) Per- 
sian, to .Joshua Ward, Esq. Loud. 1735, 8vo, (anon). 

Synopsis of tho history and cure of tho Venereal Dueue. 
Lond. 1737, 8vo. 

The Kcononiy of Love. I.ond. \~^7^ 8vo. 

Art of preserving Health, a poem. Lond. 1744, 4to, 1745, 
8vo., numerous editions, with a critical essay, by l>r. Alkin, 

Benevolence, a poem. 1751, fol. An excellcn' production. 

Taste, an epistle to a young Critic. 1753. A pretty 
successful imitation of Pope. 

Sketches, or Essays on various subjects. 1758. 

Day, a poem. 1761. 

Miscellanies, containing the art of presen'ing Health. 
Lond. 1770, 2 vols. 12mo. 

A short ramble through some parts of France and Italy, by 
Lancelot Temple. Lond. 1771, 8vo. 

Medical Ess.ays. Lond. 1773. 4to. These treat of Theoiy, 
Medicine, Instruments of Physic, Fevers, Blisterings, Cordials, 
Ventilation, Bathing, Lodging, &c., and, lastly. Gout and 

An Essay on Topic Medicines. Ed. Mod. Ess. ii. p. 36. 

ARMSTRONG, John, a miscellaneous writer, 
was born at Leith in 1771, and educated at the 
college of Edinburgh, where he took tlie degree of 
M.A. During his attendance at the university he 
published a volume of ' Juvenile Poems,' some ol 
which possessed considerable merit. The same 
volume contained an ' Essay on tho 
Means of Punishing and Preventing 
Crimes.' For this essay he had, in Jan- 
nary 1789, a few months before, received 
the gold prize medal, given by the Edin- 
burgh Pantheon Society for the best 
,-ii^ specimen of prose composition. Some 

time previous to this he had entered him- 
self at the divinity hall, and gone 
through tlie greater part of the exercises 
necessary to qualify him to become a 
preacher in the Churclf of Scotland. In 
1790 he repaired to London, and sup- 
ported himself by writing for the daily 
papers. In 1791 he published a collec- 
tion of ' Sonnets from Sliakspeare.' Ho 
also preached occasionally, and was rising 
in reputation, when he was cut off, in 
J.797, in tlie 2Cth year of his age. 
The following is a list of his works : 

Juvenile Poems; with remark* on Poetry, and 
a dissei-tation on the best method of Punishing and Prevent 
ing Crimes. Lond. 1780, 12ino. 




Cocfldential Letters from the Sorrows of Werter. Lend. 
1799, 12mo. 
Sonnets from Shakspeare. Lond. 1731, 8vo. 

Arnot, a siimamc derived from the lands of Arnot in the 
county of Fife. In Sibbald's List of the heritors of Fifeshire, 
published in 1710, we tind the names, as landholders of that 
county, of Arnot of that ilk, Aniot of Woodmiln, Arnot of 
Balkidthlie, Aniot of Balcormo, Arnot of Cliapel-Kettle, Ar- 
not of Freeland, Arnot of Lumwhat, and Arnot of Benyhole. 
Sir John jVmot of Bei-wick, of the family of Araot, was pro- 
vost of Edinburgh, and treasurer depute to King James the 
Sixth. The lands of Chapel, in the pai-ish of Kettle, have 
long belonged to a family of the name of Arnot. Upon the 
Last day of December 1558, James, commendator of the priory 
of St. Andrews, disponed the cliurch lands called Chapel- 
Kettle to John Arnot and his heirs, declaring that he .and his 
progenitors had been possessors of these lands past the me- 
mory of man. [Sibbald's History <if Fife, p. 385.] 

Sir Michael Arnot of Arnot, in the county of Perth, the 
descendant of a very ancient Fifeshire family, designated of 
that ilk so early as the r2th centui7, was created a baronet 
by Charles the First, 27th July 1629. His son and heir, Sk 
David Arnot, second bai-onet, was member of the Scots par- 
liament for Kinross, in 1689. He was the father of Sir John 
Arnot, the third baronet, who, having devoted himself early 
to a militaiy life, was appointed, in 1727, adjutant-general 
of Scotland. In 1735 he was promoted to the rank of briga- 
dier-general, and m 1739 to that of major-general. He died 
June 4, 1750, a lieut.-general. His eldest son, Sir John Ar- 
not, 4th hart., was succeeded by his son. Sir William Arnot, 
5th bart., lieut. -colonel of the Queen's regiment of dragoon 
guards, who died in 1782, leaving a son. Sir William Arnot, 
(Ith and last baronet.-[S«r/:€'s Extinct and Dormant Baron- 
ttagea.'] Title dormant. See Supplement. 

In Perthshii-e there was a family of the name of Arnot of 
Benchill, who for a long time were provosts of Perth. 

ARNOT, Hugo, an antiquarian writer and 
local historian, was tlie son of a merchant and 
shipowner in Leith, whore he was born on the 8th 
December 1749. His own name was Pollock, but 
on the death of his mother, December 5, 1773, at 
her house in Fifeshire, he changed it to Arnot, on 
obtaining, through her right, the estate of Balcor- 
mo in Fife. He was educated for the law, and in 
December 1772 he was admitted a member of the 
faculty of advocates, under the name of ' Hugo 
Arnot, Esq. of Balcormo.' Having in his fifteenth 
year caught a severe cold, he was ever after 
afflicted with painful asthma, which reduced him 
almost to a skeleton, and which any exertion al- 
ways aggravated. In 1776 he published at Lon- 
don in 12nio, ' An Essay on Nothing,' a discourse 
delivered in the Edinburgh Speculative Society, 
which was favourably received. Of that society 
ilr. Arnot was admitted a member January 3, 
1770, and, besides the Essay on Nothing, he deliv- 
ered others on the following subjects: The Com- 

parative Happiness of the Polished and Baibaioaa 
State; Whether a man would be most happy in 
retiring from or continuing in business after mak- 
ing a competent fortune ; Foundation of the In- 
equality among Mankind ; Literary Property ; 
Nature and end of Punishments ; and the Neces- 
sity of Mankind living in Society, and the advan- 
tages of it, which was his valedictory essay. [Hist 
of Speculative Society, p. 99.] In 1779 appeared 
his ' History of Edinburgh,' one vol. 4to, a work 
of much research. He was prevented, however, 
from deriving much pecuniary benefit fi-om it, by 
a piratical edition having been printed at Dublin, 
and sent over to Edinburgh and sold at a cheap 
rate. Taking a strong interest in local matters, 
he afterwards published various pamphlets and 
essays of a temporary nature ; and his exertions 
in promoting the improvements then in progress in 
Edinburgh, were rewarded by the freedom of the 
city being conferred upon him by the magistrates. 
From his great local influence he is said to have 
been able to protract the erection of the South 
Bridge of Edinburgli for ten years, by his opposi- 
tion to the proposed tax upon carts to defray the 
expense. He was also instrumental in preventing 
the formation of the spacious road called Leith Walk 
for some years, on account of the putting on a toll, 
which, however, was done, and not removed tUl 
about 1837. In 1785 came out his ' Collection of 
celebrated Criminal Trials in Scotland, from 1536 
to 1784, with Historical and Critical Remarks,' one 
vol. 4to, published by subscription. In Decem- 
ber 1784 he issued an advertisement of the work, 
with the following notice appended to it, from 
which it would appear that he and the Edinburgh 
booksellers were not on the best of terms : " Mr. 
Arnot printed, a few days ago, a prospectus of the 
work that the public might form some idea of its 
nature, and he sent it to be hung up in the princi- 
pal booksellers in town ; but they have thought 
proper to refuse, in a body, to allow the prospec- 
tus and subscription papers to hang in their shops. 
The prospectus will, therefore, be seen at the Roy- 
al Exchange Coffee house. Exchange Coffee house. 
Princes street Coffee house, and Messrs. Corri and 
Sutherland's Music shop, Edinburgh, and Gibe's 
Coffee house, Leith." The work is curious of ita 
kind, but is not no fuh nor so valuable as Pitoa'rn'a 




collection of Criminal Trials, a more recent publi- 
cation. Mr. Arnot died on 20tli November 1786, 
aged 37, and was interred in South Lcitli cliurcli- 
yard, in a piece of ground presented to him before 
his death by the magistrates of his native town. 
For several weeks previous to his death ho regu- 
larly visited his appointed burial-place, to observe 
the progress of some masons whom he had em- 
ployed to wall it in, and frequently expressed a 
fear that he would die before they should have 
completed his work. Mr. Arnot was of great 
height, and extraordinary thinness. The follow- 
ing is a full-length portrait of him as he appeared 
! in the dress of his time taken by Kay. He is re- 
presented giving alms to a beggar, a sly piece of 
satire on the part of the artist. 

His person altogetlier was so remarkable that it 
was the source of many jests and witticisms. It 
is related that the Honourable Henry Erskine 
meeting him once while engaged eating a dried 
haddock or spelding, complimented him "on look- 
ing so like his meat !" Discussing with the same 
wit on the disposition of the Deity to pardon the 
sins of the flesh, and on Hugo expressing his hope 
of forgiveness, Erskine impromptued, — 

" I've searched the whole Scriptures, and tests I find none 
Extending God's mercy to skin and to bone." 

He himself was reputed to be a humorist in 

his way. One day, when suffering severely from 
his complaint, ho was annoyed by the bawling ol 
a man .selling sand on the street. "The rascal," 
said the unhappy astlimatic, " he spends as much 
breath in a minute as would serve me for a month !" 
In his professional character he was no less singu- 
lar. He would not undertake a case, unless thor- 
oughly convinced of its justice. Once when n 
cause was oflored him, of the merits of which he 
had a very bad opinion, he asked the person cm- 
ploying him, " Pray, Sir, what do you suppose me 
to be?" " Why," answered the client, "I under- 
stand you to be a lawyer!" "I thought," said 
Arnot, sternly, "you took me for a scoundrel!" 
and dismissed the litigaut with indignation. Va- 
rious stories are told of his intrepidity of mind 
in early life. One of these was his riding to the 
end of the pier of Leith on a spirited horse, on a 
stormy day, when the waves were dashing over 
the pier so furiously as to impress every on- 
looker with the belief that he could not fail to be 
swept into the sea. Leith pier, it must be re- 
marked, was then neither so extended nor so well 
bulwarked as it is now, and consequently this feat 
was one of great danger. Another was his accept- 
ing the challenge of an anonymous enemy who 
took offence at one of his political pamphlets, and 
wrote to him to meet him in the King's Park at a 
particular time and place, to answer for his state- 
ments. INIr. Arnot repaii'ed to the spot at the ap- 
pointed hour, and waited for some time, but no 
antagonist came forward. His purpose in going 
might not have beeu to expose his person in a 
duel, but to ascertain who was his unknown chal- 
lenger. Though recorded as a proof of his intre- 
pidity, we do not see in this occurrence any strik- 
ing mark of moral courage. A sensible man would 
have paid no attention to such a letter, which 
appears to have been intended merely as a hoax. 
Of a nervous and irritable disposition, he was guilty 
of many eccentricities which rendered him one o( 
the most remarkable local characters of his time. 
Among other anecdotes the following is related of 
him, which does not say much for his urbanity or 
neighbourly feeling. He was in the habit of ring- 
ing his bell with a violence which much annoyed 
an old maiden lady, in a weak state of health, who 
resided on the floor above him. Of tiliis aooov- 




ance she frequently complained, but without effect. 
At length, wearied with her constant messages, he 
gave her to understand that he should cease to 
use it iu future ; but in the belief that her impor- 
tunities proceeded from mere querulousness, in- 
stead of rinjring the bell as usual, he fired off a 
loaded pistol, whenever he desired the attendance 
of his servant, to the great alarm of the invalid 
upstairs, who now as earnestly besought the res- 
titution of the bell, as she had before requested 
its discontinuance. He left eight children. His 
grandson. Dr. David Boswell Reid, the author 
of 'Elements of Chemistry,* acquired a high 
character as teacher of practical chemistry in the 
university of Edinburgh. Hugo Arnot figm-es as 
a principal personage in Kay's Edinbm-gh Por- 
traits, in which some amusing anecdotes of his 
peculiarities may be found. 

Arran, earl of, one of the secondary titles of the duke of 
Hamilton, [see Hamilton, diike of,] derived from the island 
of that name in the frith of Clyde. In Gaelic it is pronounced 
Arrinn, that ia, 'the island of sharp pinnacles,' from, accord- 
ing to Dr. Macleod, Ar, 'a land' or 'country,' and nVm, 
' sharp points j' an etymology far more satisfactory than that 
i}^ Ar-fhin, 'the land,'or'the field of Fion,'(Fingal); or from 
Aran^ 'bread,' as denoting extraordinaiy fertility, which is 
by no means a chai'acteristic of this island. The title of earl 
of Arran was first confeiTed on Sir Thomas Boyd, eldest son 
of Robert lord Boyd, [see Kiljiarnock, earl of,] in April 
t467. on his marriage with the Princess Marj', eldest daugh- 
ter of James the Second. He was attainted and forfeited in 
1469, and died soon after. The princess mairied, a second 
time, in 1474, James, first lord Hamilton, to whom she had 
been betrothed in 1454, and their son James was, in August 
1503, created earl of Arran. The title was afterwards be- 
stowed on Captain James Stewart of Bothwellmuir, the se- 
cond son of Andrew, lord Ochiltree, [see Ochiltree, lord,] 
whose mother Lady Margaret Hamilton, was the only child 
of James first earl of Arran, by his first wife Beatrice Drum- 
mond. He entered the army of the states of Holland, and 
served some years against the Spaniards. On his return to 
Scotland in 1579, he obtained the favour of James the Sixth, 
who, a few days after his appearance at com-t, appointed him 
a gentleman of his bedchamber, a privy councillor, captain of 
his guard, and tutor to the third earl of Arran of the Hamil- 
ton family, who by a shameful abuse of law had been impri- 
soned by order of the regent Morton, and was afterwards 
cognosced as an idiot. It was on the accusation of the king's 
new favourite, Capt. Stewart, that the earl of Morton was 
tried, convicted, and beheaded, for being accessary to the death 
of Lord Damley. For five years he possessed the whole power 
of the government, and in 1584 was appointed lord high chan- 
cellor and lieutenant of the kingdom. In 1581 he obtained 
from the king a grant of the baronies of Hamilton and Kin- 
niel, and the other estates of the Hamilton family. In Octo- 
ber of the same year, under the pretence that he was the 
lawful heir of the family, and that the children of the third 
marriage of the fii'st earl of Arran were illegitimate, he was 
creat«d earl of Arran, which dignity he held, along with the 

estates, until his disgrace in 1585, when they were restored 
to the true owner. About the end of 1596, as he was riding 
homeward through Symington, near Douglas in Lanarkshire, 
he was unexpectedly attacked by Sir James Douglas of Park- 
head, nephew of the regent Morton, who, in revenge for the 
death of his uncle, killed him on the spot. His body was 
exposed to dogs and swine, and his head being cut off was 
carried on the point of a lance, in triumph through the coun 
try. He married, 6th July 1581, Lady Elizabeth Stewart, 
eldest daughter of John, foiirth earl of Athol, who had been 
twice previously married, and by her had Sir James Stewart 
of Killeith, Lord Ochiltree, [see Ochiltree, Lord,] and ano- 
ther son. 

Arkan, earl of, is also an Irish title, created in 1762, and 
possessed by a family of the name of Gore, properly earl of 
the Arr-\j^ Islands in Galway. 

ARRAN, Earl of, see Hamilton, James. 

Arthur, a surname derived from Ari-uir, signifjnng the 
chief or great man ; hence the renowned Welsh prince, King 
Arthiu", whose achievements have formed the subject of so 
much romantic fiction, and whose name has been traditional- 
ly given to various places in Scotland, as well as in England 
and Wales. " It cannot easily be discovered," says Stoddart, 
"why several mountains in Scotland take their name from 
the Welsh prince, Arthur, of whom no other traces remain in 
this countiy ; but it appears that they have been traditionally 
considered as places of sovereignty. Thus it is said that Ben 
Arthur (a lofty mountain-crag in the wilds of Glencroe, Ar- 
gj-lesliire), being, at one period, the most elevated and con- 
spicuous of the mountains in the domain of the Campbells, 
the heir to tliat chieftainship was obliged to seat himself on 
its loftiest peak, a task of some diflllculty and danger, which, 
if he neglected, his lands went to the next relation sufficiently 
adventm-ous." Arthur's Seat in the immediate neighbourhood 
of Edinburgh is said to have taken its name from King Ar- 
thur having surveyed the country from its summit, previous 
to the eleventh battle which he fought against the Saxons, in 
the sixth century, and which, according to Whittaker, was 
decided on the castle -hill of Edinburgh. FSnkerton says 
that the name arose from the tournaments held near it, as 
did Arthur's round-table at Stirling, Arthur being quite popu- 
lar in the centuries of chivalry and romance, [^Enquiry into 
the nistory of Scotland^ vol. i. p. 77, note]\ but there cannot 
be a question that the name of Arthur's Seat, .as applied to 
the height immediately beside the palace of Holyrood, the 
residence of Scotland's later kings, meant no more than the 
hill of the chief or sovereign of the whole country, without 
any reference at all to King Arthur of Welsh history. The 
same may be said of all the other places in Scotland to which 
his name has oeen given, and of which Chalmers in his Cale- 
donia [vol. i. p. 244] has collected many notices. Arthur's 
fountain in the parish of Crawford, Clydesdale, is referred to 
in a grant made in 1239 by David de Lindsey to the monks 
of Newbottle, of the lands of Broth er-alw^m in that district, 
as being bounded on the west, '■^ a fonte Arthuri vsque ad 
sumniitatem montis." \^Cart. Newbottle^ No. 148.] This, 
however, may only mean the fountain of the chief or great 
man of the district. The Welsh poets assign a palace to Ar- 
thur among the northern Britons at Peni-yn ryoneth, corre 
sponding to Dumbarton castle, which, as appears from a par 
liamentary record of the reign of David the Second in 1367, 
was, long before, named Ccistmtm Arthuri. But this might 
mean only the castle or fort of the chief or sovereign The 
romantic castle of Stirling was equally, during the middle 
ages, supposed to have been the festive scene of Arthur's 

Indmt mml^Bm% nf feciDikwIi. 

dEarlbom of gitliolf. (Srrttrb h^ Jing (JEbgar. 

(1) DoNALn Bank. 

I. f tilt of |lnntan |., $ing of Stotlanb. 


(2) LuiK OF UUNCAM II. (I) Gbanddaughteks. 

2 3 4 12 

S. Malcolm, 

loll of 
Duiicmi II,, 
jTraiiHsoii of 
Mnleolm HI. 
of Duiic&ii L 


G. Henry de 

(Ostiarius Rtfjis) 

ill right of 

his «'tfe. 
eldest daughter 
of (lece.Tsed sou 

01" Henry. 

Mo issue. 

(1) Gkanddavghters. 
3 4 

2d, line of henry, 4th EARL. 

(2) Line of STitATHBooiE and Hastinos. 
2&3 4 

& Thomu de 


in ri^ht of 

Isabel, liis wife, 

her sister, died 

In I23L 

No Issue 


II. Campbcli 

9 Jotin de' 
StraililKJgle, : 
(crandson of . 
Miic^lurT. tJth 
earl of Fife,) 
in riiflit of 

his wife. Adda, 
dan;^hier of 

Oavid. 8t]i carl. 

III. Joujias. 

12. David, his 


died under 



Titular Earls. 
18 David, 90D 

of I2ih earl. 
slain in battle, 
30th Nov 1335. 

14. David, his 

died Oct 137J> 

IV. S,itbnxi, |logaI $iiw. 
1 2 

Sir J. -I. J. Ctuii(v 
bell.'f Moulin, 

ne|»lip*v (It 

Rolierl Ilrnce. 

oreitttd ill rci?n 

Of Diivid n,, 

kil)<-d l:i33. 

at HsilidotdiilL 

No i!>aue. 

WilllfllH Ooilf!- 

las.Lordof Ud- 

disdsle. created 

l.y Dnvt.l II„ 

resi<;iieil |:j4l, 

ill litvour of 

Robert tlie 

Great Steward. 

L John, son of 

Sir James 

Siewnri of 

I»ni, and 

of widoff of 

Jainea L, 

creaie<l 1457, 

died 1512. 

Stitoart J['iiu of ^ont. 

2&3 4 

i. Walter, hfs 

second son, 

by Enph Itosa, 

alMMit I4U3. 

behffndcd for 


James I. 1437 


VL Sttinart ^iiu of Inmmuat^ 
1 2 

2. John, his 

eh'est 8on, 

killed at 

Fioildcn. 1513. 

J<diii. his 

1. John, Lord j 


2. Jamss, 


their son. 



Countess of " 

without issuer 

Alhnle. f 


, CTP-ted 1696. 


William Murray, 

'2d e«rl of 


which re!*ig:ned. 

for elder enrldoni, 

revived in right 

of liis wife. 

VII. glarran '^int of Cullibarbiiu, anb Stttoari of ^orn. 

Lady Dorothea 


eldi'st djiujrliter 

of John. Sih earl 

of Atlinle: but 

di'cd before 

pnlfeiii was 


X. John, their son, 

got earldom 

confirmed to 

him in rin:ht of 

irnther. 1629. 

Died 1642. 

2. John, his son. 
Justice General 

of .Scotbmd, 
succeeded to earl- 
dom of Tiitli- 
banline, J«70. 

3. John, hia sod, 

(2d Marquis.) 

created Duka, 


One of the 

Commissioners of 

the Union. 1707. 

5. John, hla 


3d Duke, 

(eon ot Ld. Geo. 

Murray. 1745.) 

By Ilia wife and 

cousin. Lord 

of Man. 

4. James, his 8(1 
son, and (by at- 
taintment of ids 
brotlier) 2J Duke. 
By his tfrand- 
mother. (beire.<s 
of Stanley. EafI 
Derby.) Lord 
St ran ire. 
Died x764. 

6. John, his eldest 

son. 4th Duke. 

(Earl Strange and 

Baron Murray. 

in United Kin||> 

dom. 1786.) 



Qoarterilieb:-!. for Murr.ny. 2. I^.rd of Man. 3. (\ A 4) for Stanley. <-2 A 3) fof StraDge. 
4. a A 4) for Stewart, (2 A 3) for Ancient Earldum of Alhole. 




round table. " J^ex Arthu7'vs" says William ()f Worcester, 
in liis ItineniiT, p. 311, '■'■ cmtodlehit /c nnirul-tnhle in cnstro 
rfe Sfyrlt/iig^ aliter^ Snowdon-west-casteU. " Sir Da\'id Lind- 
Faj, in his ' Complaint' of the Papingo, makes lier taku leave 
of Stirling castle thus : 

" Adew, fair Snawdoiin, wUh thy toiiris lilc. 
Thy cli.ipeU myall, park, and tabill round." 

In Neilston parish, Renfrewslnre, there are three places of the 

name of Arthur-lee. The ancient monumoTit of Arthur's Oven, 

or ' Oon/ on the Carron, which was demolished many years ago, 

was known by that name as early as the reign of Alexander 

the Third, if not earher. Arthur's Seat near Edinburgh is 

not the only hill which bears tlie name. Not far from the toj) 

of Loch Long, that separates Arg}de and Dumbarton, there 

is a conic^il hill also culled Arthur's Scat, which is lil:ewise 

tlie name given to a rock, on the nortli side of the hill of 

I Dunban'ow in the parish of Dunnichcn, Forfarshire. In the 

j parish of Cupai'-Angus, Perthshu'c, there is a standing stone 

j Cnilled the Stone of Arthur; near it is a gentleman's seat called 

Arthm'-stone, and not far from it is a farm named Arthur's 

' fold. At Meigle, in the same vicinity, some antique and cn- 

I nous monimients in the churchyard are associated by tradition 

\vitli the name of the fabulous King Arthm-'s faithless queen, 

; Vanora, Guenevra, or Ginevi-a. Arthur is, besides, tlie appa- 

j rent founder of a numerous clan, whose antiquity is proverbial 

! among the Highlanders. 

j ARTHUR, Archibald, professor of moral plii- 
losophy in the university of Glasgow, eldest son 
of Andrew Arthur, a farmer, was born at Abbot'^s- 
Inch, Renfrewshire, September 6, 1744. He was 
taught Latin at the grammar school of Paisley, 
and studied for the ministry at Glasgow college, 
where, when yet a student, he lectured on church 
history for a whole session, during the absence of 
the professor, to the great satisfaction and im- 
provement of the class. In October 17G7 he Avas 
licensed as a preacher of the Church of Scotland, 
and soon after became chaplain to the university 
of Glasgow, and assistant to the Rev. Dr. Craig, 
one of the clergymen of that city. Becoming also 
librarian to the university, he compiled the cata- 
logue of that library. In 1780 he was appointed 
assistant and successor to the venerable Dr. Reid, 
professor of moral philosophy, who died in 1796. 
Mr. Arthur taught the class fifteen years as assist- 
ant, and only held the chair as professor for one 
session, as he died on l-ith June 1797. In 1803, 
Professor Richardson, of the same university, pub- 
lished a part of Arthur's lectures, under the title 
of ' Discourses on Theological and Literary Sub- 
ects,* 8vo, with a sketch of his life and character. 

Aston, lord, a title in the peerage of Scotland, now ex- 
w^nct, possessed by a noble family of the same name, which 
originally belonged to the county of Stafford in England, the 
progenitor of which was Randal or Uanulph de Astona, who 

lived in the reign of Edward the First \\U ileBcemhint, Su 
Kilward Aston of Tixull, in the reicn of Qiu>4>n Kli/jilH'th 
possessed estates of the value of ten thousantl a-yi-ar, in tlu 
counties of Staflbrd, nciby, Leicester, and Warwick. Hi 
married Anne, only danghtiT of Sir Thomas I.ucy of Charlv 
cot, and died in InOH. His eldest son, Sir Witltcr ANton, nt 
the coronation of James the First of Knghuul, wiw honoured 
with the order of the liath, and in IGU he created a 
baronet. In 1()'22 he was employed to negoi-iato a nmrriage 
helween Charles, prince of Wales, afterwards CliarleA the 
Fii-st, and the Infanta of Spain; and» in requital for his ser- 
\'ices upon that occasion, he was elevated to the peerage 'J*<tli 
November 1627, as Lord Aston of Forfar. He married <Jer- 
tnule, only daughter of Sir Thonnis Sadler of Staudon, son 
of the celebrated Sir Ralph Sadler, and died in 1*389. He 
supported Michael Drayton the poet for many years, and Ins 
seat of Tixall is noticed in his ' Polyolhion.' At his investi- 
ture as knight of the Bath in 1003, Drayton, who has dedi- 
cated several of his poems to this Lord Aston, acted as oneol 
his esipiu'cs. The title became extinct on 21st .lanuar)' 
lR-15, on the death without issue of the Rev. Walter Ilut- 
chinson-Aston, ninth baron Aston, a clergyman of the church 
of England, vicar of Tardebigg, WurcesttTshire, and of Tam- 
worth, Warwickshire. The motto of the family was " A'wmiHf 
et Patnce Asfo." The title does not appear on the Union 
Roll ; but the eighth baron Aston, the father of" the lust lord, 
was recognised as a peer by George the Third. 

Athol, Atholl, or Atiiole, earis of, an ancient title 
formerly possessed by the royal family of Scotland, subse- 
quently in right of marriatre by Thomas de Galloway and hi' 
son, and after him by David de Hastings, afterwards by the 
Strathbogie family, then after being held by a Campbitll and 
a Douglas, it was conferred on a scion of the royai house oi 
Stewart, and through a second creation in the house of Stew 
art., it came latterly to be possessed by a branch of th 
noble family of Murray, who spelt their 'lame Moray till the 
year 173D, a.d. It is the name of a mountainons and 
romantic district in the north of Perthshire. It was the 
oriffinal patrimony of the family which prave kings to Scot- 
land from Duncan to Alcxantler the Third; and It Is the 
earliest district in Scotland mentioned in histoiy. The name 
signifies ' pleasant land,* and Blah* of Athol, its principal 
valley, 'the field or vale of Athol' "Its chief interest," 
says Skene, " arises from the strong presumption which ex- 
ists that the family which gave a long line of kings to Scot- 
land, from the eleventh to the fourteenth century, took theii 
origin from this district, to which they can be traced befort 
the mairiage of their ancestor with the daughter of MiiUohn 
the Second raised them to the throne." [^Ifistoty of the 
Ilujhlanders^ vol. 11. p. 127.] When Thorfinn, the Jsorvvc- 
gian eari of Orkney, conquered the north of Scotland, in the 
early part of the eleventh century, the only portion of the 
temtory of the Northcm Picts which remained unsubdued 
was the district of Athol and part of Argj'le. The lord of 
the Isles had been slain in an unsucce/isful attempt to pre- 
seiTe Ins insular dominions, and the king of the Scots, witli 
the whole of his nobility, had also fallen in the short but 
bloody campaign which preceded the Nonvegian conquest. 
In their disastrous condition the Scots had recoui-sc to Dun- 
can, the son of, abbot of Dunkcld, by Beatrice, the 
daughter of Malcolm the Second, the last Scottish king 
Duncan came to the vacant throne in 1034, but after a rcigii 
of six ve;ir9, he was slam m an nttomjit to recover the uur- 
theni districts from the Norwegians, and hLs sons were drivri 
oitt by Macbeth, who for a tim* ruled over the soutb. wliiW 




the Norwegians possessed the north of Scotland. After the 
overtlirow of Macheth, 5th December, 1056, and the estab- 
lifiluncnt of Malcohn Canmore on the throne, the Lowlands 
of Scotland were, according to the Saxon polity, divided into 
aarldoins, all of wliich were granted to the different members 
of the roval family. These earldoms consisted of the countiy 
inhabited by the Scots, with the addition of the district of 
Athol ; anil from this circumstance it has, not unreasonably, 
been presmned tliat Athol was the original possession of tliis 
royal race. This is further contirmed by the designation 
which early Scottish liistorians apply to Crinan, the father of 
Duncan. Besides being abbot of Dunkehl, he is styled by 
fordun, '•'■ AhtJmnus de Dull ac SeneschaUiis Insularum" 
(Abthane of Dull and steward of the Isles). Pinkerton has 
denied that such a title as Abthane was ever knonTi or heard 
of; but Mr. Skene has most conclusively shown, not only 
that there was such a title as Abthane in Scotland, but that 
the veiy title of Abthane of Dull, which is the name of a dis- 
trict in Athol, existed until comparatively a late period. 
[^Skene^s History of the Highlanders, vol, ia. part 2, chap. 5.] 
See Abthane, ante, p. 16. 

By King Eiigar, the whole of Athol, except Breadalbane, 
was erected into an earldom, and confeiTcd upon his cousin 
Madach, the son of King Donald Bane. Madach married a 
daughter of Haco, earl of Orkney. He was a witness to the 
foundation charter of Alexander the First, of the monastery of 
Scone, in 1114. and he was himself afterwards a benefactor 
to the abbey. On the death of Madach towards the end of 
the reign of Da^id the Fii'st, the eai'ldoni of Athol was ob- 
tained by Malcolm the son of Dimciin, the eldest son of Mal- 
colm Canmore, by Ingioborge, the widow of Thorfinn, earl of 
Orkney, whose descendants were excluded from the throne 
by that king's younger sons. The eai-ldom was thus bestow- 
ed on Malcolm, as Sk.'ne says, "either," because the exclusion 
of that family from the throne could not deprive them of the 
original property 5f the family, to which they were entitled to 
succeed, or as a compensation for the loss of the crown." 
\nist. of Highlanders, vol. ii. p. l39.] His son Malcolm, 
the third earl of Athol, gave in pm'e alms to the monks of 
Scone the church of Logen Mabed, with four chapels there- 
unto belonging, and to the abbey of Dunfermline the tithes 
of the ciiurch of Moulin. He also made a donation to the 
priory of St. Andrews of the patronage of the church of Dull. 
His son Henry succeeded to the earldom, and on his death, 
in the beginning of the thirteenth century, his granddaugh- 
ters, by his eldest son who predeceased hhn, canied it into 
the families of Galloway and Hastings. 

The eldest of these gi'anddaughters (erroneously stated by 
Douglas in his Peerage to have beun the daughters of Earl 
Henr\') married Alan de Lundin, Osttarius Regis, who in her 
right became fifth earl of Athol, and who died without is- 
sue. Her next sister, Isabel, mairied Thomas de Gallondia, 
the brother of Alan lord of Galloway, and in her right be- 
came sixth earl of Athol. He died in 1231. His son Pa- 
trick, seventh earl of Athol, was the youth who overthrew W. 
Bisset at a tournament on the English borders, and was miu"- 
dered at Haddington in 1242 (see ante, life of Alexander II., 
p. 75). Feraehth, the youngest of Eaid Henrj-'s gi'and- 
daughters, succeeded her nephew. Earl Patrick, as countess 
of Athol. She married Da%-id de Hastings, an Anglo-Norman, 
descended from the steward of William the Conqueror, and he, 
in her right, became the eighth earl. He was one of the 
guarantees of the treaty of peace between Alexander the Sec- 
ond and Henry the Thu-d in 1244. [See ante, p. 77.] In 
1268 he accompanied other Scottish barons in an expedition 
to the Holy Land, and died at Tuuis the following veui". His 

daughter Adda married John de Strathbogie, who in hei 
right became ninth earl of Athol. The grandfather of thk 
John of Strathbogie, Duncan eai'l of Fife, had obtained the 
lands of Strathbo^e, in Aberdeenshire, from King William 
the Lion. He settled them on his third son, Da^id, who as- 
sumed his name fi'om these lands, and was the father of the 
eighth earl of Athol. The son of the latter, David de Strath- 
bogie, became the tenth earl of Athoi, and was the father o' 
John, eleventh earl, who was one of the chief associates of Ro- 
bert the Bruce, and assisted at his coronation at Scone, 27th 
Mai'ch, 1306. He fought on Bmce's side at Methven, and 
on his discomfiture accompanied him during his disastrous 
flight. After the sun-ender of the castle of Kiltlrummy the 
same year, he was seized by the forces of Edward in at- 
tempting to escape by sea, and conducted to London. Being 
condemned to death in Westminster Hall, 7th Novembei 
1306, he was executed the same day, on a gallows thirty feet 
higher than ordinary, in consequence of his royal descent. 

The earldom of Athol was then forfeited and bestowed on 
Ralph de Monthermer, styled earl of Gloucester, who, how- 
ever, rehnquished his title to it for 5,000 merks, in favour of 
David de Strathbogie, son of the deceased earl. This David, 
the twelfth earl, had from King Robert the Bi-uce, the office 
of high constable of Scotland, as appears fi'ora a charter ol 
that monarch 26th February 1312, where he i£ so designat- 
ed. Two ye;u*s after, however, he revolted against Bmce, 
whereupon his office of high constable was given to Gilbert 
de la Haye, and Athol's estates in Scotland were forfeited. 
He married Joan, daughter of John Cumyn of Badenoch, 
killed by Bruce at Dumfries in 1306, with whom he got 
great estates in England. He died in 1327, leaving a son. 
Da\'id, who was sti/Ied thirteenth earl of Athol. 

Along with other forfeited Scottish barons this David ac- 
companied Edward Baliol into Scotland in 1332, and had a 
considerable share in achie^Tng the victory over the Scots at 
Dupplin, 12th August of that year. He was now restored 
to his paternal inheritance and title. In 1334 Edward Ba- 
liol bestowed on him the whole estates of the steward of Scot- 
land; but the same year, the earl of Moray, regent of Scot- 
land, compelled him to sun'ender, when he swore allegiance 
to David the Second, the lawful king. Being in consequence 
denounced as a rebel by Edward the Third, he was fain, on 
the invasion of Scotland by that monarch in July 1335, to 
agree to a treaty of peace, and make his submission to Ed- 
ward, on which he was again received into favour with the 
Enghsh king, and had the ofhce of govemor of Scotland con- 
ferred upon him under Baliol, when he acted very insolently 
and tyrannically towards all the adherents of the family of 
Bruce. Having been appointed commander of the English 
forces in the north, with three thousand men he proceeded to 
lay siege to the castle of Kildrummy, the asylum of the roy- 
alists ; but was sui-prised in the forest of Kilblane by the earl 
of March, Sir WilHam Douglas of Liddesdale, and Sir An- 
drew Moray of Bothwell, at the head of eleven hundred men. 
Athol's troops, panic-struck, fled and dispersed ; the earl, 
finding himself abandoned, disdamed quailer, and was slain 
30th November, 1335, in the 28th year of his age. He left a 
son, Da\id, stgled fourteenth earl of Athol, who was only 
tlu-ee years of age at the time of his father's death. He ac- 
companied Edward the Black Prince into France in 1356, 
and was in the subsequent expeditions into Gascony. He 
died 10th October 1375, leaving two daughters. 

When the Celtic earls of Athol became extinct, says 
Skene, and, in consequence, the subordinate clans in the dis- 
trict of Athol assumed independence, the principal piu-t of 
, that district was in the possession of the clan Donnachie or 




Hie Robertsons. [Histon/ of the flit/hlanderSy vol. ii. pp 
139, 140.J Skene states in a note that tlio peerage writci-s 
have been more than usaally iiwccurate in their account of 
the earldom of Athol. From its origin down to the fuurteoiitli 
century, "there is," he says, ''scarcely a single step in the 
genealog)' coiTectly given." 

On the foifeiture of Da^•id, tlie twelfth e:trl, his estates 
were gi-anted to Sir Niel Campbell of Loehow, and Mary Ins 
spouse, sister to King Robert the Bnice, and Sir Jolin 
Campbell of Moulin, their second son ; and tiie latter was 
created earl of Athol. This appears from a chmter of King 
Da\'id the Second to Robert Lord Erskine, of the customs of 
Dundee and third part of Pettarache in Forfarshire, wliich 
some time pertained to John Campbell, earl of Athol, as 
well as from a charter granted by the latter to Roger de 
Mortimer of the lands of Billandre. He was killed in the 
battle of Halidon-hill, 19th July 1333, without issue, wiiere- 
by the title reverted to tlie crown. 

The next possessor of tlie title of earl of Athol was William 
Douglas, eldest son of Sir James Douglas of Laudon, ances- 
tor of the earls of Morton. Not long after the death of the 
above-mentioned John Campbell he had the earldom confer- 
red upon him, but the precise date is unkno\vn. On the IfJth 
February 1341 he resigned his title by charter in favour of 
Robert, great steward of Scotland, and on the latter's acces- 
sion to tlie throne in February 1371, under the name of Ro- 
bert the Second, it became vested in the royal family. Wal- 
ter Stewart, the second son of that mon«rcli by his second 
wife, Euphemia Ross, was the nest earl. He was at first 
earl of Caithness, but afterwards had the earldom of Athol, 
being so designed, 5th June, 1403, in letters of safe-conduct 
by Iving Henry the Fourth, allowing him to pass into his do- 
minions as far as St. Thomas of Canterbury, with a retinue of 
a hundred persons. He had a charter from his brother Ro- 
bert duke of Albany, governor of Scotland, of the barony of 
Cortachy in Forfarshire 22d September 1409. On the 10th 
April 1421 he obtained a safe-conduct to England, to arrange 
as to the restoration to liberty of his nephew James the First, 
which he was very instrumental in accomplishing. He sat 
as one of the jury on the trial of his nephew Murdoch, duke 
of Albany, and his sons, in 1424. [See ante, p. 41. J The 
king conferred upon him the office of great justiciary of 
Scotland, and also gave him the county palatine of Strathem 
for his life, 22d July 1427. Nearly ten years after this he 
engaged in the conspiracy of his kinsman Sir Robert Graham 
against James the First, one of the objects of which was the 
placing of the cro^Ti on the head of Sir Robert Stewart of 
Athol, the earl's grandson. The king was ci'uelly assassi- 
nated in the Blackfriars monastery at Perth by the three 
conspirators, 20th Fel^ruary 1437. The mm-derers were ap- 
prehended, and put to death at Edinburgh with horrible tor- 
tures, in the following April. Before being beheaded, Athol 
was set upon the pillory, and his head encircled with a red- 
hot iron crown, on which was inscribed " The king of traitors." 
His titles and extensive estates were forfeited. 

The title of earl of Athol was conferred, about 1457, on 
Sir John Stewart of Balveny, the eldest son of Sir James 
Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn, and the queen Joanna, 
dowager of James the First, who had cliosen him for her sec- 
ond husband. The earl of Athol's father, the Black Knight 
of Lorn, was the thu-d son of Sir John Stewart of Loni and 
Innermeath, descended from Sir James Stewart, fourth son 
of Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, who was second son of Alex- 
aJider, high steward of Scotland. This earl of Athol was, 
with the earl of Crawford, appointed in 1475 to the command 
of the armament emploved in suDpressing the rebellion of the 

earl of Ross, on which occa.sion he asAumed the nintto, Ktil) 
borne by the Atliol family, of" Furth f.rtnne and till the fet- 
ters," and had a grant of many lands that liad bclongwi tc 
that nobleman, on his resignation of the earldom of Koss and 
the lands of Kintm* and Knapdalo. He also »ct«d a promi- 
nent part in the attempt made in 1480 to reduce to obedience 
Angiis of the Isles, the illegitimate son of the Lord of tha 
Isles, the new title of the earl of Ross. Some time afttT the 
battle of the Bloody Bay, fought in that year in the Lsle of 
Mull between the Island factions, in wliich Angus was \ictor- 
ious, occun-ed the event known in histnn- as the ' liaid of 
Athol.' The earl crossing privately to Islay liad carried off 
the infant son of Angus, C4illed Donald Ihibh, or tlie Black. 
whom he placed in the hands of his maternal grandfather the 
earl of Arg}'le. Angus immediately summoned his adherents 
and sailed to the neighbourhood of Inverlochy, where he left 
his galleys, and with a chosen body of Island warriors made a 
rapid and secret march into the district of Athol, whicii he 
ravaged with fire and sword. The earl and his countess took 
refuge in the chai)el of St. Bride, to which sanctuary many of 
the country people likewise flt-d with their most valualde 
effects. The chapel, however, was \'iolatcd by Angus and his 
followers, who, loaded with plunder, returned to I>ochaber, 
carrying with them the earl and countess of Athol as prisoners. 
In the voyage from Locliaber many of his galleys sunk, and 
much of his plunder was lost in a dreadful storm which ho 
encountered. Beheving this to be a judgment from heaven 
for the violation of the chapel of St. Bride, he was touched 
with fear and remorse, and voluntarily liberated his prisoners, 
without proclu^ng what seems to have been the principal ob- 
ject of his raid into Athol, the recovery of his son. He even 
performed an ignominious penance in the chapel which he liad 
so lately desecrated. 

In 1488 the earl of Athol had a principal command in tho 
army of James III. against his son and the rebel lords, for 
which, on the death of that monarch, he was im))risoned in 
the castle of Dunbar. He died 19th September 1512. By 
his first wife, Lady Margaret Douglas, only daughter of 
Archibald, fifth earl of Douglas, duke of Touraine, the widow 
of the eighth earl of Douglas and the wife of the ninth earl, 
her maniage with whom after his rebellion in 1455 was an- 
nulled, he had two daugliters. By his second wife. Lady 
Eleonora Sinclair, daughter of William earl of Orkney and 
Caithness, he had two sons and nine daughters. John, the 
elder son, second earl of Athol, of tliis new creation, did not 
enjoy the title one year, being killed at Floddon 9th Septem- 
ber, 1513. His son John, the third earl, famous for hii 
great hosjtitality and princely style of living. Pitscottie mi- 
nutely describes a grand himting match and sumptuous en- 
tertainment given by him to King James the Fiflh .and his 
mother and the French ambassador, in 1529. He died in 1542, 
.and was succeeded by his son John, fourth earl of Athol. In 
the parliament of 15()0. with the Ix)rds Bortlnvick and Som- 
en-ille he strongly opposed the Refonnation, saying they 
would believe as their fathers had done before them. Being 
afterwards constituted lord high chancellor of Scotland, he waa 
sworn into office at Stirling, 29th March 1 577. He opposed the 
measures of the regent Morton, and took up arms to rescue 
tlie king from his power, but by the mediation of Bowes the 
Englisli ambassador, an accommodation took place, in Au- 
gust 1578. At a grand entertainment given by Morton, at 
Stirling, to the leaders of the opposite party, in token of rec- 
oncilement, 20th April 1579, Athol, t!ie chancellor, was taketi 
ill, and died foiu- days aftenvards, not without strong suspi- 
cions of his having been poisoned. Ho was twice innrried ; 
the second time to Margaret, third daugliter trf" Mn'oolin 




third loij Fleming, great chamberlain of Scotland, widow of 
Robert master of Montrose, killed at Pinkie, 1547, and of 
Thomas master of Erokine, son of John earl of Mar. Durino; 
her lift-time it was tiie general belief that this countess of 
Athol possessed the powers of sorcery, and it is said that 
when Qncen Mary was confined with James the Sixth, the 
countess cast all llie pains of childbirth upon Lady Hires. If 
80, it must have been by some unknown species of mesmer- 
ism. Their 8on. John, fiftii earl of Athol, was sworn a pnvy 
councillor in 1590, and died at Perth, 28th August 1595, 
without issue male, when the title reverted to the crown. He 
married Lady Mary Kuthven, second daughter of William 
first earl of Gowrio, by whom he had four daughters. His 
count^-ss afterwards became the second vdie of John lord In- 
nermeath. created earl of Athol by James the SLxth, in 1596. 
Ladv Dorothea Stewart, the eldest daughter of John the 
fifth earl and this lady, married William, second earl of Tul- 
libardine, and was the mother of John, created earl of Athol, 
the fii-st of the Murray family who possessed that title as 
afterwards mentioned. Lady Mary, the second daughter 
married James, earl of Athol, the son of her stepfather Lore 
Innermeath, and he d}-ing without male issue, the earldom 
again reverted to the crown. [See Ixnermkath. Lord. ( 

Athol, duke of, a title possessed by a branch of the an- 
cient family of Murray. The progenitor of the Mmray fam- 
ily in Scotland was a Flemish settler in the reign of David 
the First, of the name of Fresldn, who obtained the lands of 
Strathbrock in Linlithgowshire, now called Brocks or Brox- 
burn. A rebellion having broken out in Moray in the year 
1130. he is supposed to have assisted in quelling it, and was 
rewarded with a large traot of land in the lowlands of Sloray, 
where his descendants settled, and in consequence assumed 
the name of de Moravia. From Walter de Moravia de- 
scended the Morays, lords of Bothwell, the Morays of Aber- 
caimey (see Murray, surname of), and Sir W^illiara de 
Moravia, who acquired the lands of Tullibardine, an estate in 
the lower part of Perthshire, with bis wife Adda, daughter of 
Malise. seneschal of Strathem, as appears by charters dated 
in 1282 and 1284. 

His son, Su" Andrew Murray of Tullibardine, who suc- 
ceeded him, was an adherent of Edward Baliol, and contri- 
buted greatly to the decisive victory gained by the latter at 
Dupplin in August 1332, by fixing a stake in a ford in the 
river Earn, through which his amiy marched and attacked the 
Scots. He was taken prisoner at Perth about two months 
afterwards, and immediately put to death for his adherence to 
Baliol. His descendant. Sir William MuiTay of Tullibai-dine, 
succeeded to the estates of his family in 1446. He was sher- 
iff of Perthshire, and in 1458, one of the lords named for the 
administration of justice, who were of the king's daily coun- 
cil. He mai-ried Mai-garet, daughter of Sir John Colquhoun 
of Luss, great chamberlain of Scotland, by whom he had a 
numerous issue. According to tradition they had seventeen 
sons, from whom a great many families of the name of Mur- 
ray are descended. In a curious document entitled "The 
Declaration of George Halley, in Ochterarder, concerning the 
Laurd of TuUibardine's seventeen sons — 1710," it is stated 
that they " lived all to be men, and that they waited all one 
day upon their father at Stiriuig, to attend the k-ing, with 
each of them one servant, and their father two. This hap- 
pening shortly after an act was made by King James the 
Fifth, discharging any persons to travel with great numbers 
of attendants besides then- own family, and having challeno-ed 
the laird of Tullibardine for breaking the said act, he answered 
he brought only his own sons, with their necessary attend- 
ants; with which the king was so weU pleased that he gave 

them small lands in heritage." The ancient Scottish song 
" Cromlet's Lilt," was \^Titten on the supposed inconstancy 
of Miss Helen Murray, commonly called "Fair Helen of Ar- 
doch," granddaughter of Murray of Strewan, one of the sev- 
enteen sons of TulUb:u-dine. She was courted by young 
Chisholm of Cromleck who, dming his absence in France, 
imposed upon by the false representations of a treacherous 
fi-iend, believed that she was faithless to him, and wrote tlie 
affecting ballad called Cromlet's or Cromleck's hit. The lady's 
father, Stirling of Ardoch, had by his wife^ Blargaret Murra) 
a family of no less than thirty-one children, of whom fair 
Helen was one. It is said that James the Sixth, when pass- 
ing from Perth to Stirling in 1617, paid a \'isit to Helen's 
mother, the Lady Ardoch, who was then a widow. Her chil- 
dren were all dressed and drawn up on the lawn to receive 
his majesty. On seeing them the king said, *5Iadam, how 
many are there of thera ?' ' Sire,' she jocosely answered, ' 1 
only want your help to make out the twa chalders !' a chalder 
contains sixteen bolls. The king laughed heartily at the joke, 
and afterwards ate a collop sitting on a stone in the close. 
The youngest son of this exti-aordinaiy family, commonly 
called the Tutoj' of Ardoch, died, in 1715, at the advanced age 
of one hundred and eleven. 

The eldest of Tullibardine's seventeen sons, Sir William 
MmTay of Tullibardine, had, with other issue, Wilham, his 
successor, and Sir Andrew Mmi-ay, ancestor of the viscounts 
Stormont. (See Stormoxt.) His great-grandson, Sir Wil- 
ham MmTay of Tullib;u*dine, was a zealous promoter of the 
Reformation in Scotland ; and in 1567, at Cai-berry-hill, he 
accepted the gauntlet of defiance to single combat thrown 
down by the eai-1 of Bothwell, but the latter objected to him 
as being of inferior rank, as he did also to Tullibardine's 
brother, James Murray of Purdorvis, for the same reason. His 
sister Annabella manied the earl of Mar, afterwards regent, 
and was the governess of the infant king, James the Sixth. 
He himself married in 1547 Lady Agnes Graham, third 
daughter of William second earl of Jlontrose. On the death 
of his brother-in-law, the earl of Mar, in 1572, he and Sii 
Alexander Ersldne of Gogar were appointed governors of the 
young king and joint keepers of the castle of Stii'ling, where 
his majesty resided, and he discharged the office with the ap- 
plause of the whole kingdom till 1578. George Halley, in 
the curious document already quoted, says that " Su* William 
MmTay of Tullibardine ha\-ing broke Ai-gyle's face with the 
hilt of his sword, in king James the Sixth's presence, was 
obliged to leave the kingdom. Afterwards, the king's mails 
and slaughter cows were not paid, neither could any subject 
in the realm be able to compel those who were bound to pay 
them ; upon which the king cried out — ' 0, if I had Will. 
Murray again, he would soon get my mails and slaughter 
cows ; ' to which one standing by replied — ' That if his ma- 
jesty would not take Sir William Murray's life, he might re- 
turn shortly.' The king answered, ' He would be loath to 
take his life, for he had not another subject like him !* Upon 
which promise Sir William Murray returned, and got a com- 
mission from the king to go to the north, and lift up the 
mails and the cows, which he speedily did, to the great satis- 
faction of the king, so that immediately after he was made 
lord comptroller." This office he obtiuned in 1565. 

His eldest son, Su- John Murray, the twelfth feudal 
baron of Tullibardine, was brought up with King James, 
who, in 1592, constituted hira his master of the househuld. 
He was afterwards sworn a member of his pri\"y council, and 
knighted, and on 25th April 1604 King James raised him to 
the peerage by the title of Lord Murray of TulHbardine. On 
10th July 1G06 he was created eai'l of Tullibardine. His 




lordship married Cathorine, fourth daujjhter of David 
secund Lord Druiiimond, and died in ITiMIK 

His eldest son, William, sec<md earl of Tulliliardine, was 
the means of rescuing James the Sixfli frnm the earl nf 
Cowrie and his bniiher at Perth oi. ih. flth August 1600,for 
which service tlie hereditary slierifisliip of Perth, which had 
belonged to the Karl of Gowrie. was bestowed on him. lie 
married, as has been sta'ed the lady Dorothea Stewart, 
eldest dau;;hter and heiress of the oih earl of Athol of the 
Stew.irt family, who died in 15i)o without male issue; and 
on the death, in 1025, of James, second carl of Athol, son 
of John si.\th lord Innermeath. created earl of Athol by 
James the Si.\th, he |ietitioned King Charles the First for 
the earldom of Athol, as liis countess was the eldest daughter 
and heir of line of Earl John, of the family of Innermeath, 
which had become extinct in the male line. The king 
received the petition graciously, and gave his royal word 
that itshouldbe done,— thereby a recognition on the part of 
theCrown of the right of the heir female to an ancient peer- 
age, of which the constitution was unknown. The earl ac- 
cordingly surrendered the title of Earl of TuUibardine into 
the king's hands, .\pril 1, 1626, to beconferred on his brother 
Sir Patrick JIurr.iy, as a separate dignity, but before the 
patents couldbe issued, his lordship died the sameyear. His 
son John, however, obtained in February 1629 the title of 
earl of Athol, and thus became tho first earl oftheMurray 
branch, and the earldom of TuUibardine was at the same 
time granted to Sir Patrick. This earl of Athol was a zeal- 
ous royalist, and joined the association formed by the earl of 
Montrose for the king, at Cumbernauld, in January 16-11. 
He died in June 1642. His eldest son John, second earl ol 
Athol of the Murray family,.also faithfully adhered to Charles 
the First, and was excepted by Cromwell out of his act of 
grace and indemnity, 12th April 1654, when he was only 
about nineteen years of age. At the restuiation, he was 
sworn aprivycounciUor,obtained a charter of the hereditary 
ofBce of sherift'of Fife, and in 1G63 was appointed justice- 
general of Scotland. In 1670 he was constituted captain of 
the king's guards, in 1G72 keeper of the privy seal, and I4th 
January 1673, an extraordinary lord of session. In 1670 he 
succeeded to the earldom of TuUibardine on the death of 
James fourth earl of the now creation, and was created mar- 
quis of Athol in 1676. He increased the power of his fam- 
ily by his marriage with Lady Amelia Sophia Stanley, third 
daughter of the seventh earl "fDeiby, beheaded for hisloy- 

alty 15th October 1G51. Through her mother, Charlotte do 

la Tremouille, daughter of Claude 

de la Tremouille, duke of Thouars 

and princeof Palmont, shewas re- 
lated by blood to the eaiperor of 

(lermany, the kings of France and 

Spain, the prince of Orange, the 

duke of Savoy, and most of the prin- 
cipal families of Europe ; and by 

her. the family of Athol acquired 

the seignory of the Isle of Man, 

with a large property there. 
In 1678, on the in-uption into the 

western shiresof the Highlandhost, 

the marquis of Athol joined the 

duke of Hamilton in opposition to 

the duke of Lauderdale, in conse- 
quence of which he was deprived of 

his office of justice-general, but 

retained his other places. He was 

instrumental in suppressing Ar- 

pyle's inva.sion in 1685. Notwithstanding his oonnpicD- 
ons loyalty in the reigns of Charles the Second and hu 
bi-other James, he promoted the Revolution, and went to 
London in lO.SD, to wait on the prince of Orange, but wm 
dis.appointed in bis expectations of preferment under the new 
government. Wil tarn, though related to the marchioness, 
did not receive him cordially, and in consequence lie joined 
the Jacobite party. At the convention of the Scottish 
est.ates, lltli March 1G89, he was put in nomination aii pres- 
ident by the adherents of King J.ames. The Whigs on the 
other hand proposed the duke of Hamilton, and the latter 
was elected by a majority of fifteen votes. When the vis- 
coimt of Dundee proceeded into the Highlands for the pur- 
pose of trying the chance of a battle, the defence of the ca8tl« 
of Blau- Athol, belonging to the marquis, Wiis the means of 
occasioning the battle of Killiecrankie, in the same year. 
This strong fortress, which comm.-mds the most important 
pass in the Northern Highland;), had already been the scene 
of remarkable events in the previous civil wars. In 1644 the 
marquis of Montrose had possessed himself of it. and was 
here joined by a large body of the Athol Highlanders, to 
whose bravely he was indebted for the victory at Tippermuir. 
In the troubles of IG.i," it was t,aken by storm by Colonil 
Daniel, one of Cromwell's officers, who, unable to remove a 
magazine of provisions lodged there, destroyed it by powder. 
In 1689 it had been taken possession of by Stewart of Ballcchan, 
the marquis of Athol's chamberlain, who refused to deliver it 
up to Lord MmT.ay, the marquis's son, as he was supposed to 
favour the Revolution p:urty, Stewart deel.-u-ing that he held 
it for King James, by order of his heutenant-general. Lord 
.Murray had summoned his father's vass.als to join him, and 
about twelve hundred assembled, but no entreaties could pre- 
vail on them to declare in favour of the guveniment of King They intimated that if he woidd join Dundee they 
would follow him to a man, but if he refused they all would 
leave hiin. His lordship remonstr.ated with them, and even 
threatened them with his vengeance if they abandoned him, 
when, setting his threats at defiance, they ran to the river 
Banovy in the neighbourhood of Blair castle, and filling their 
bonnets with water, drank King James's health, and left his 
st.and.ird. Dundee knew the importance of preserving Blair 
castle, and witii his usual expedition he joined the gan'ison. 
A few days afterwards, however, the battle of Killiecrankif 
took place, when he was slain in the moment of Tictor? 
The follo\nng is a view of Blair castle: 

Blair Castle as It stooil in 1746-6 before liehiK dismantled. Copied by permission 
from an old drawing in posses-inn of His Grace the Duke of Athole. 




The last siege wliich Blair castle sustained was in March 
J7-ia, when it was pilhmtly defended by Sir Andrew A.^ewi 
a^Jiinst a party of the I'lvtendcr's forces, wlio retired from 
before it a few 'weeks preceding the battle of Culloden. As 
soon as peace was restored, a considerable part of the castle 
was reduced in heigbt, and the inside most miigniticently 
fiiniishf«i. Tlie inar.iui.s continued in the opposition for the 
remainder of his life. He died 6th May 1703 His second 
son. Lord Charles, was created first earl of Dunniore, and hia 
fuurth son, Lord William, was created first Lord Nairn. 

His eldest son John, the second marquis, and first duke, 
of .\thoI. desi^ated Lord John Murray, was one of the com- 
niissionere for inquiring into the massacre of Glencoe in 
1693. By King Wilham he was appointed in 1695 one of the 
principal secretaries of state for Scotland. He was created 
a peer in his father's lifetime, by the title of earl of Tullibar- 
dine, viscount of Glenahnond, and Lord Murray, for life, by 
patent dated 27th July 1,696, and in April 1703 he was 
appointed lord privy seal. On the 30th July of that year, 
immediately after his father's death, he was created duke of 
Alliol, by Queen Anne, and invested with the order of the 
Thistle. Ha\-ing, the same year, introduced the act of secu- 
rity into the Scottish parliament, the duke of Queensberry 
juid the other ministei-s, greatly displeased, formed a plan to 
min him, by means of Simon Fraser of Beaufort. Fraser 
had fled to France some years before, to elude a sentence of 
deatli pronounced against him in absence, by the court of 
•usticiary, for an alleged rape on the person of Lady Anieliii 
Murrav. dowager Lady Lovat, and sister of the duke of Athol, 
but returning to Scotland in 1703, as the agent of the exiled 
family, he, after intriguing with the duke of Queensberry, then 
at the head of the government party in Scotland, revealed the 
existence of a Jacobite conspiracy, in which the dukes of 
Hamilton and Athol, as well as others, were deeply involved. 
Fraser was Athol's bitter enemy [see Fraser, Simon, twelfth 
Lord Lovat], and the whole pretended plot having been brought 
to light by Ferguson, celebrated as the plotter [see Ferguson, 
Robert], with whom Fraser had had some communication in 
London, he immediately acquainted the duke with the discovery 
he had made. Athol at once laid the matter before the queen, 
who had been prenously apprised of the alleged conspiracy 
jy the duke of Queensberry. The latter being called upon 
for an explanation, excused himself by saying that when Fra- 
ser came to Scotland he had received a written communica- 
tion from him, to the effect that he could make important dis- 
coveries, relative to designs against the queen's government, 
in proof of which he delivered him a letter from the queen 
dowager, the widow of James the Seventh, at St. Gennains, 

addressed to L M , which initials Fraser stated were 

meant for Lord Muxi'ay, the foi-mer title of the duke of Athol, 
and that, after seeing him, he (Queensbeny) hud given him a 
protection in Scotland, and procured a pass for him in Eng- 
land, to enable him to follow out further discoveries. The Eng- 
lish house of peers took the subject up warmly, and passed 
strong resolutions regarding the supposed conspiracy, for the 
purpose of clearing Queensberry ; but nothing farther was 
done in the matter. The efJect, however, was to incense 
Athol against the government, and so zealous was he against 
the Union that he is said to have had six thousand Higliland 
followers ready to oppose it. This did not prevent him, 
however, from pocketing one thousand pounds of the equiva- 
.eut money sent down, nominally to satisfy such claims of 
damage as might arise out of the Union, but in reaUty given 
in many instances as a bribe. At the beginning of the 
aession of the Scots parliament hi which the Union was car- 
ried the duke was ajtpointcd commissioner, as Lockart in- 

forms us, in place of the duke of Queensberry, the lattei 
wishing to ascertain the state of public feeling before he ven- 
tm-ed himseif to face the difficulties of the time, *' and there- 
fore he sent the duke of Athol down as commissioner ; using 
him as the monkey did the cat, m pulling out the hot roasteu 
chestnuts." [Lockarfs Memoirs, p. 139.] His grace died 
l-4th November, 1724. He was twice married; first to Ca- 
therine, daughter of the duke of Hamilton, by whom he had 
six sons and a daughter, and secondly to Mary, daughter of 
William lord Ross, by whom he had three sons and a daughter. 
His eldest son, John marquis of TuUibardine, died in 1709. 
His second son William, who succeeded his brother, was the 
marquis of TulHbardine who acted the prominent part in 
both the Scottish rebellions of last century, which is recorded 
in history. He was one of the first that joined the earl of Mar 
in 1715, for which he was attainted for high treason, and 
the family honours were settled by parliament on his nest 
brother James. Another brother, Lord Chai'les Murray, a 
comet of horse, also engaged in the rebellion of 1715, and 
had the command of a regiment. Upon the march into Eng- 
land he kept at the head of his men on foot in the High- 
land dress. After the suiTcnder of Preston, his lordship be- 
ing amongst the prisoners, was tried by a court martial as 
a deserter, and sentenced to be shot, but received a pardon 
through the interest of his friends, and died in 1720. The 
marquis of TulHbardine bad escaped to the continent, but re- 
turned to Scotland with the Spanish forces, in 1719, and 
with a younger brother. Lord George Mun*ay, afterwards com- 
mander-in-chief of the Pretender's army, was in the battle of 
the pass of Glenshiel, in the district of Kintail, Ross-shire, in 
June of that year, where Lord George was wounded. After 
the defeat at Glenshiel, the marquis escaped a second time 
to the continent, and lived twenty-six years in exile. In 
1745 he accompanied Prince Charles Edward to Scotland, 
and landed with him at Borodaile 25th July. He was styled 
duke of Athol by the Jacobites. On the 19th August he 
unfurled the prince's standard at Glenfinnan, and supported 
by a man on each side, held the staff while he proclaimed the 
Chevaher de St. George as king, and read the commission 
appointing his son Charles prince regent. After the battle 
of Culloden he fled to the westward, intending to embark for 
the isle of Mull, but being unable, from the bad state of his 
health, to bear the fatigue of travelling under concealment, 
he suiTcndered, on the 27th April, 1746, to Mr. Buchanan of 
Dmmmakill, a Stirlingshire gentleman. Being conveyed to 
London, he was committed to the Tower, where he died on 
the 9th July following. 

James the second duke of Athol was the third son of the 
first duke. He succeeded to the dukedom on the death of bis 
father, in November 1724, in the lifetime of his elder brother 
William, attainted by parliament. Being maternal great- 
grandson of James seventh earl of Derby, upon the death of 
the tenth earl of that line, he claimed and was allowed the 
EngUsh barony of Strange, which had been conferred on Lord 
Derby, by writ of summons, in 1628. His grace was married, 
first to Jean, sister of Sir John Frederick, bart. by whom li-' 
had a son and two daughters; secondly to Jane, daughter "t 
John Drummond of Megglnch, who had no issue. The latter 
was the heroine of Dr. Austen's song of ' For lack of gold she's 
left me, !' She was betrothed to that gentleman, a physician 
in Edinburgh, when the Duke of Athol saw her, and falluig 
in love with her made proposals of marriage, which were ac- 
cepted ; and, as Bums says, she jilted the doctor. Having 
5ur\-ived her first husband, she married a second time, Lord 
Adam Gordon. Dr. Austen, on his part, although in his scng 
he says 




The sun and the eldest daughter of the second duke of 
Aihol died young, ('liarh)tte, his youngest daughter, sue- 
ccodecl. on his death in 1764, to tljc barony of Strange and 
the sovcieigrjty of the Isle of Man. She married her 
cousin, the hon. John Murray, eldest son of Lord George 
Murray, fifth son of the first dulte, and the oelebratid 
generalissimo of tlie forces of tlie Pretender in 17-45, [see 
JlfKR.tY, Lurd George.] Though Lord George was at- 
tainted by parliament for his share in the rebellion, his 
son was allowed to succeed his undo and father-in-law as 
third duke, and iti 17G5 he and his duehess disposed of 
their sovereignty of the Isle ol Man to the British Govern- 
ment for .£7ti,U00, reserving, however, their landed interest 
in the island, with the patronage of the bishopric and 
other ecclesiastical benefices, on payment of the annual 
sum of £UI1, l.")s. Ud., and rendering two falcons to the 
kings and queens of England on the days of their corona- 
tion. His grace, who had seven sons and four daughters, 
died 5th November, 1774, and was succeeded by his eldest 
Sun John, fourth duke, who in 1786 was created Eurl 
Strange and Baron Murray of Stanley, in the peerage of 
the United Kingdom. lie died in 1830, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son John, who died unmarried September 14, 
1846. His next brotlier. James, was created a peer of the Unitctl 
Kingdom, as baron Glenlyon of Glenlyon, in the county of Perth 
9th July 1821. He m. I9th May 1810, Emily, 3d dauRhterof the 
2d Duke of Northumberland, and by her he had 2 sons and 2 
dauchters. He died Oct. 12, 1837. His eldest «., George Augus- 
tus Frederick John, Lord Glenlyon, became, on the death of, his 
uncle in 1846, 6th Duke of Athol. He died in 1864, and was suc- 
ceeded by tus only son John James Hugh Heniy Stewart Murray. 
7th Duke of .\thol. who inherited tlie barony of Percy and several 
co-heirships on the death of his great-uncle Algernon, fom1h Duke 
of Northumberland, Feb. 11, 1865. He was b. Aug. C, 1840, and 
I. as 7th Duke, Jan. 16, 1864, He m. Oct. 29, 1863, Louisa, eldest 
dr. of SirThos. Moncreiffe, bart., and has 3 sons and 3 drs. The 
eldest *. d. Aug. 31, 186 9, and his 2d s. John George, Marquis of 
Tidlibardine, was 6. 1871. The family residence is Blair Castle, 

The 1st bart. of the OcnTERTTRH fnmily was "William Moray 
of Ochtertyre, who was created a baron of Nova 'Scntia, with 
reraainder'to his heirs male, 7th June 1673. lie was descended 
from Patrick Moray, the first styled of Ochtertyre, who died in 
1476, a son of Sir David MmTay of TulUbardine. 

ATKINS, Etkins, Aitkens, or Aiken, James, 
bishop of Galloway, was born at ICirkwall, about 
the year 1613. He was the son of Henry Atkens 
or Aiken, sheriff and commissary of Orkney. He 
commenced his studies at the university of Edin- 
burgh, and completed them at Oxford in 1638. 
On his return to Scotland, tliat year, he was ap- 
pointed chaplain to James, marquis of Hamilton, 
his majesty's high commissioner to the General 
Assembly, in which situation he behaved so well 
that on the marquis' return to England he ob- 
tained for him from the king a presentation to the 
church of Birsa in Orkney. In the beginning of 
1650, on the landing of the marquis of Montrose 
in that stewartry, Dr. Atkins was appointed by 
tlie presbytery to dravv np a declaration of loyalty 

and allegiance to Charles the Second, wliich, with 
their consent and approbation, was published. 
For this stop the whole prcsbytciy was deposed 
by the General Assembly, while Atkins was ex- 
communicated for holding correspondence with 
the marquis. An act of council was also jiassed 
for his api)rehension ; but receiving private notice 
thereof from his relative. Sir Archibald Primrose, 
clerk of council, afterwards lord register, he fled 
into Holland. In 1653 he returned to Scotland, 
and quietly resided with his faniilj' in Edinburgh, 
till the king's restoration in 1G60, when he accom- 
panied Dr. Sydserf, bishop of Galloway, the only 
surviving prelate in Scotland, to London to con- 
gratulate his majesty ; at which time, he was pre- 
sented by the bishop of Winchester to the rectory 
of AVinfiith in Dor.«Ptshirp. In 1677 he was con- 
secrated bisliop of iMoray; and in 1680 he wiut 
translated to the see of Galloway, when, on ac- 
count of his age, he received a dispensation to 
reside in Edinburgh, where he died of an apo- 
plectic stroke, 28th October 1687, aged 74 years, 
and was buried in the church of the Greyfriars in 
that city. He showed himself very zealous in op- 
posing the taking off the penal laws. — Keith's Scot- 
tish Bishops. 

ATKINSON, Thomas, a pleasing poet and mis- 
cellaneous writer, was born at Glasgow about the 
year 1801. He is said to have been the illegiti- 
mate son of a butcher of that city. After receiving 
his education, he was apprenticed to Mr. Turn- 
bull, bookseller, Trongate, on whose death he 
entered into business, in partnership with Mr. 
David Robertson. From boyhood he was a 
writer of poetry, prose sketches, and essays ; 
and among other things brought out by him 
were, 'The Sextuple Alliance,' and 'The Cha- 
meleon.' Three successive volumes of the lat- 
ter were published aiinuall}-, containing his own 
pieces exclusively. He was also sole editor ami 
author of ' The Ant,' a weekly periodical, and an 
extensive contributor to ' The Western lyuminary,' 
'The Emmet,' and other local publications. Hia 
writings are distinguished by taste and fancy, and 
he was indefatigable in producing them. His tal- 
ents for speaking were also of a superior order, 
and he took every opportunity of displaying hia 
powers of oratory. At the general eii'i'.tlon, att«T 




llie passing of the Reform Bill, Mr. Atkinson, who 
was ft keen reformer, started as a candidate for the 
Stirling burghs, in opposition to Lord Dalmeny, 
who was returned. Being naturally of a delicate 
constitnlion, his exertions on this occasion brought 
on a decline; and when seized with advanced 
symptoms of consumption, he disposed of his busi- 
ness, his books, and his furniture, and sailed for 
Barbadoes, but died on the passage on the 10th 
October 1833, in the 32d year of his age. He was 
buried at sea in an oaken coflSn, which he had 
taken witli him ! He left an annuity to his mother, 
and a sum, after accumulation, to be applied in 
building au Atkiusonian Hall in Glasgow for scien- 
tific purposes. His relatives erected a monument 
to his memory in the necropolis of his native city. 
AucHiNLECK., a surname derived from lands of that name. 
Anc-li, sonietiineB ach, its diminutive auchin and augmenta- 
tive iivoc-li, occurs frequently alone, as also in composition, 
in namfs of lands. It implies an elevation, but in a relative 
sense only. In valley lands near the mouths of rivers, where 
the plane is intersected by channels of deep watercourses, tlie 
auchin or haughs are the separated and higher portions of 
that plane; as the Haughs of Cromdale in the valley of the 
Spey ; and being heavy clays, are generally very fertile. On 
liill-slopes auchin or haaghs are more level portions or banks; 
Its Auchinross or Rosehaugh in Avoch, Ross -shire. The 
augmentative avoch refers to continuity as well as elevation ; 
us in the parish of that name, where a deep alluvial soil is 
furrowed into a high parallel flat ridge of some miles long by 
dividing streams. The plural is Auchen, frequently corrupt- 
ed into Auchens. These and their genitives Auchie — 
auf/h-i and Auchenie, occur as surnames, from lands so called. 
They both enter into topographical combinations, as Auchen- 
denny, Auchen-(ien-{, haughs of the den, — abbreviated into 
Denny, also a sirname, — whose undulating lands are 
cut through by deep dens or stream beds ; Craig-al-achie, 
the rock of the haugh or ach, through which the Spey 
has cleft a passage for itself; and others of similar 
formation. Aughter, angh - te7\ is applied to the up- 
per and higher portions of river basins where the .affluents 
are numerous and their bed valleys wide and deep worn. It 
means hi(/h lands, but in a sense not identical with moun- 
tainous. The augliter in ^Hf/A(erarder is derived from the 
dividing ridge, or plane of the original bed of the basin, lying 
between the valleys of the Ruthven and the Earn. Aughter, 
sometimes Ochter, having in composition given names to bar- 
onies, has, again, become a part of various surn.ames. Augh, 
or och, is the Gothic root of the German Hoch, and under 
this form is found in Continental topography wherever the 
Gothic races held rule. It becomes Hock in English topo- 
graphy. It has been claimed as Gaelic, and is certainly used 
by a Gaelic-speaking population as a descriptive n.ame in re- 
giiins now inhabited by them. But their explanations of its 
meaning are unsatisfiictory, and having been introduced into 
the parochial statistical accounts, are followed in works on 
topography, so that auch is rendered a field, a height, or 
a ridge, .as appears to suit the locality. Leek or Lyke is the 
Gothic word for dead, as in Lykewake, the watch of the dead, 
Ciomkch, the circle of the dead and in this word is applied 

in the sense ol liarren, sterile, as in the dead sea. The baron> 
of name in Ayrshire is an upland flat lying between the 
valleys of the waters of Ayr and Lugar, which flow in parallel 
directions so closely approximating to each other that in six- 
teen miles of length it has never more than two of breadth, 
with a moss in a gieat part of its centre. Lech, Lach, or 
Lake, is sometimes duplicated with the Latin mort, as Mort- 
lech, in Aboyne, the sterile land; Mortlach, in Mor.iy, the 
place of battle; and its genitive Leckie is also a surname. 

The Gaelic definition, " field of the flagstones." is simply 
absurd. There is not a flagstone in the parish or barony ; 
and the name was bestowed before the subdivision of land into 
fields was known. The name is often pronounced and some 
times written Affleck. 

The lands of Aucliinleck in the parish of Monikie, Forfar 
shire, appear to have given origin to the surname at an early 
period. Two rivulets running parallel in deep dens through 
a valley at a level of 300 feet, yet near the sea, leave between 
them a flat auchin or elevated stripe on which stands the old 
tower or castle of Affleck, somewhat more than a mile from 
the parish church, a beautiful specimen of its class, entire al- 
though long uninhabited, and since 1746 has been used for 
purposes connected with agiiculture. It still serves as a mark 
for mariners. These lands were bestowed by charter from Da- 
vid I. The office of armour-bearer to the Lindsays, carls (■! 
Crawford, was hereditary in the family of Auchinleck of thai 
ilk. [Li't'cs of the Lindsat/s, vol. i. p. 114, note'] They becama 
the property of a family of the name of Reid, which win 
attainted for being engaged in the rebellion of 1745. TJit 
castle and a large of the estates were then purchased by 
Mr. James Yeaman, one of the bailies of Dundee, from th« 
representatives of whose descendant, they were acquired b\ 
Mr. Graham of Kincaldrum, in whose possession they still 
rem.ain. In the year 1733, Thomas Reid of Auchinleck, pre- 
sented a silver communion cup to the kirk-session of Dundee, 
as recorded in letters of gold on the session-house wall ol 
that time. 

The lands of Auchinleck, in Ayrshire, are known to have 
given a surname to their proprietors so early as the 13tli 
century. In 1300, the laird of Auchinleck accompanied 
Sir William Wallace to Glasgow from Ayr, when he attackeil 
and slew Earl Percy. [See Wallace, Sir William.] The 
Chartulary of Paisley records a donation from Sir John 
de Auchinleck, in 1385, of twenty shillings yearly to the 
abbot and convent of that house, as a compensation for 
having mutilated the person of one of the monks. Boswell, a younger son of Boswell of Balmnto in 
Fife, having married one of the daughters and co-heiress of 
Sir John Auchinleck of that ilk, received in 1504 a grant of 
these lands from James the Fourth. This Thomas Boswell, 
who fell at Flodden, was the ancestor of the present possessoi'. 
The family of Boswell of Auchinleck has acquired celebrity 
in several of its members. [See Boswell, surn.ime of.] 
There was another family of Auchinleck in Perthshire, de- 
signed of Balmanno, an Auchinleck having married the 
heu'ess of Balmanno of that ilk. 

AucHMUTY, or auch-moo(-i, augh or haugh of moot or 
judgment, a surname derived from lands in the parish 
of Newbm"n, anciently called Drumeldry, (/)r«7re, hill, eldry 
elderi or alderi, of the wise men or elders) Fifeshire, once be- 
longing to an old family styled Auchmoutie of that ilk. The 
estate of Drumeldry, now the property of Thomas Calderwood 
Dui'ham, Esq. of Largo, and Lawhill, now called Halltiill. tie 
residence of Charles llalket Craigie, Esq., at one time formed 
part of the barony of Auchmoutie. In 1 tiUO Capt. Auchumty, j* 




descend:int ... the ancient Fifcshire house of Auchmuty, set- 
tled at Brianstown, county of Longford, Ireland, and his 
posterity, now named Achmuty, still possess that estate. A 
branch of the Brianstowii family, who continue to spell their 
name Auchmuty, are the proprietors of Kilmoro House in the 
county of Roscommon. The n:une is not a very conmion 
one, but uncouth as it may sound in the ears of our English 
neighbours, it has been rendered familiar hy the deeds of 
Major-general Sir Samuel B. Auchmuty, C. B., who in 1807 
distinguished jjiniaeli' in the reduction of Monte Video, on 
the nver PlaU 

AucHTERLONY, tue suHKuue of an ancient Forfarshii'e 
family, who formerly possessed the bai-ony of Kelly in the 
parish of Arbii-lot. Kather more tlian two miles west of Ar- 
broath, on the edge of a precipice, at the side of the river 
Elliot, are the ruins of the castle of Kelly, otherwise Auch- 
terlony. The lirst proprietor of Kelly noticed in histoiy was 
Hoger de Moubray, an adherent of Edward tlie First of Eng- 
land, who, in the distribution of the estates of the Scottish 
barons opposed to his pretensions as lord paramount of Scot- 
land, bestowed these lands upon him. In 1321, Moubray was 
declared a traitor, and his barony forfeited. Ki-Ily was then 
conferred on the stewai-d of Scotland, the son-in-law of Bruce. 
In the reign of Kobert the Second we find Alexander Auch- 
terlony designed of Kelly. This Alexander Auchterlony mar- 
ried Janet, daughter of Sir WilHam Maule of Panmure, 
knight, and got with her the lands of Greenford, in the same 
parish. It would seem that the barony of Kelly had passed 
from him or his successor, for it is recorded that Wilbam 
Auchterlony acquii'ed Kelly in the year 1444, and from that 
date till 1630 it remained in possession of the family of Auch- 
terlony. At the Reformation the chief of the Auchterlonies, 
according to tradition, was very active in the destruction of 
the abbey of Arbroath. Bemg indebted to the abbey stew- 
ard, at the head of tlu*ee hundred men he attacked the abbey, 
And setting fire to it, bumt all evidence of a claim against 
him. Among the witnesses to a charter of a donation to the 
hospital at Dundee, dated 2d May 1587, appears the name of 
David Auchterlony dom. ae Kelly^ who is supposed to have 
been either the incendiaiy or his son. Kelly now belongs to 
Lord Panmm*e, and the ancient family of AuchtL-rlony is re- 
presented by John Auchterlony of Guynd, Esq — See Och- 


AvANDALE, Lord, a title conferred by James the Second 
on Andrew Stewart, the eldest of the seven illegitimate sons 
of Sii- James Stewart, called James the Gross, fourth son of 
Murdoch, duke of Albany, and the only one who escaped the 
vengeance of James the Eirst, when his father and three bro- 
thers were nathlessly cut ofi' by that monarch. On their im- 
prisonment he had flown to arms, assaulted and biuTit the 
town of Dumbarton, and killed Sir John Stewart, the king's 
uncle, who held the castle with thirty-two men. He after- 
wards took refuge in Ireland, where he formed a connection 
with a lady of the family of Macdonald, by whom lie had 
seven sons, and a daughter, Matilda, inanied to Sir William 
Edmonstone of Duntreath. These children are supposed on 
their father's death to have been adopted by Murdoch's wi- 
dow, the duchess Isabella, countess of Lennox, to bear her 
company in her castle on the small island of Inchmurrin on 
Lochlomond, where her latter years were spent in retire- 
ment; as his name and that of three of his brothers, Mur- 
doch, Arthur, and Robert Stewarts of Albany, appear as wit- 
nesses to charters granted by the duchess Isabella as countess 
of Lennox, betwixt 1-140 and 1451. [yapter's UUtonj of 

tlie PartUion of the I^niwx, pp. 18—20.] King Juniea th« 
Second, touched perh.-ips with regret for the ruin wliich tii£ 
fiUher had caused Duke Murdoch's family, honoured ibe eld- 
est of his illegitimate grandsons with peculiar marks of rc- 
g;u-d and affection. He placed him at one of the EngHsli 
universities, and on his retuni to Scotland, after his educa- 
tion had been completed, appointed liini a gentleman of hia 
bedchamber, and knighted hun. In 145G he bestowed on 
him the barony of Avandale or Evandale in Lanarkshire, 
which had been forfeited by the last earl of Douglas in 1455, 
and in 1457 created him Lord Avandale \Ibid^ p. 45j. Be- 
fore tlie 1st of March, 1459, the new peer had superseded 
George fourth earl of Angns, as warden of the marches, and 
in 1460, on the accession of James the Third, he was chosen 
loid-chanccllor of Scotland, an office which he lield for twen- 
ty-two years, mth the high distinction of precedence next to 
the princes of royal blood. He was one of the lords of the 
regency, and in a charter of lung James the Third, in 1465, 
he is styled guardian of the king. In 14118 he was sent am- 
bassador to Denm;u-k to treat of a man-iage between James 
the Third and the princess Margaret of Denmark, which was 
happily accomplished. On the 4th May 1471, he had a life- 
rent gi-ant, under the great seal, of the whole earldom of Len- 
nox, which had been in non-entry from the year 1425, when 
Earl Duncan, the father of the duchess Isabella, was be- 
headed, though it had never been forfeited, as erroneouslv 
stated by Douglas in his Peerage, and other writers. To for- 
tify himself in this gi-ant, he obtmned letters of legitimation 
under the great seal, of date 2Sth August 1472, to himsell 
and two of his brothers, Arthur and Walter, by which a right 
of general succession was thrown open to them. These let- 
ters were repeated on the 17th April 1479, and on the 18th 
of tlie same month he had a charter of the lordship ot Avan- 
dale. In 1482, when the king's brother, the duke of Albany, 
with the assistance of Edward the Fom-th of England, invad- 
ed Scotland, Lord Avandale and many other noblemen who 
had been till then the most loyal supporters of the crown, 
abandoned the sovereign who bad heaped upon him wealtli 
and honours, and after the king had been conveyed prisoner 
to Edinburgh castle, he as chancellor, with the archbishop of 
St. Andrews, the bishop of Dunkeld, and the earl of Argyle, 
entered into a bond, dated 2d August of that year, for the 
protection and indemnity of Albany. The noblemen who 
sign this deed declare that they and the other nobles of the 
realm " sail cause our soverane lord frely to gif and grant " 
to the duke of Albany "all his landis, heritagis, strenthis, 
houses, and offices quhilk he possessit the day of his last part- 
ing fiirth of the realm of Scotland." [/aY/errt, b. xii. p. IGO.] 
To punisn his Jngrutituae, the King, oefore tne 25th of the 
same month of August, deprived him of the chancel loi-ship, 
which he had held so long, and bestowed it on John Lain^, 
bishop of Glasgow. This took place before the siege of Edin- 
burgh castle, which occun-ed 29th September 1482, and not 
after that event, as Mr. Tytler, in his history, records it, and 
could not therefore have been in consequence of Albany's par- success, as Tytler says it was. [See Napier's lUstonj oj 
the Partition of the Lennox^ p. G8, note.'] Albany was soon 
received into favour, and in the following December appointed 
lieutenant-general of the kingdom, but in 1484 the Albany 
party was completely crushed. Altliough not restored to 
the chancellorship, Lord Avandale appears to have regained 
the confidence of the king, and in 1484 he was one of the 
commissioners sent to France to renew the ancient league 
with that crown. He was mso one of the plempotenthTnes 
who concluded the pacification mth King Richard the Third 
at Nottingham, 21st September of that year. HLs nmiie ap- 




(vean* as ono of the witnesses to a charter of James the Third. 
dated Uth March 1487. He continued to possess tlie lands 
of the earldom of Lennox till his death in 1488. He left no 
issue, whereby the title for the time became extinct. 

The title of Lord Avandale next bestowed on nis ne- 
phew, Andrew Stewart, second son of his younger brotlier, 
Walter Stewart of Morphie, m the county of Kincardine, 
sixth son of Sir James tlie Gross. The mother of the second 
Lord Avandale was Elizabeth, daughter of Amot of Amot, 
in the county of Fife. Cniwford {Officers of State, p. 39) 
says that Alexander Stewart, the eldest son of Walter Stew- 
art of Morphie, was, in 1503, created Lord Avandale by so- 
lemn investiture in parliament, but this is a mistake, as it 
would appear that the said Alexander Stewart died before 
1500, and that lie was succeeded in the estate of Avandale 
and other lands by his immediate younger brother Andi-ew 
above mentioned, second Lord Avandale. IDoughis.'} By 
his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir John Kennedy of Blair- 
quhan in Ayrshire, had three sons and three daughters. An 
drew, the eldest son, succeeded as thu-d Lord Avandale 
Henry, the second son, on marrying the queen dowager, was 
created Lord Methven. [See Methves, Lord.] The tliird 
son, Sir James Stewart of Beath, was the ancestor of the earl 
of Moray. [See Moray, earl of.] 

The third Lord Avandale was governor of the castle of 
Dumbarton, and held the office of groom of the stole to King 
lames the Fourth. In 1534, he transferred the barony of 
.A.vandale and the lands of Coldstream to Sir James Hamilton 
of Fynnart, in exchange for the barony of Ochiltree in Ayr- 
shire, and in consequence of this exchange, on the 15th March 
1543, the earl of Arran, governor of the kingdom, with con- 
sent of parliament, ordained that Andrew lord Avandale 
should in future be styled Lord Stewart of Ochiltree. By his 
wife. Lady Margaret Hamilton, only child of James, first 
earl of Arran. he had a son, Andrew Stewart, who became 
second lord Ochiltree. [See Ochiltree, Lord.] 

A\'ENEL, a surname now scarcely known, except m the 
pages of romance. Like Umfraville, de Monnlle, and others, 
it was once borne by high and powerful barons, whose de- 
scendants, if any now exist, have long ceased to be called by 
the name of their progenitors. Among the Anglo-Norman 
knights introduced into Scotland by David the First, was 
Robert Avenel, who, in reward of military sei-vices, received 
Upper and Lower Eskdale, and flourished dming the reigns 
of Malcolm the Fourth and William the Lion, whose chartera 
he witnessed. Re officiated as Justiciary of Lothian for a 
short time after the accession of WiUiam, in 1165. His lat- 
ter years were spent in the monastery of Melrose, to which 
he granted a large portion of his estates, and where he died 
in 1185. His son and heu-, Gervase, confirmed the grant. 
Roger Avenel, the successor of Gervase, had a serious dispute 
with the monks regarding the game on the lands. The 
king, Alexander the Second, at his request interfered, and 
"found that the monks were entitled to the soil, but not 
to the game, which belonged to the Avenels, as lords of 
the manor." For several generations the Avenels continued 
among the most powei-fal families on the Borders; and in 
the Tales of the ' Monastery,' and the ' Abbot,' they have 
been introduced with singular success by Sir Walter Scott. 
Tlie family of Avenel merged, like many others, in an 
heiress, who married Henry, the son of Henry de Graham 
01 Abercom and Dalkeith, and the property of the Avenels 
thus passed into other families. 

Aymoi'ih, baron of in the Scottish peerage, a title be- 

stowed on the great duke of Marlborough in 1682, a.s BaroE 
Churchill of Aymouth, or Eyemouth, in Berwickshire, al- 
though he had no connexion with that place. The title be- 
came extinct on his death in 1722. 

Ayton, or ArroN, a surname derived from the village oi 
E}'town, now called Ayton, in Berwickshire, which seems to 
have taken its name, anciently written Eytun and Eitun, 
from the water of Eye, that, rising among the Lammeniiuir 
hills, flows into the sea at Eyemouth. The etymology of the 
word is ' the towu on the river.' 

The family of Ayton were descended from Gilbert de Vesci, 
an Anglo-Norman knight, who, settling in Scotland shortly 
after the Conquest, obtained the lands of Ayton in Berwick- 
shire, and adopted the name of the lands as his family name. 
About the year 1166 Helias and Dolfinus de Eitun attested a 
charter of Waldeve, earl of Dunbar. Stephanus de Eyton 
appears as witness to a charter " de quieta clamatione de terra 
de Swmt07m,'* granted by his son, Earl Patiick, who died in 
1232. In the reign of William the Lion, Helias, Mauricius, 
and Adam de Eitun are among the witnesses to a donation 
of Da-^-id de Quixwood to the lazaret or hospital of lepers at 
Auldcambus. In 1250 Adam de Eiton granted to Henry de 
Lamberton three tofts of land with houses in Eyemouth. In 
1331, Adam, the prior of Coldingham, acknowledged a gran' 
made to him of land for the site of a mill near the bridge ol 
Ayton, by Adam, the son of William de Ayton. Robert de 
Ajlon was among the number of the Scots slain at the battle 
of Nesbit-moor, 22d June 1402. 

The principal family ended in an heiress, who, in the reign 
of James the Third, manied George Home, a son of the house 
of Home, who thus acquired the original lands of Ayton. By 
charter of date 29th November 1472, the greater part of the 
lands of Aj^on, with those of Wliitfield, were granted to 
George Home, son of Sir Alexander Home of Duuglass, who 
thus became ancestor of the Homes of Ayton. 

Histoi-y mentions the baronial castle of Ayton, on the 
banks of the Eye, founded by the Noi-man baron de Vesci, 
which was taken by the earl of Surrey in 1498, but no ves- 
tiges of it now remain. The modem mansion-house of Ayton, 
built upon its site, was destroyed by fire in 1834. 

A branch of tlie Berwickshire Aytons settled in the county 
of Fife, and Skene imputes a Gaelic origin to the name. 
" The Pictish Chronicle," lie says, " in mentioning the foun- 
dation of the chm-ch of Abernethy, describes the boundaries 
of the ten-itory ceded to the Culdees by the Pictish king as 
having been 'a lapide in Apurfeit usque ad lapidem jvxta 
Cairful, id est Lethfoss^ et inde in altum usque ad Athan.^ 
It is a remarkable fact that the same places are still known 
by these names, although slightly corrupted into those of 
Apui-farg, Carpow, and Ayton, and that the words are un- 
questionably Gaelic." [Skerie's nifjhlanders of Scotland, 
vol. i. p. 76.] 

In 1507, James the Fourth disponed the west half of the 
lands of Denmuir, or Nether Denmuir, in the parish of Abdie, 
Fifeshire, to Andrew Ayton, captain of the castle of Stilling, 
a son of the family of Ayton of Ayton, in Berwickshire, " pro 
bono et fideli servitio." He was the uncle of the heiress ot 
Ayton above mentioned, and in consequence of the original 
lands of Ayton hanng passed, by her marriage, to the house 
of Home, he obtained a new charter of the lands of Nether 
Denmuir, in which they were named Ayton, and the Fifesliire 
bninch of the family were afterwards styled Ayton of Ayton. 

Sir John Ayton of that ilk left two sons, Robert and An- 
drew. Robert, the eldest, succeeded to the estates of his 




ancle Robert, Lord Colvilk of Ochiltree, and in consequence, 
assumed the name of Colville, being styled Robert Colville of 
Craigflower. The second son, Andrew, was a merchant in 
Glasgow, of which city he became lord provost. He built a 
large house, surrounded by a gartien, near the High Street of 
Glasgow, the site of which, now occupied by public works, is 
still called Ayton court. 

About the commencement of the eighteenth centun- tiie 
kinds of Ayton in Fife were acquired by Patrick Munay, 
Esq., second son of Sir P.atrick Muiray, the second baronet 
of Ochtertyre, and they still continue in the possession of his 

I'he Aytons of Inchdairnie, in the parish of Kinglassie, are 
understood to be the lineal descendants of the Anglo-Nomian 
dti Vescis, who settled in Berwickshire. Inchdainiie has, fn* a 
long period, lieen the property of the Aytons. Of this family 
was M.ijor-general Roger Aj-ton of Inchdairnie, who died 
about 1810. His eldest son, John Ayton, was seiTcd Ayton 
of .\yton in 1820. Another son, ,r.anies Ayton, Esq., advo- 
cate, stood candidate for the representation of the city of Ed- 
mbnrgh, some years ago. 

Towards the end of the seventeenth ccntur}' the lands of 
Kippoo, in the parish of Kingsbarns, were sold by the repre- 
sentative of the family of John Philp, burgess in Cupar, to 
whom they belonged, to Sir John Ayton, younger son of Ay- 
ton of A}-toD, who was of the bed-chamber and 
usher of the black rod to Charles the Second. He was suc- 
ceeded in them, in 1700, by his grandson, John Ayton of 
KinaUiie. To the latter family Sir Robert Ayton, the sub- 
ject of the following notice, belonged. 

AYTON, Sir Robert, an accomplislied poet, a 
younger son of Andrew Aj'ton of Kinaldie, Fife- 
shire, was born there in l,o70, and .studied at .St. 
Leonard's college, St. Andrews, where lie took the 
degree of master of arts in 1588. He afterwards 
went to France, where he resided for some time. 
In 1603 he addressed from Paris .an elegant panc- 
gj-ric, in Latin verse, to Ivlng James the Sixth, 
on his accession to the crown of England, which 
was printed at Paris the same year. Ou his ap- 
pearance .at court he was knighted, and appointed 
one of the gentlemen of the bedchamber, and pri- 
vate secretar}' to the queen. He \\ as .also, subse- 
quently, secretary to Henrietta Maria, queen of 
Ch.arles I. About 1009 he was sent by James as 
amb.assador to the emperor of Germany, with the 
king's ' Apology for the Oath of Allegiance,' which 
he had dedicated to all the crowned heads of Eu- 
rope. He highly esteemed by .all the men of 
genius and poets of his time, and Ben Jonson took 
pride in informing Drumraond of Ilawtliomden, 
that " Sir Robert Ayton loved him dearly." He 
died at London in IMarch 1638, and was buried in 
the south .aisle of the choir of Westminster Abbey, 
where a handsome monument was erected by his 
nephew, David Ayton of Kinaldie, to his memory. 

A representation of it is given in Smith's Icono- 
graphia Scotica, with his bust in the centre, oi 
which the following Is a woodcut : 

The following is the inscription on his monument : 

Clarissmi omnigensiq. virtvte et ervditione, pr.Tsertim Poesi 
om.atissnii eqvitis, Domini Robert! Aitoni, ex antiqva et il- 
Ivstri gente Aitona, ad Castrvm Kinnadinvm apvd Scotos 
orivndi, qvi a Serenis.smo R. J.acobo in Cvbicvla Interiors 
admissvs, in Gennaniam ad Imperatorem, Imperiiq. Principe.'i 
cvm libello Regio, Regiie a\'thoritati3 vindice, Legatvs, ac 
priinvm Anna?, demvm Mjiriie, serenissmis Britanniarvni 
Reginis ab epistolis, consiliis et hbellis supplicibva, nee non 
Xenodochio St.-e Catherina; pra^fectvs. AnimaCreatorisRed- 
dita, hie depositis mortalibvs exwiis secvndvm Redemptoris 
adventvni espectat. 

Carolvm linqvens, repetit P.arcntem 
Et valcdicens Rliuna; revisit 
Annam et Avlai dccvs, alto Olympi 
Mvtat Honore. 

Hoc devoti gratiq. animi 
Testimonmm optimo Patrvo 
Jo. Aitonvs M' L P. 
Obiit Coclebs m Regia Albavla 
Non sine maximo Honore omnivm 
Lvctv et Mcerore, JEtat, sva? LXVIII. 
Salvt. Hvmana; M.DCXXXVIII. 


Et Fokis e.\emplak sed non imitabile honf..sti. 

At the top is, Decerpt;u Dabvnt Odorcm, the motto 
of the Aytons. 




His Englisli poems are few in munber. Tlioy 
are remiirkable for their purity of style and tli^li- 
cacy of fiincy. Tlie following lyric is accounted 
one of his best pieces : 

1 lov'd tlice once, I'll love no more, 

TUine be tlie giief as is the blame ; 
Thou art not what thou wast before, 
What reason I should be the same ? 
He that can love unlov'd agmn, 
Hath better store of love than brain : 
God send me love my debts to pay. 
While mithrifts fool their love away. 

Nothing could have my love o'erthrown, 

If thou hadst still continued mine ; 
Yea, if thou hadst remain'd thy own, 
1 might perchance have yet been thine. 
But then thy freedom did recall, 
That it thou might elsewhere enthral ; 
And then how could I but disdain 
A captive's captive to remain ? 

When new desires had conquer'd thee, 
And ch.anged the object of thy will, 
It had been lethargy in me, 
Not constancy to love thee still. 
Yea, it had been a sin to go 
And prostitute affection so. 
Since we are taught no prayers to say 
To such as must to others pray. 

Yet do thou glory in thy choice. 

Thy choice of his good fortune boast ; 
I'll neither giieve nor yet rejoice, 
To see him gain what I have lost : 
Tlie height of my disdain shall be, 
To laugh at him, to blush for thee 
To love thee still, but go no more, 
A begging to a beggar's door. 

In a different style are the following stanzas 
prefixed to his Basia sive Stretia Cal. Jan. Lond. 
1605, 4to. They are addressed "To the most 
worshipful and worthy Sir James Hay, Gentleman 
of his Majesty's bedchamber." 

When Janus' keys unlocks the gates above. 
And tlirows more age on our sublunar lands, 

1 sacrifice with flames of fervent love 
These hecatombs of kisses to thy hands. 

'Hieir worth is small, but thy deserts are such. 

They'll pass in worth, if once thy shrine they touch. 

Laugh out on them, and then they will compare 
Witli all the haiTest of th' Ar.abian fields, 

With all the pride of that perfumed air 

Which winged troops of musked Zephyrs yields. 
When with their breath they embalm the Elysian plain. 
And make the flow'rs reflect those scents again. 

Yea, they will be more sweet in their conceit 
Than Venus' kisses spent on Aden's wounds. 

Than those wherewith p.ale Cyntliia did entreat 
The lovely shepherd of the Latmian bounds. 

And more than those which Jove's ambrosial month 

Prodigalized upon the Trojan youth. 

I know they cannot such acceptance find. 
If rigour censure then- xmcourtly frame ; 

But thou art comteous, and wilt call to mind 
Th' excuse which shields both me and them from blame 

My Muse was but a novice into this. 

And, being virgin, scarce well taught to kiss. 

A panegyrical sonnet by Ayton occurs among 
' Tlie Poetical Essays of Alexander Craige, Scoto- 
britane,' sig. F. 3. London 1604, 4to. {Irvmifi, 
Scottish Poets, vol. ii. p. 300, note.'] A beau- 
tiful song, commencing, " I do confess thou'rt 
smooth and fair," printed anonymously in Lawes's 
' Ayres and Dialogues,' 1659, and rendered into 
Scotch by Burns without improving it, has been 
attributed to Sir Robert Ayton, but without any 
other grouud than that " in purity of language, 
elegance, and tenderness, it resembles his un- 
doubted lyrics." In ' Watson's Collection of Scot- 
tish poems,' 1706-11, several of Ayton's pieces 
are inserted together with his name, but the poem 
mentioned appears without it, separate fi'om those 
that are stated to be his. John Aubrey style.? 
Ayton " one of the best poets of his time." Ac- 
cording to Dempster, he also wrote Greeli and 
French verses. Several of his Latin poems are 
preserved in the 'Delitiae Poetanim Scotorum, 
printed in 1637 at Amsterdam. — Bannatyne Mis- 
cellany. — The following is a list of his works : 

Ad J.icobum VI. Britanniarum Regem, Angliam petentem 
PanegjTis, p. 40. inter Dehtias Poetarum Scotonmi, edit, ab 
Artm-o Johnstone. Amst. 1G37, 8vo 

Basia, sive Strena ad Jacobum Hayum, Kquitem illustris- 
siniuni, p. 54. 

Lessus in Funere Raphaelis Thorei, Medici, et Poetie prsE- 
stantissimi, Londoni peste extincti, p. 61. ibid. 

Carina Caro, p. 63. ib. 

De Proditione Pulverea, qux incidet in diem Martis, p. 65. ib. 

Gratiarum Actio, cum in privatum Cubiculum admitteretur. 
]t. 66. ibid. 

Epigrammata Varia, ib. 

In Obitum Duels Bucking.amii, a Filtono cultro extincti 
MDcxxviii. p. 74. ibid. 





Badenoch, a sumaine derived from the distriot of that 
name, in the south-cast ot Inverness -shire, anciently ln'hnig- 
mg to the powerful family of the Cumyns. In 1230, Walter 
Cumjm, eari of RIenteith in right of his wife, the second 
son of Willian-. Cumyn, earl of Buchan, accjuired the lordship 
of Badenoch, hy a grant of Alexander the Second. lC/i(d- 
mers" Caledonia, vol. Li. p. 563.] In 1291, John Cumyn, 
lord of Badenoch, acknowledged Edward the First :ls 
superior of Scotland. His son John, called the Red Cumyn, 
was the personage who was slain at Dumfries, by Robert the 
Bnice, 10th Februaiy 1306. On the forfeiture of the Cu- 
myns, Bruce annexed the lordship of Badenoch to the earl- 
dom of Murray, and the clan Chattan, whose original pos- 
sessions were in Lochaher, appear about this period to have 
settled in Badenoch. [^Gregory's Highlands, p. 77.] Robert 
the Second granted Badenoch to his son Alexander, earl of 
Buchan, commonly called, from his ferocity, " the Wolf of 
Badenoch." [See Buch^vn, earis of.] In 1452 the crown 
bestowed Badenoch on the eai-1 of Huntly, who, at the head of 
the clan Chattan, maintained a fierce warfai'e with the west- 
em clans, and his neighbours of Lochaber. [See Huntly, 
earl of.] As early as 1440 we find one Patiick Badenoch 
serving the office of baillie of Aberdeen. [^Extracts from 
Aberdeen Burgh Records, pp. 6, 8, &c.] The name is not 
uncommon in the north of Scotland. 

Baillte, a surname supposed to have been originally the 
same as Baliol. In the account of the Baillies of Lamington 
inserted in the appendix toNisbet's Heraldiy, it is stated that 
Mr. Alexander Baillie of Castlecairy, a learned antiquarian, 
was of opinion that the family of Lamington were a branch 
of the illustrious house of the Baliols, who were lords of Gal- 
loway, and kings of Scotland, [See Baliol, surname of.] 
An uncle of King John Baliol, named Sir Alexander Baliol 
of Cavers, was gi-eat chamberlain of Scotland in the reign of 
his nephew, in 1292. By Isabel, his wife, the daughter and 
heiress of Richard de Chillam, the %vidow of David de Strath- 
bogie, eai-1 of Athol, he had two sons, Alexander and William 
Baliol. Alexander the eldest, after the abdication of his cou- 
sin. King John, joined the Scottish party, for which he w:is, 
by order of King Edward, imprisoned in the tower of London, 
but upon security given by his father and two gentlemen of 
the house of Lindsay, he was enlarged, [i^yme?-.] His other 
son, Williimi, had the lands of Penston and Canibroe, in the 
barony of Bothwell, Lanarkshire, the oldest of the possessions 
of the Baillies of Lamington. After the abdication of his 
cousin, he also joined the Scottish party, which rendered him 
so obnoxious to King Edward, that by act of the parliament 
of England, he was, in 1297, fined in four years' rent of his 
estate. From Robert the Bruce he got a charter of the lands 
of Penston. He gave in pure alms to the monks of Newhat- 
tle Ucentiam formxindi stngnum in ten'a de Caiiibrue. The 
lands of Cambroe continued in the same family till they were 
given over to a younger son, the ancestor of the Baliols or 
Baillies of the house of Carphin. 

In the list of captives taken with Da\'id the Second at the 
battle cf Duriiam in 1346, occiu-s William BailUe [%7rt€7-], 

the first time tliat the name is found thus written, or V.n'^- 
lished, as it is expressed. After his releiusc this William 
Baillie was, in 1357, knighted by David the Second, who 
gi-anted him a charter, dated 27th January 13G8, of tlio bar- 
ony of Lamington, whicli has remained in tlio possession ot 
his descendants till the present time. Lamington had pre- 
viously belonged to a family of tlie name of Braidfoot. It 
is traditionally stated that the celebrated Sir William Wal- 
lace acquired tlie estate of Lamington by man-ying Marion 
Braidfoot, the heiress of that family, and tliat it p:issed 
to Sir William Baillie on his mamage with the eldest 
daughter and heiress of Wallace. The statement, however, 
is incoiTect. Sir William Wallace left no legitinuite off- 
spring, but his natural daughter is said to have married Sir 
William BailUe of Hoprig, the progenitor of the Bmllies of 

This Sir William BailUe of Hoprig and Lammgton had two 
sons, WilUam his heir, and Alexander, who, according to 
Baillie of Castlccany, was the first of the family of Carphin. 
From him descended also, besides the Baillies of Parbroth, 
the BaiUies of Park, Jer^^ston, Dunrogal, Cambroe, Castle- 
carry, and Provand. The first of the latter family was Sir 
William BailUe of Provand, the cousin of the then laird of 
Lamington. In 1557, he was appointed to the then benefice 
of Lamington, being the first incumbent of it after the Re- 
formation. At that period a certain proportion of the Lords 
of Council and Session were chosen from among the clergy, 
and in 1566 he was called to the bench, when he took the 
title of Lord Provand. He was lord president of the court of 
session fi'om 1565 till his death in 1595. He left a daughter, 
Elizabeth, his sole heiress, who maiTied Sir Robert Hamilton 
of Goslingtoun and Silvertonhill. 

Of the house of Carphin was Mr. Cuthbert Baillie, who 
was rector of Cumnock, commendator of Glenluce, and lord 
high treasurer of Scotland in 1512, in the reign of James the 
Fourth. \^Lives of the Lord High Treasurers.'] 

The eldest son of the above mentioned Sir William Baillie 
of Hoprig and Lamington, is designed Wdlielmus Baillie of 
Hoprig, in a charter from his cousin, " Joannes de Hamilton, 
Dominus de Cadiow," ancestor of the dukes of Hamilton, ot 
the lands of Hyndshaw and Watston, dated 4th February 
1395. He married Isabella, daughter of Sir WilUam Scton 
of that ilk, ancestor of the earls of Wintoun, by whom he had 
Sir William, his son and heir, who was one of the liostages 
sent to England for James the Fu-st, in exchange for David 
Leslie of Leslie, in 1432. [i?//m€?',] 

The latter Sir William Baillie of Hoprig and Lamington, 
married Catharine, daughter of the above mentioned Sir 
John Hamilton of Cadzow. 

His son and successor, also named Sir William Baillie^ 
was in 1484, one of the conservators of the peace with Kn^- 
land, on the part of Scotland, then concluded at Not ingham, 
and in the year following he was witness to a charte of the 
lands of Canibusnethan, granted hy John Lord Some, ville to 
John Somcrville, his son, by Mary Baillie liis wife, daughter 
of this Sir William Baillie of Lamington. His son and bro- 
ther were also witnesses to the same charter. He h:id two 
other daugliters; Margaret married to John earl of Suther- 




:and, and had issue, and Marion to John Lord Lindsay of the 
Byrea, ancestor to the carls of Crawford. 

Sir William Baillie of Hoprig and Lamington, his son, in 
1492, had a charter under the great seal to him and Marion 
Home his wife, in conjunct fee .TOd infeftment. This lady 
«MS the daugllter of Sir Patrick Home of Polwarth, comp- 
troller of Scotland in the reign of James the Kourth. .and 
ancestor of the earls of Marchmont, by whom he had Sir 
William Baillie, his son .and heir, and John Baillie, of whom 
descended' the Baillics of St. Jolm's Kirk, Lanarkshire, of 
whom are come the Baillies of Jeri'iswood and Walston. 

Sir William Baillie, the eldest son, m:irried his cousin Eli- 
jabeth, daughter and one of the heirs of line of John Lord 
Linds.ay of the Byres, by whom he had Sir William his son 
and heir, and a daughter, Janet, married to Sir David Ham- 
ilton of Preston. 

Sir William B.iillie of L.amington, his son and successor, 
was made principal masiter of the wardrobe to Queen MaiT, 
by a gift under the privy seal, 24th January 1542. He mar- 
ried Janet Hamilton, d.aughter of James first eari of An-an, 
and duke of Chatelheraiilt, by whom he had Sir William 
Baillie, his successor, and a younger son, of whom descended 
the Baillies of Bagbie and Hardington, and their cadets. His 
son. Sir WilHain Baillie, was a steady adherent of M.iry, 
queen of Scots, and fought for her at the battle of Langside, 
for which he afterwards forfeited. He married Marg.aret, 
daughter of John Lord M,axwell, widow of Archibald, earl of 
Angus, by whom he had one daughter, Margaret, m.Trried to 
her cousin, Edw.ird M,axwell, commendator of Dundrennan, 
[bird son of Lord Hemes of Terregles, on whom .and his chil- 
dren by his daughter, he settled the e state, the heir of entail 
to assume the name of Baillie, a act of p.arliament 
being procured for the purpose. Subsequently he had a son 
by a Mrs. Home, whom, on his wife's death, he married, 
hoping thereby to legltim.atize his son. He also endeavoured 
to reduce the settlement which he had made of his estates, 
BO that this son, named WiUiara, might succeed ; but it being 
proved that he was born while his father's first wife was 
alive, ne was not .able to bre.ak the settlement. The young 
man went over to Germany, and entered into the service of 
the renowned Gust.a\-us Adolphus, king of Sweden, in which 
he attained to the rank of major-general. Wlien the troubles 
began in Scotland, in 1638, he was, with other Scotch gen- 
eral officers in the Swedish service, called home by the Cove- 
nanters, to command theu- army. From the minutes of the 
parliament 1641, it appears that he made some faint efforts 
to reduce the settlement of the estate of L.amington, but in 
vain. [^Nesbifs Heraldry, Appendix, vol. ii. p. 138.] He 
served as lieutenant-general ag.ainst the m.arquis of Montrose, 
by whom he defeated at Alford and Kilsyth, in 1645. 
General BailUe manned Janet, daughter of Sir William Bruce 
of Glenhouse, by Janet his ivife, daughter and heiress of John 
BaiUie of I^tbam, with whom he got the estate of Letham, 
in Stirlingshire. His eldest son James m.aiTied Joanna, the 
daughter and heiress of entail of the first Lord Forrester of 
Corstorphine, and in her right became in 1679 second Lord 
FoiTester. General Baillie's second son William, mamed 
Lilias, another of the daughters of the first Lord Forrester, 
by whom he William, who subsequently succeeded as 
Lord Forrester. [See Forrester, lord.] 

Mr. Maxwell, who assumed the name of Baillie, grandson 
and heir of entail of the laird of L.amington, succeeded to 
the estate on the death of Sir William BailUe, and was knighted 
hy James the Sixth. 

Female heirs have often held this estate, but in accordance 
nith the entail, the name of Baillie descends with it. 

Vice-admiral Sir Thomas John Cochrane, K.C.B., son ol 
admiral the Hon. Sir Alexander Forrester Cochrane, G.C.B., 
ytli son of the 8th earl of Dundonald, by his first wife, Matilda 
Wisbart Ross, daughter of Lieut.-Gen. Sir Cliarles Ross ol 
Bahiagown castle, b.aronet,, with other issue, Alexander 
Baillie Cochrane, Esq. of Lamington, bom in November 1816. 
married Annabelia Mary Elizabeth, daughter of A. R. Drum- 
n]ond, Esq. of Cadlands, Hants; issue, two daughters. 

Baillie of Jerviswoode, the name of an ancient family, 
now possessors of the earldom of Haddington. Charles. 
Lord Binning, eldest son of the sixth earl of Haddington, 
having married Rachel, youngest daughter and at length 
sole heiress of George Baillie of Jerviswoode and Mellerstain, 
their second son, the Hon. George Hamilton, on inheriting 
the estates of his maternal grandfather, assumed the sur- 
name and arms of Baillie, and died at Mellerstain, 16th 
April, 1797, aged 74. His eldest son, George Baillie, Esq. of 
Mellerstain and Jerviswoode, was father, with other issua, 
of George Baillie H.amilton, who succeeded in 1858, as tenth 
earl of Haddington (see that title, and pages 177 and 179 oi 
this volume). 

The Baillies of Dochfour, Dunain, and others of the 
name in Inverness-shire, are descended from a son of the 
laird of Lamington, whose gallantry at the battle of Brechin, 
fought on the 18th of May 1452, between the earls of Craw- 
ford and Huntly, was rewarded by the latter, on whose side 
he was, with part of the Castle-lands of Inverness. 

In Ross-shire are the Baillies of Tarradale and Redcastle. 
(See page 179 of this volume). 

Baillie of Polkemmet, originally Paukommot, the name 
of an ancient family in Linlithgowshire. One of its modern 
possessors, William Baillie, advocate, the eldest son of Tho- 
mas Baillie, writer to the signet, was raised to the bench iu 
1792, when he took the title of Lord Polkemmet. His son, 
Sir William Baillie, was, Nov, 14, 182y, created a baronet, and was 
s. by his s. Sir Wm,, Jan, 28, 1854, who m. April J4, 1846, Mary, 
dr. of Stair Hathom Stewart, Esq. of PhysgUl, Co. Wigton. 

The surname of BaiUie, in some instances, may have been 
derived from the word Bailiff, or the term bailie, 

BAILLIE, Robert, a learned Presbyterian 
minister, was born at Glasgow in 1599, His fa- 
ther, described as a citizen, was a son of Baillie 
of Jerviston, of tlie family of Carphiii, descended 
from the Baillies of Lamington, while his motliei 
was related to the Gibsons of Durie. He was edu- 
cated at the university of his native city, w-here 
he toolv the degree of A,M. Having studied divin- 
ity, in due time he was ordained by Archbisliop 
Law of Glasgow. Becoming tutor to the son ol 
the earl of Eglinton, that nobleman presented 
him to the living of Kilwinning, in Ayrsliire. In 
1626 he was admitted a regent at Glasgow col- 
lege. About the same time he appears to have 
prosecuted the study of the oriental languages, 
and was anxious to promote similar studies m the 
university. In 1629 lie delivered an oration fr 




Lau/lfm LiiKjurB Ilehrcsie. In 1633 he dccliuoil 

tlie ofler of a living in Edinbiirgli. Tlic ;itt(.'iii|it 
of Archbishop Laud to intnxliice tlio Coiiiiiion 
Prayer into Scothuid met witli liis firm ojiposi- 
tion ; and, though episcopally ordained, he joined 
the presliyterians, and was in 1G38 elected, by the 
presbytery of Irvine, their representative at the 
Assemblj- hehl at Glasgow that year. In 1G39, 
as chaplain to Lord Egliuton's regiment, ho was 
with the arnu' of the Covenanters, encamped on 
Dunse Law, under Alexander Leslie ; on which 
occasion he appears to have caught some portion 
of the military ardour which then prevailed in the 
cause of liberty and religion. " It would have 
done you good," he remarks in one of his letters, 
" to liave cast your eyes athort our brave and 
rich liills as oft as I did, with great contentment 
and joy ; for I was there among the rest, being 
chosen preacher by the gentlemen of our shire, 
who came late witli Lord Eglinton. I furnished 
to half a dozen of good fellows, muskets and pikes, 
and to my boy a broadsword. I carried myself, 
as the fashion was, a sword, and a couple of 
Dutch pistols at my saddle ; but, I promise, for 
the offence of no man, except a robber in the 
way ; for it was our pai't alone to pray and preach 
lor the encouragement of our countrymen, which 
I did to my power, most chearfuUy." [_BailUc's 
Letters, vol. i. p. 17-1.] He afterwards states, 
" Our sojours grew in experience of arms, in 
courage, in favour, daily. Every one encouraged 
another. The sight of the nobles, and their be- 
loved pastors, daily raised their hearts. The good 
sermons and prayers, morning and even, under 
the roof of heaven, to which their drums did call 
them for bells ; the remonsl^'ances very frequent 
of the goodness of their cause ; of their conduct 
hitherto, b\ a hand clearly divine; also Lesly's 
skill and prudence and fortune, made them all as 
i-esolute for battle as could be wished. We were 
fea)-ed that emulation among our nobles might 
have done harm, when they should be met in the 
field ; but such was the wisdom and authority of 
that old, little, crooked soldier, that all, with an 
incredible submission, from the beginning to the 
end, gave over themselves to be guided by him, 
as if he had been great Solyman. . . Had you 
lent your ear in the morning, or especially at even. 

and heard in the tents the sound of some singing 
psalms, some pi aying, and some reading Scripture, 
ye would have been refreshed. True, there was 
swearing, and cui-sing, and brawling, in some 
quarters, whereat we were grieved ; but we hoped, 
if our canq) had Ih'cu a little settled, to have got- 
ten some w.iy for these misorders ; for all of any 
fashion diil regret, and all promised to do their 
best endeavours for liclping all abuses. For my 
.self, I never found my mind in better temper than 
it was all that time since 1 came from home, till 
my licad was again homeward ; for I was as a man 
who had taken my leave from the world, aiul was 
resolved to die in that service without return." 
[Ibid. p. 211.] The treaty of Berwick, negotiated 
«ith Charles in person, produced a temporary 
cessation of hostilities. 

In lC-10, when the Covenanters again appeared 
in arms, ]\Ir. Baillie joined tliem, and towards the 
end of that year, he was sent to London, with 
other commissioners, to prefer charges against 
Laud, for the innovations which tliat prelate had 
obtruded on the Church of Scotland, lie had 
previously published ' The Canterburian"s Self- 
Conviction ;' and he also wrote various other con- 
troversial pamphlets. In 1642 he was, along with 
I\Ir. David Dickson, appointed joint professor ol 
divinity at Glasgow, wliere he took the degree of 
D.D., and was employed cliiefi}' in teaching the 
oriental languages, in which he was much skilled. 
In January 1651, on the removal of liis colleague 
to the university of Edinburgh, he obtained the 
sole professorship. So great was the estimation in 
which he was held, that he had at one time the 
choice of the divinity chair in the four Scottish 
universities. In 1643 he was elected a member of 
the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, an in- 
teresting account of the proceedings at which he 
has given in his Correspondence. He was a lead 
ing member of all the General Assemblies from 
1638 to 1653, excepting only those held while he 
was with the divines at Westminster. In 1649 he 
was sent to Holland as a commissioner from the 
Church, for the pui^posc of inviting over Chwles 
the Second, under the linutations of the Cove- 
nant. After the Restoration, on the 23d January 
1661, he was adinitted principal of the university 
of Glasgow He was afterwards oflercd a bisb- 




opric, which he refused. AVhen the aew arch- 
bishop of Glasgow, Andrew Fairfoiil, arrived at his 
metropolitan seat, he did not fail to pay his re- 
spects to the learned principal. Baillie admits 
I hat "he preached on the Sunday, soberly and 
well." " Tlie chancellor, my noble Wnd scholar," 
ne afterwards states, " brought all in to see me In 
my chamber, where I gave them sack and ale, the 
oest of the town. The bishop was very courteous 
to me. I excused my not using of his styles, and 
professed my utter difference from his way, yet 
behoved to intreat his fiivour for our affairs of the 
college, wherein he promised liberally. What he 
will perform time will try." [Letters, vol. ii. p. 
4G1.] According to another account, the arch- 
bishop visited him during his illness, and was ac- 
costed in the following terras: "Mr. Andrew, I 
will not call you my lord. King Charles would 
have made me one of these lords ; but I do not 
find in the New Testament that Christ has any 
lords in his house." In other respects he is said 
to have treated the prelate very courteously. Mr. 
B.iiliie died in July 1662, at the age of sixty-three. 
He was the author of several publications, in Latin 
and English, one of which, entitled ' Opus Histo- 
ricum et Chronologicum,' published at Amsterdam 
in 160.3, and reprinted in 1668, is mentioned in 
terms of praise by Spottiswood. Excei-pts from 
nis ' Letters and Journals,' in 2 volumes octavo, 
were published at Edinburgh in 1755. These con- 
tain some valuable and curious detaUs of the his- 
tory of those times. The Letters and Journals 
themselves are preserved entire iu the archives of 
the Church of Scotland, and iu the university of 
Glasgow. Many of tliese letters are addressed to 
the author's cousin-german, William Spang, min- 
ister of the Scottish staple at Campvere, and af- 
terwards of the English congregation at Middel- 
burg in Zeeland. Mi-. Baillie understood no fewer 
tlian thirteen languages, among which were He- 
brew, Chaldee, Syriac, Samaritan, Arabic, and 
Mr. Baillie was twice married. His first wife 
was Liiias Fleming, of the family of Cardarroch, 
in the parish of Cadder, near Glasgow. Of this 
marriage there were several children, but only five 
survived him. His eldest son, Henry, studied for 
the church, but never got a living. His posterity 

inherited the estate of Carnbroe, which some 
years ago was sold by General Baillie. The first 
wife died in June 1653, and in October 1656, he 
married Mrs. Wilkie, a widow, the daughter 
of Dr. Strang, the former principal of Glasgow 
nniversity. By this lady he had a daughter, 
Margaret, who became the wife of Walkinshaw 
of Barrowfield, and grandmother of the cele- 
brated Henry Home, Lord Kames. Miss Cle- 
mentina WalMnshaw, the mistress of Prince 
Charles Stuart, was also a descendant of Mr. 
Baillie's daughter. 

Mr. Wodrow extols Baillie as a prodigy of eru- 
dition, and commends his Latin style as suitable 
to the Augustan age. In foreign countries, says 
Irving, he appears to have enjoyed some degree ol 
celebrity, and is mentioned by Saldenus as a 
chronologer of established reputation. Although 
amiable and modest in private life, in his contro- 
versial writings he displayed much of the charac- 
teristic violence of the times. 

The following is a list of Mr. Baillie's works : 

Operis Historici et Clironologici libri duo, cum Tribus Dia- 
tribus Theologicis. 1. De Hcereticoi-um Autocatacrisi. 2. 
An Quicquid in Deo est, Deus sit. 3. De Proidestinatione. 
Arast. 166.3, fol. These tliree Dissertations printed separately. 
Amst. 1664, 8vo. 

A Defence of the Reformation of the Church of Scotland 
against Mr. M.ixwell, Bishop of Ross. 

An Antidote against Arminianism. Lond. 1641, 8vo 
1652. 8to. 

The Unlawfuhiess and Danger of a Limited Prelacie ano 
Episcopacie. Lond. 1011, 4to. 

A Parallel or briefe comparison of the Liturgie with the 
Masse-Book, the Bre\narie, the Ceremoniall, and other Ro- 
ish Ritualls. Lond. 1641, 1642, 1646, 1661, 4to. 

Queries anent the Senlce Booke. 

A Treatise on Scotch Episcopacy. 

Ladensium AvroKxrctx^itrtt, the Canterburian's Self-Con- 
viction ; or an evident Demonstration of the avowed Ar- 
minianisme, Poperie, and Tyrannic of that Faction, by their 
o^vne confessions : with a Postscript to the Personal Jesuit* 
Lysimachus Nicanor. Lond. 1641. 4to. 

.Satan the Leader in chief to all who resist the Reparation 
of Sion ; as it was cleared in a Sermon to the Honourable 
House of Commons at theh late Solemn Fast, Febr. 28, 1643, 

Errours and Induration are the great sins and the gre,it 
Judgments of the time; preached in a Sermon before the 
Right Honourable the House of Peers in the Abbey Church 
at Westminster, July 30, 1645, the day of the monthely Fast 
Lond. 1645, 4to. 

An Historicall Vindication of the Government of the Chnrch 
of Scotland, from the manifold base Calumnies which the 
most mahgnant of the Prelats did mvent of old, and now 
lately have been published with great industn.' in two pam- 
phlets at London ; the one intitided hsachars Harden, &c 




written and published at Oxfnrd by John Maxwell, a Scottish 
Prelate, &c. Lend. IG-IG, 4to. 

A Dissuasive from the EiTours of the Time ; wherein the 
Tenets of the PrincipiUl Sects, especially of the Independents, 
are drawn toj^cthcr in one Map, &c. Lond. 16-lo, 4to. IG-lG, 
4to. IGoo, 4to. 

Anabaptisni, the tme Fountaine of Independency. Brown- 
isme. Antinomy, Faniilisme, &c. in a Second Part of the Dis- 
8u.'\sive from the Errours of the Time. Lond. 1647, 4to. 

A Review of Dr. Bramble, late Bishop of Londondeiry, his 
F.aire Wai'niiig against the Scotes Diseiplin. Delf 1G40, 4to. 
Baillie^s Rcxiew was reprinted at Edinburgh ; and having 
been translated into Dutch, it was published at Utrecht, 

A S'Otch Antidote ag.ainst the English Infection of Arniin- 
lanism. Lond. 1S52, 12mo. 

Appendix practica ad Jo.annis Bitxtoi"fii Epitomcn Grani- 
maticae Hebraeae. Edin. 1G53, 8vo. 

A Reply to the Modest Inquirer. Perhaps relating to the 
dispute between the Resolutioners and Protesters. 

Catechesis Elenctica Errorum qui hodie vex.ant Ecclesiam. 
Lond. 1G54, 12mo. 

The Dissuasive from the EiTours of the Time, Vindicated 
from the Exceptions of Mr. Cotton and Mr. Tombcs. Loud. 
JG55, 4to. 

Lettere and JoiuTials, containing an Impartial Account of 
Public Transactions, Civil, Ecclesiastical, and Military, in 
England and Scotl.ind, from the beginning of the Civil Wars, 
in 1G37, to the year 1G62. With an Account of the Author's 
Life prefixed, and a Glossaiy annexed, by Robert Aitken. 
Edin. 1775, 2 vols. 8vo. The same edited from the author's 
MS. by David L.aing, Esq. Edin. 1841-2. 3 vols. 8vo. 

BAILLIE, Robert, of Jerviswood, a distiu- 
guished patriot of the reigu of Charles tlie Second, 
sometimes called the Scottish Sydney, was the son 
of George Baillie of St. John's Kirk, Lanarl^shire, 
a cadet of the Lamington family, who had become 
proprietor of the estate of Jerviswood in the same 
county. From his known attachnunit to tlie sause 
of civil and religious liberty, he had long been an 
object of suspicion and dislike to the tyrannical 
government which then ruled in Scotland. The 
following cu'cunislauces first brought upon him 
the persecution of the council. In June 1676, the 
Reverend Mr. Kirkton, a non-conformist minister, 
who had married the sister of Mr. Baillie, was 
illegally ai-rested on the High Street of Edinburgh 
by one Carstairs, an infoi-mer employed by Arch- 
bishop Sharp ; and, not having a warrant, he en- 
deavoured to extort money from his prisoner be- 
fore he would let him go. Baillie being sent for 
by his brother-in-law, hastened to his relief, and 
succeeded in rescuing him. Kirkton had been 
inveigled by Carstairs into a mean-looking 
near tlie common prison, and on Mr. Baillie with 
several other persons coming to the liouse, they 
found the door locked in the inside. Baillie called 

to Carstairs to open, wlien Kirkton, cncouragea 
oy the voices of friends, desired Carstairs, who 
after his capture had in vain attempted to procure 
a warrant, cither to set him free, or to produce a 
warrant for his detention. Instead of complying 
with either request, Carstairs drew a pocket pis- 
tol and a struggle ensued between Kirkton and 
him for its possession. Those without hearing the 
noise and cries of murder, burst open the door, 
and fonnd Kirkton on the floor and Carstairs sit- 
ting on him. Mr. Baillie drew his sword, and 
commanded him to vise, asking at the same time 
if he had any warrant to apprehend Mr. Ku-kton. 
Carstau's said he had a warrant for conducting 
him to prison, but he refused to produce it, saying 
he was not bonnd to show it. Mr. Baillie de- 
clared that if he saw any warrant against his 
friend, he would ass'ist in carrj'ing it into execu- 
tion. He offered no violence whatever to Car- 
stairs, but only threatened to sue him for the ille- 
gal arrest of hi'i brother-in-law. He then, with 
Mr. Kirkton and his friends, left the house. Upon 
the complaint of Carstairs, who had procured an 
antedated warr.ant, signed by nine of the privy 
council, Mr. Baillie was called before the council, 
and by the influence of Shai-p fined in six thou- 
sand merks, (£318; Wodrow says the fine was 
£500 sterling;) to be imprisoned till paid. After 
being four months in prison he was liberated, on 
payment of half the fine to Carstairs. The abovf 
mentioned Mi'. Kirkton wrote a memoir of tin 
church during his own times, from wliich Wod- 
row the historian derived much valuable assist- 

In the year 1683, seeing no prospect of relief 
from the tyranny of the government at home, Mr 
B.aillie and some other gentlemen commenced a 
negotiation with tlie patentees of South Carolina, 
with the view of eniigratiug with their families to 
that colony ; in this following the example of 
Cromwell, Hampden, .and others jirevious to the 
commencement of the Civil wars ; but in botli in- 
stances the attempt was frustrated, .and in Mr. 
Baillie's case fatally fur liimself. About the same 
time that this negotiation was begun, he and sev- 
eral of his co-patriots had entered into a coitp 
spondence with tlie heads of tlie Protestant party 
in England; and, on the invitation of the latter. 





lie and five others repaired to London, to consult 
with the duke of Monmouth, Sydney, Russell, and 
their friends, as to the plans to be adopted to ob- 
tain a cliango of measures in the goveniment. Ou 
the discovery of the Rye- House Plot, 
with which he had no connection, Mr. 
Baillic and several of his friends were 
Arrested, and sent down to be tried in 
Scotland. The hope of a pardon being 
held out to him, on condition of his giv- 
ing the government some information, he 
replied, " They who can make such a 
proposal to me, neither know me nor my ' 

country." Lord John Russell observes, 
" It is to the honour of Scotland, that no \->^$ 
witnesses came forward voluntarily to 
accuse their associates, as had been done 
in England." He had married, early in 
life, a sister of Sir Archibald Johnston 
of Warriston, who was executed in Juno 
1633, and during his confinement pre- 
vious to trial, Ml-. Baillie was not per- 
mitted to have the society of his lady, 
although she offered to go into irons, as 
an assurance against any attempt of 
facilitating his escape. He was ac- 
cused of having entered into a conspiracy to 
raise rebellion, and of being concerned in the 
Rye-House Plot. As his prosecutors could find 
no evidence against him, he was ordered to fi"ee 
himself by oath, which he refused, and was in 
consequence fined six thousand pounds sterling. 
His persecutors were not satisfied even with this, 
for he was still kept shut up in prison, and denied 
all attendance and assistance, which had such an 
eff'ect upon his health, as to reduce him almost to 
the last extremity. Bishop Burnet, in his ' His- 
tory of his own Times,' tells us that the ministers 
of state were most earnestly set ou Baillie's de- 
struction, though he was now in so languishing a 
;ondition, that if his death would have satisfied 
the malice of the court, it seemed to be very near. 
He adds, that " all the while he was in prison, he 
seemed so composed and cheerful, that his beha- 
viour looked like the reviving of the spirit of the 
noblest of tne old Greeks or Romans, or rather of 
(he primitive Christians, and first martyrs in those 
best days of the church." 

The following woodcut is taken from an earl) 
portrait of Mr. Baillie, painted in 1660. The ori- 
ginal miniature is in possession of George Baillie, 
Esq., of Jerviswood and MeUerstain. 


On the 23d December 1684 ]Mr. Baillie was 
aiTaigned before the high court of justiciary on 
the capital charge, when he appeared in a dying 
condition. He was carried to the bar in his night- 
gown, attended by his sister, the wife of Blr. Ker 
of Graden, who sustained him with cordials ; and 
not being able to stand he was obliged to sit. He 
solemnly denied having been accessary to any 
conspiracy against the king's or his brother's life, 
or of being an enemy to the monarchy. Evei-j 
expedient being resorted to, to insure his convic- 
tion, he was found guilty on the morning of De- 
cember 24th, and condemned to be hanged thai 
afternoon at the marfeet-cross of Edinburgh, his 
head to be fixed on the Netherbow Port, and 
his body to be quartered, the quarters to be ex- 
hibited on the gaols of Jedburgh, Lanark, Ayr, 
and Glasgow. On hearing his sentence he said, 
" My lords, the time is short, the sentence is 
shai-p, but I thank my God who hath made me a& 
fit to die as you are to live." He was attended 
to the scaffold by his faithful and affectionate sis 




ter. He was so weak tliat he required to be 
assisted in mounting tlie ladder. As soon as he 
was np he said, " My faint zeal for the Protestant 
religion liatli brought me to this ;" but the drums 
interrupted him. He had prepared a speech to be 
delivered on the scaffold, but was prevented. 
" Thus," says Bishop Burnet, " a learned and 
worthy gentleman, after twenty mouths' hard 
usage, was brought to such a death, in a way so 
full, in all the steps of it, of the spii'it and practice 
of the courts of the Inquisition, that one is tempted 
to think that the methods taken in it \\-cre suggest- 
ed by one well studied, if not practised in them." 
Dr. Owen, who was acquainted with Baillie, wiit- 
ing to a friend in Scotland before his death, said of 
him, " You have truly men of great spirit among 
you ; there is, for a gentleman, Mr. Baillie of Jer- 
viswood, a person of the greatest abilities I ever 
almost met with." Mr. Baillie's family was for 
the time completely ruined by his forfeiture. His 
son George, after his execution, was obliged to 
take reftige in Holland. He afterwards returned 
with the prince of Orange, in 1688, when he was 
restored to his estates. He man-ied Grizel, the 
daughter of Sir Patrick Hume of Polwarth. 

George B»illie, Esq. of Jerviswoode and Mellerstain, (born 
in 1763, died in 1841,) nephew of the seventli earl of Had- 
dington, had issue, 1. George Baillie Hamilton, who suc- 
ceeded liis cousin as tenth earl of Haddington, (see page 174 
of this volume ;) 2. Eliza, born in 1803, married the second 
marquis of Breadalb.ane ; 3. Charles Baillie, bom in 1804, 
lord-advocate 1858, a lord of session 18o9, under the title 
of Lord Jerviswoode, married, with issue ; 4. Rubert, major 
in the army; 5. Rev. John, a canon of York; 6. Captain 
Ihomas, R.N. ; 7. Mary, married George John James, Lord 
Haddo, eldest son of George, fourth earl of Aberdeen, with 
issue; 8. Georgina, married in 1835, Lord Polw.arth, with issue, 
died in 1859; 9. Catherine Charlotte, married in 1840, fourth 
earl of Ashburnham, with issue ; 10. Grisel, born in 1822. 

Evan Baillie, an eminent merchant of BHstol, born in In- 
verness-shire m 1742, died at Dochfour in that county, in 
June 1835, left two sons. Colonel Hugh Baillie of Redcastle 
and Tarradale, Ross-shire, and James Evan Baillie, Esq. of 
Culduthel and Glenelg. 

BAILLIE, John, of Leys, a distinguished East 
Indian officer, born in Inverness-shire in 1773, ap- 
pointed a cadet on the Bengal establishment in 1790. 
He received the commission of ensign in March 
1793, and of lieutenant in November 1794. In 
1797 he was employed by Lord Teignmouth to 
translate from the Arabic language an important 
work on the Mohammedan law, compiled by Sir 

William Jones. On the first formation of the col- 
lege of Fort-Willi;im, about 1800, he wa.s aiipoint- 
ed professor of the Arabic and Persian languages, 
and of the Mohammedan law in that institution. 
Soon after the commencement of the war with the 
confederated Mahratta chieftains in 1803, he of- 
fered his services as a volunteer in the field, and 
proceeded to join the army then employed in the 
siege of Agra. His captain's commission is dated 
30th September 1803. The precarious situation of 
affairs in the province of Bundlccund requiring the 
superintendence of an officer, qualified to conduct 
various important .and difficult negotiations, on 
which depended the establishment of the British 
authority in tliat province, he was appointed by 
the commander-in-chief to the arduous and re- 
sponsible office of political agent. It was neces- 
sary to occupy a considerable tract of hostile coun 
try, in the name of the Peishwa; to suppress a 
combination of refractory chiefs, and to conciliate 
others; to superintend the operations, both of the 
British troops and of their native auxiliaries ; and 
to establish the British civil power and the collec- 
tion of revenue, in this province, which was not 
only menaced with foreign invasion, but disturbed 
with internal commotion. All these objects were, 
by the zeal and activity of Captain Baillie, accom- 
plished within three months. In a letter to the 
court of directors, it was stated as the opinion of 
the governor-general in council, that on occasion 
of the invasion of the province bj' the troops of 
Ameer Khan, in May and June 1804, " the British 
authority in Bundlccund was alone preserved by 
his fortitude, ability, and influence." His services 
were continued in the capacity of a member of the 
commission appointed in July 1804, for the ad- 
ministration of the affairs of Bundlccund: and ex- 
cepting the short inteiTal of the last five months 
of 1805, which he spent at the presidency, he 
continued engaged in this important service until 
the summer of 1807. He thus effected the peace- 
able transfer to the British dominions of a terri- 
tory yielding an annual revenue of eighteen lacs 
of rapees, (£22.5,000 sterling,) with the sacrifice 
only of a jaghire, of little more than one lac of 
rupees per annum. In July 1807, on the death of 
Colonel Collins, he was appointed resident at 
Lucknow, where he remained till the end of 1816. 




Rod in June 1818, he was placed on the retired 
liAt. He was promoted to the rank of major in 
the Bengal army in January ISll, and to that of 
lieutenant-colonel in July 1815. After his return 
to England, he was, in 1820, elected M.P. for 
Hedon, for which he sat during two parliaments, 
until the dissolution of 1830. In that year he was 
returned for the Inverness burghs, and re-elected 
in 1831 and 1832. He had been chosen a direc- 
tor of the East India Company on the 28th of 
May 1823. He died in London, on the 20th April 
1833, aged sixty. — Annual Obituary. 

BAILLIE, Matthew, M.D., a distinguished 
anatomist and the first physician of his time, was 
born October 27, 1761, in the manse of Shotts, 
Lanarkshire. He was the son of the Rev. James 
Baillie, D.D., then minister of that parish, subse- 
quently of Bothwell, on the Clyde, in the same 
county, and afterwards professor of divinity in the 
university of Glasgow, a descendant, it is sup- 
posed, of the family of Baillie of Jerviswood. On 
his mother's side he was also related to eminent 
individuals. Dr. AVilliam Hunter and Mr. John 
Hunter, the anatomists, being her brothers ; while 
nis own sister was the highly gifted and celebrated 
Joanna Baillie. In 1773 he was sent to Glasgow 
college, where he studied for five years, and so 
greatly distinguished himself, that in 1778 he was 
removed, on Snell's foundation, to Baliol college, 
Oxford. In 1688, Mr. John Suell, with a view 
to support episcopacy in Scotland, devised to trus- 
tees the estate of Uffton, near Leamington, in 
Warwickshire, for educating in that college, Scots 
students from the university of Glasgow. This 
fund now affords one hundred and thirty -two 
pounds per annum to each of ten exhibitions, 
and one of these it was young Baillie's good for- 
tune, in consequence of his great attainments, to 
secure. At the university of Oxford he took 
his degrees in arts and medicine. In 1780, while 
still keeping his tei-ms at Oxford, he became the 
pupil of his nncles, and when in London he re- 
sided with Dr. William Hunter, who, childless 
himself, seems to have adopted him as a son, and 
to have fixed upon him as his successor in the lec- 
ture-room, in which, at this period, he sometimes 
assisted. Easy in his manners, and open in his 
comnninications, he soon became a favourr*° with 

the students, and greatly relieved Dr. Hunter of 
the arduous task of teaching in his latter years. 
The sudden death of the latter, in March 1783, soon 
left him, in conjunction with ^Ir. Cruickshank, his 
late uncle's assistant, to support the reputation of 
the anatomical theatre, in Great Windmill Street, 
which had been founded by his uncle. \_Memoirs 
of Eminent Ptiysicians and Surgeons. London, 
1818, p. 37.] 

Dr. Baillie began his duties as an anatomical 
teacher in 1784, and he continued to lecture, with 
the highest reputation, till 1799. In 1787 he was 
elected physician to St. George's Hospital. In 
1790, having previously taken his degree of M.D. 
at Oxford, he was admitted a fellow of the Royal 
college of Physicians. He was also elected a fel- 
low of the Royal Society, to whose Transactions 
he had contributed two anatomical papers. He 
was also chosen president of the new medical so- 
ciety. The subject of morbid anatomy seems to 
have early attracted his attention, and the valua- 
ble museum of his uncle, to which he had so full 
access, opened to him an ample field for its inves- 
tigation. Before his time, no regular system or 
method of ai-rangement had been pursued by ana- 
tomical writers, which could render this study use- 
fid. By a nice and accurate observation of the 
morbid appearances of every part of the body, and 
the peculiar circumstances which in life distinguish 
them, he was enabled to place in a comprehensive 
and clear compass, an extensive and valuable 
mass of infonnation, before his time in a confused 
and nndigested state. In 1795 he published his 
valuable work, which acquired for him a Euro- 
pean fame, entitled 'The Morbid Anatomy of some 
of the most important parts of the Human Body.' 
which he subsequently enlarged, and which was 
translated into French and German, and has gone 
through innumerable editions. In 1799 he com- 
menced the publication of ' A Series of Engrav- 
ings to illustrate some pai'ts of Morbid Anatomy,' 
from drawings by Mr. Clift, the conseiwator of 
the Hunterian IMuseum in Lincoln's-Inn-Fields; 
which splendid and useful work was completed in 

In 1800 Dr. Baillie resigiied his office in St. 
George's Hospital, and thenceforward devoted him- 
self to general practice as a physician, in which 




ne was so successful that he was known in one 
year to have received ten thousand pounds in fees. 
His work on tlic ^Morbid Anatomy of the Human 
Body had placed his character higli as a jiatho^'- 
noniic physician, and evciy difficult case in liifjii 
life came undor his review. So fixed was his rep- 
utation in public opinion, that even his leaving 
London for a period of some months at a time 
made no alteration in tlie request for him at his 
return — not usually the case with the general run 
of his professional brethren. Besides publishing 
' An Anatomical Descrijition of the Gravid Ute- 
rus,' he contributed many impoi-tant papers to 
the Philosophical Transactions and medical col- 
lections of the day. Having been called in to 
attend the duke of Gloucester, whose malady 
however proved past cure, his mode of treatment 
gave so much satisfaction to the family of his royal 
highness, that it is thought to have paved the way 
for his being commanded to join in consultation 
the court physicians, in the case of George the 
Third, during his mental aberration, and he con- 
tinued a principal du-ector of the royal treatment 
during the protracted illness of the king. Amid 
the mingled hopes and fears which agitated the 
nation for so long a time. Dr. Baillie, from the 
known candour of his nature, was looked up to 
with confidence as one whose opinion could be re- 
lied upon. The air of a court, so apt to change 
the sentiments, and cause the individual to turn 
with every political gale, was considered inca- 
pable of bending the stubbornness of his tried in- 
tegrity ; and it is even said that his opinion dif- 
fered often from that of his more politic colleagues. 
l}femoirs of Eminent Physiciatis and Surgeons, p. 
40.] His conduct seems to have given such high 
satisfaction that on the first vacancy in 1810, he 
was appointed one of the physicians to the king, 
^\ith the oft'er of a baronetcy, which he declined. 

Dr. Baillie died on 23d September 1823, leav- 
ing to the London College of Physicians the whole 
of his extensive and valuable collection of prejiar- 
ations, with six hundred pounds to keep it in 
order. He had married early in Ufe Sophia, sister 
of Lord Denman, late lord chief justice of the 
court of Queen's Bench, by whom he had one son 
and one d.aughter. His estate of Duntisbourne in 
nioucestershii-e went to his son. lie left large 

sums to medical institutions and public charities. 
While yet a young man, his nnclo having 

had an unfortunate misunderstanding with hi.H 
brother John Hunter, h'ft at his death Ihe small 
family estate of Longcahlerwnud in Lanarkshire, 
to his nephew, in prejudice of his own brotlier, to 
whom Dr. Baillie restored it, as being of right his 
surviving uncle's. 

The following portrait of Dr. Baillie is from a 
rare print. 

The leadmg features of Dr. Baillie's charactci 
were openness and candour. He never flattered 
the prejudices of his patients, oi jiretended to a 
knowledge which he did not possess. He knew well 
the ravages and consequences of disease, and how 
difficult it is to rectify derangements of structure 
when once permanently formed. Tn monej' mat- 
ters his liberality was remarkable. He has often 
been known to return fees wliere he conceived the 
])atient could not afford them, and also to refuse a 
larger .sum than what he considered was his due. 

Shortly after his death an elegant tribute to his 
memory was delivered to the students of amitomy 
and surgery in Great Windmill Street, London, 
by his eminent successor in that lecture-school. Sir 
Charles Bell: "You, who are just entering on 




your studies," he said, " cannot be aware of the 
importance of one man to the character of a pro- 
fession, the members of wlilcli extend over tlie 
civilized world. You cannot yet estimate the 
thousand chances there are against a man rising 
to tlie degree of eminence which Dr. Baillie at- 
tained; nor know how slender the hope of seeing 
his place supplied in our day. It was under this 
roof that Dr. Baillie formed himself, and here the 
profession learned to appreciate him. He had no 
desire to get rid of the national peculiarities of 
language; or, if he had, he did not perfectly suc- 
ceed. iSTot only did the language of his native 
land linger on his tongue, but its recollections 
clung to his heart; and to the last, amidst the 
splendour of his professional life, and the seduc- 
tions of a court, he took a hearty interest in the 
happiness and the eminence of his original country. 
But there was a native sense and strength of mind 
which more than compensated for the want of the 
polish and purity of English pronunciation. He 
possessed the valuable talent of making an ab- 
struse and difficult subject plain; his prelections 
were remarkable for that lucid order and clearness 
of expression which proceed from a perfect con- 
ception of the subject; and he never pennltted 
any vanity of display to turn him from his great 
object of conveying information in the simplest 
and most intelligible way, and so as to be most 
nsefol to his pnpils. It is to be regretted that his 
associate in the lectureship made his duties here 
unpleasant to him, and I have his own authority 
for saying that, but for this, he would have conti- 
nued to lecture for some years longer. Dr. Baillie 
presented his collection of morbid specimens to the 
College of Physicians, with a sum of money to be 
expended in keeping them in order, and it is rather 
remarkable that Dr. Hunter, his brother, and his 
nephew, should have left to their country such 
noble memorials as these. In the college of Glas- 
gow may be seen the princely collection of Dr. 
Hunter; the college of surgeons have assumed new 
dignity, sun-ounded by the collection of Mr. Hun- 
ter — more like the successive works of many men 
enjoying royal patronage or national support, than 
the work of a private surgeon ; and lastly, Dr. 
Baillie has given to the College of Physicians, at 
least, that foundation for a museum of morbid 

anatomy, which we hope to see completed by the 
activity of the members of that body. Dr. Bail- 
lie's success was creditable to the time. It may 
be said of him, as it was said of his uncle John, 
' every time I hear of his increasing eminence it 
appears to me like the fulfilling of poetical justice, 
so well has he deserved success by his labours for the 
advantage of humanity.' Yet I cannot say that 
there was not in his manner sufficient reason foi 
his popularity. Those who have introduced him 
to families from the country must have observed 
in them a degree of sui-prise on first meeting the 
physician of the court. There was no assumption 
of character or warmth of interest exhibited. He 
appeared what he really was — one come to be a 
dispassionate observer, and to do that duty for 
which. he was called. But then, when he had to 
deliver his opinion, and more especially when he 
had to communicate with the family, there was a 
cleaniess in his statement, a reasonableness in all 
he said, and a convincing simplicity in his manner 
that had the most soothing and happy influence 
on minds, excited and almost irritated by suffer- 
ing and the apprehension of impending misfortune. 
After so many years spent in the cultivation of the 
most severe science — for siu-ely anatomy and pa- 
thology may be so considered — and in the perfor- 
mance of professional duties on the largest scale, 
— for he was consulted not only by those who 
personally knew him, but by individuals of all 
nations, — he had, of late years, betaken himself to 
other studies, as a pastime and recreation. He 
attended more to the general progi'ess of science. 
He took particular pleasure in mineralogy; and 
even from the natm'al history of the articles 01 
the Phai-macopoeia he appears to have derived a 
new source of gratification. By a certain difficulty 
which he put in the way of those who wished to 
consult him, and by seeing them only in company 
with other medical attendants, he procured for 
himself, in the latter part of his life, that leisure 
which his health required, and which suited the 
maturity of his reputation ; while he intentionally 
left the field of practice open to new aspirants. 
When you add to what I have said of the celebrity 
of the uncles WillLam and John Hunter, the ex- 
ample of Dr. Baillie, and farthei consider the 
eminence of his sister Joanna Baillie, excelled by 




30110 of her sex in any age, you must conclude 
witli me tluit tlie family lias exhibited a singular 
extent ami variety of talent. Dr. Baillie's age 
was not great, if measured by length of years; ho 
had not completed his sixty-third year, bnt his 
life was long in usefulness. He lived long enougli 
to complete the model of a professional life. In 
the studies of youth ; in the serious and manly 
occupations of the middle period of life; in the 
upright, humane, and honourable character of a 
physician ; and above all iu that dignified conduct 
which became a man mature in years and honours, 
he has left a finished example to his profession." 
[^Annual Register for 1823.] 

Dr. Baillie would never allow any likeness of 
himself to be published. He sat to Hoppuer for 
his portrait, in order to make a present of it to his 
sisters, but finding that this picture had been put 
into the hands of an engraver, he interfered to 
prevent its being used by him, as he exceedingly 
disliked the idea of seeing his face in the print- 
shop windows. The engraving, however, was al- 
ready completed, and his sense of justice would 
not allow him to deprive the engraver of the fruits 
of his labour. He therefore purchased the cop- 
perplate, and permitted only a few copies to be 
taken from it, which were presented to friends. 
His collected medical works were published in 
1825, with a memoir of his life by James '\\'ard- 
rop, surgeon. 

The following is a list of Dr. Baillie's works : 

The Morbid Anatomy of some of the most Important Parts 
of the Human Body. Lond. 1793, 8vo. Appendix to the 
first edition of the Morbid Anatomy. Lond. 1798, Svo. 2d 
edit, corrected and p'eutly enlarged. 1797, Svo. 7th edit. 1807. 
A Series of Engravings, tending to illustrate the Morbid Ana- 
tomy of some of the most Important Parts of the Human 
Body. Fascic. k. Lond. 1799, 1802, royjil 4to. 2d edit. 1812. 

Anatomical Description of the Gravid Uteras 

Case of a Boy, seven years of age, who had Hydrocephalus, 
in whom some of the Bones of the Skull, once tirmly united, 
were, iu the progress of the disease, separated to a consider- 
able distance from each other. Med. Tr.ans. iv. p. 1813. 

Of some Uncommon Symptoms which occurred in a Case 
of Hydrocephalus Intemus. lb. p. 9. 

Upon a Strong Pulsation of the Aort.a, in the Epigastric 
Region, lb. p. 271. 

Upon a Case of Stricture of tlie Rectum, produced by a 
Spasmodic Contraction of the Internal and External Spineta 
of the Anus. Med. Trans, v. p. 136. 1815. 

Some Obser\'ations respecting the Green Jaundice. lb, p. 

Some Observations on a Particular Species of Purging. 
Id. p. KG. 

The Want of a PericorJium in the Uumiui Body. Tr«n» 

Med. et Chir. i. p. 91. 179.'). 

Of Uncommon Appearances of Disease in the Blood Ves- 
sels, lb. p. 119. 

Of a Remarkable Deviation from the Natural Stniclnro, is 
the Urinary Bladder and Organs of Generation of a Mido 
Trans. Mt-d. et Chir. i. p. 189. 1793. 

A Case of Emphysema not proceeding from Local Injur}*, 
lb. p. 29 

An Accoimt of a Case of Diabetes, with an Examination o( 
the Appearances after Death, lb. ii p. 170. 1800. 

An Account of a Singular Disease in the Great Intestines, 
lb. p. 141. 

An Account of the Case of a Man who had no Evacuation 
in his Bowels for nearly fifteen weeks before his death. lb. 
p. 179. 

Of a Remarkable Transposition of the Viscera. Phil. 
Trans. Abr. xii. 483. 1788. 

Of a Particular Structure in tlie Human Ovarium. Ill 
535. 1789. 

BAILLIE, JOiVNNA, an eminent poetess and 
acknowledged improver of English poetic diction, 
sister of Dr. Matthew Baillie, the subject of the 
preceding memoir, was born in 1762. Her birth- 
place was the manse of Bothwell, a parish on the 
banks of the Clyde, in the Lower ward of Lan- 
arkshire, of which her father, the Rev. Jamea 
Baillie, D.D., afterwards professor of divinity in 
the university of Glasgow, was at that time min- 
ister. She was the younger of his two daughters. 
Within earshot of the rippling of the broad waters 
of the Clyde, she spent her early days. That 
river, confined within lofty banks, makes a fine 
sweep round the magnificent ruins of Bothwell 
Castle, and forms the semicircular declivity called 
Bothwell Bank, that " blooms so fair," celebrated 
in ancient song ; " meet nurse for a poetic child." 
In the immediate vicinity is " Botliwell Brig," 
where the Covenanters were defeated in Juno 

*' Where Bothwell Bridge connects the margin steep, 
And Clyde below runs silent, strong, and deep, 
The hardy peasant, by oppression driven 
To battle, deem'd his cause the cause of Heavvu ; 
Unskiird in arms, with useless courage stood, 
While gentle Jlonmouth grieved to shed his blood." 

After her father's deatli, her niotlier, who was 
a daughter of Mr. Iliiiiter of Lougcaldenvood, 
a small estate in the parish of East Kilbride, in 
the s.ame county, went there to reside, with her 
two daughters, Agnes and Joanna, but wlieii 
the latter was about twenty j'cars of age, Mrs 




B,iillio removed with them to London, to bo 
nenr lier son, Dr. Matliew Baillie, and her two 
brothers, Dr. 'William Hunter and Mi-. John 
Hunter, the eminent anatomists. In London or 
the neighbourhood Miss Baillie resided for the re- 
nuiindcr of her life, she and her sister having for 
many years Itept house together at Hampstead. 
The incidents of her life are few, being confined 
almost exclusively to the publication of her 
works. Her earliest pieces appeared anonymous- 
ly. Her name first became known by her di-amas 
on the Passions. The first volume was published 
in 1798, under the title of 'A Series of Plays, in 
whidi it is attempted to delineate the stronger 
passions of the mind, each passion being the sub- 
ject of a tragedy and a comedy.' In a long intro- 
ductory discourse on the subject of the (b-aina, she 
explains her principal purpose to be to make each 
play subservient to the development of some one 
particular passion. " Let," slie says, " one simple 
trait of the human heart, one expression of pas- 
sion, genuine and true to nature, be introduced, 
and it will stand forth alone in the boldness of 
reiility, whilst the false and unnatural around it 
fades away upon every side, like the rising exha- 
lations of the morning." In thus, however, re- 
stricting her dramas to the illustration of only one 
passion in each, she excluded herself fi-om the va- 
ried range of character which is necessaiy to the 
acting drama, and circumscribed the proper busi- 
ness of the piece ; hence, her dramas are more 
adapted for perusal than for representation. Nev- 
ertheless, their merits were instantly acknow- 
ledged, and a second edition of this her first vol- 
ume was called for in a few months. In 1802, 
she published a second volume of her plays. In 
1804 she produced a volume of miscellaneous dra- 
mas, and the third volume of her plays on the 
Passions appeared in 1812. AH these raised her 
name to a proud pre-eminence in the world of 
literature, and she was considered one of the most 
highly gifted of British poetesses. 

Like Byron, however, Miss Baillie early came 
under the censure of the Edinburgh Review, but 
she turned a deaf ear to its upbraidings, and halted 
not in the path which she had traced out for herself, 
at its bidding. Byron's spirit was ai-oused, and he 
retaliated in the most bitter satire in the English 

language ; Miss Baillie placed the unjust judgment 
quietly aside, and silently went on her way rejoic- 
ing. On the appearance of her second volume of 
Plays, a veiy unfavourable opinion was expressed 
of them in the fourth number of the Edinburgh 
Review, namely that for July 1803, and her theory 
of the unity of passion unequivocally condemned 
In the thirty-eighth number, that for February 
1812, when the third volume had appeared, the 
reviewer was still more severe. Her views were 
styled " narrow and peculiar," and her scheme 
" singularly perverse and fantastic." Miss Bail- 
lie's plan of producing twin di-amas, a tragedy and 
a comedy, on each of the passions, was thoroughly 
disapproved of by Mr. Jeffrey, who appeared to 
think that her genius was rather lyrical than dra- 
matic. In his estimation her dramas combined 
the faults of the French and English schools, the 
poverty of incident and uniformity of the one with 
the in-egularity and homeliness of the other, her 
plots were improbable, and her language a bad 
imitation of that of the elder dramatists. In this 
verdict the literaiy public have not agi-eed, and 
the bitter feeling in wliich the review was written, 
as in the still more memorable case of Byron. 
tended to defeat its own purpose. It was well re- 
marked by one of the impartial critics of Miss 
Baillie's writings, that in her honourable pureiut ol 
fame, she did not " bow the knee to the idolatries 
of the day ;" but strong in the confidence of native 
genius, she held her undeviatiiig course, with na- 
ture for her instnictress and vutue for her guide. 

Amongst those who, fi"oni then- first appearance, 
had expressed an enthusiastic admiration of her 
plays on the Passions, was ^Ir. (afterwards Sj) 
Walter Scott, who, when in London in 1806, was 
introduced to Miss Baillie by Mi-. Sotheby, the 
translator of Oberon. Tlie acquaintance thus be- 
gun soon ripened into affectionate intimacy, and 
for many years they maintained a close epistolary 
coiTCspondence with each other. Between these 
two eminent individuals, there were in fact many 
striking points of resemblance. They had the same 
lyrical fire and enthusiasm, the same love of legen- 
dary lore, and the same attachment to the man- 
ners and customs, to the hills and woods of their 
native Scotland. Many of Scott's letters to her ai-a 
inserted in Lockhart's Life of the great noveliit. 




Diiiiiig a visit which Miss Baillie paid to Scot- 
land in the year 1808, she resided for a week or two 
with l\[r. Scott at Edinburgh. Wliile in Glasgow, 
previous to lier proceeding to that city, she liad 
sought out Mr. Jolin Strutliers, the author of the 
Poor Man's Sabbatli, then a working shoemaker, 
a native of the parish of East Kilbride, whom 
she had known in his early years. Mr. Struthcrs, 
in the memoirs of his own life (published with liis 
poems in 2 vols, in 1850), thus commemorates 
this event. "In the year 1808 the author had 
tlie high honour and the singular pleasure of being 
visited at his own house in the Gorbals of Glas- 
gow by Joanna Baillie, then on a visit to her na- 
tive Scotland, who had known !dm so intimately 
in his childhood. He has not forgotten, and never 
can forget, how tlie sharp and clear tones of her 
sweet voice thrilled through his heart, when at 
the outer door she, inquiring for him, pronounced 
his name — far less could he forget the divine glow 
of benevolent pleasure that lighted up her thin and 
pale, but fine!}' expressive face, when, still hold- 
ing him by the hand she had been cordially shak- 
ing, she looked around his small, but clean apart- 
ment, gazed upon his fair wife and his then lovely 
children, and exclaimed that he was surely the 
most happy of poets." Through ]\Iiss Baillie's 
recommendation, Mr. Scott brought Mr. Strutli- 
ers' ' Poor Man's Sabbath ' under the notice of 
Mr. Constable, the eminent publisher, who was 
induced to bring out a third edition of that excel- 
lent poem, consisting of a thousand copies, for 
which he paid the worthy author thirty pounds, 
with two dozen copies of the work for himself. 

In 1810, 'The Family Legend,' a tragedy by 
Miss Baillie, founded ou a Highland tradition, was 
brought out at the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh. 
That theatre was then under the management of 
Mr. Henry Siddons, the son of the great :Mrs. 
Siddons, who had married Miss jNIurray, the sister 
of Mr. William Henry Murray, his successor as 
manager and lessee, and the granddaughter of 
Murray of Broughton, the secretary of the Pre- 
tender during the rebellion of 1745. The Fanuly 
Legend of Joanna Baillie was the first new play 
produced by Mr. Siddons, and Scott took a great 
interest in its representation. We learn from 
I Lockhart's Life of Scott that he was consulted in 

all the minutias of the costume, attended every re- 
liearsal, and supplied tlie prologue. The epilogue 
was written by Henry Mackenzie. In a letter to 
the authoress, dated January 30tli, 1810, Scott 
thus communicates the result : 

"Mr Dr.AR Miss Baili.ik, — You have only to imn- 
;,'iiio iill that you could wish to give success to a play, 
and your conceptions will still fall short of the com- 
plete and decided triumph of the Family Legend. 
Tlie house was crowded to a most extraordinniy de- 
gree; many people had come from your native capital 
of the west; everything that pretended to distinction 
whether from rank or literature, was in the boxes, and 
in the pit such an aggregate mass of humanity, as 1 
have seldom if ever witnessed in the same space. It 
was quite obvious from the beginning, that the cansc 
was to be very fairly tried before the public, and that if 
anything went wrong, no efibrt, even of yournunicrmis 
and zealous friends, could have had niucli influence in 
guiding or restraining the general feeling. Some good- 
natured persons had been kind enough to propagate 
reports of a strong opposition, which, though I con- 
sidered them as totally groundless, did not by any 
means lessen the extreme anxiety with which I waited 
the rise of the curtain. But in a short time I saw there 
was no ground whatever for apprehension, and yet 1 
sat the whole time shaking for fear a scene-shifter, or a 
carpenter, or some of the subaltern actors, should make 
some blunder, and intennipt the feeling of deep ami 
general interest which soon seized on the whole pit, 
box, and gallery, as Mr, Bayes has it. The scene on 
the rock struck the utmost possible effect into the au 
dience, and you heard nothing but sobs on all sides 
The banquet-scene was equally impressive, and so was 
the combat. Of the greater scenes, that between Lorn 
and Helen in the castle of JIaclean, that between 
Helen and her lover, and the examination of Maclean 
himself in Argyle's castle, were applauded to the very 
echo. Siddons announced the play 'for the rest of tlu 
wceh,' which was received not only with a thunder ol 
apphause, but with cheering and throwing up of hats 
and handkerchiefs. Mrs. Siddons supported her part 
incomparably, .although just recovered from the indis- 
position mentioned in my last. Siddons himself played 
Lorn very well indeed, and moved and looked with 
great spirit. A Mr. Terry, who promises to be a fine 
performer, went through the part of the Old liarl 
with great taste and effect. For the rest I cannot say 
much, excepting that from highest to lowest they were 
most accurately perfect in their parts, and did their very 
best. Malcolm de Gray was tolerable but stickish — 
Maclean came off decently — but the conspirators were 
sad hounds. You are, my Baillie, too much 
of a democrat in your writings; you allow life, soul, 
and spirit to these inferior creatures of the drama, and 
expect they will be the better of it. Now it was ob- 
vious to me, that the poor monsters, whose niouthi 
are only of use to spout the vapid blank verse wliich 
your modem plavwriglit puts into the jtart of the con- 




fident and siibaltein villain of his piece, did not know 
what to make of tlie enerpetic and poetical diction 
which even these subordinate departments abound 
with in the Legend. As the play greatly exceeded 
the usual length (lasting till half-past ten), we intend, 
when it is repeated to-night, to omit some of the pas- 
sa<rcs where the weight necessarily fell on the weakest 
of oui liost, altbcugh we may hereby i.ijure the detail 
of the plot. The scenery was very good, and the rock, 
without appearance of pantomime, was so contrived 
as to place Mrs. Siddons in a very precarious situation 
to all appearance. Tlie dresses were more tawdry 
than I should have judged proper, hut expensive and 
showy. I have got my brother John's Highland re- 
cruiting party to reinforce the garrison of Inverary, 
and as tliey mustered beneath the porch of the castle, 
and seemed to fill the court-yard behind, the combat 
scene had really the appearance of reality. Siddons 
has been most attentive, anxious, assiduous, and do- 
cile, and had drilled his troops so well that the promp- 
ter's aid was unnecessary, and I do not believe he 
gave a single hint the whole night; nor were there 
any false or ridiculous accents or gestures even among 
the underlings, though God knows they fell often far 
sliort of the true spirit. Mrs. Siddons spoke the epi 
logue extremely well: the prologue, which I will send 
you in its revised state, was also very well received. 
Mrs. Scott sends her kindest compliments of congratu- 
lation; she had a party of thirty friends in one small 
box, which she was obliged to watch like a clucking 
hen till she had gathered her whole flock, for the 
crowd was insufferable. I am going to see the Legend 
to-night, when I shall enjoy it quietly, for last night I 
was 80 much interested in its reception that I cannot 
say I was at leisure to attend to the feelings arising 
from the representation itself. People are dying to 
read it. If you think of suffering a single edition to 
be printed to gratify their curiosity, I will take care of 
it. But I do not advise this, because until printed no 
other theatres can have it before you give leave. My 
kind respects attend Miss Agnes Baillie, and believe 
me ever your obliged and faithful servant, 

Walter Scott." 

The Family Legend had a nin of fourteen nights, 
and was soon after printed and published by James 
and John Ballantyne. \Lochharfs Life of Scott, 
pp. 186, 187.] It was afterwards brought out on 
the London stage, and the authoress upon one oc- 
casion when, in the year 1815, it was performed 
at one of the London theatres, was accompanied 
to the theatre by Lord Byron and Mr. and Mrs. 
Scott, who were then in London, to witness the 

In 1823 she published a ' Collection of Poetical 
Miscellanies, which was well received. It con- 
tained, with some pieces of her own, Scott's dra- 

matic sketch of Macduff's Cross, besides several 
poems by Mrs. Hemans, some jeux d'esprits by 
the late Catherine Fanshawe, and a ballad enti- 
tled Polydore, originally published in the Edin- 
burgh Annual Register for 1810, and wTitten by 
Mr. William Howison, author of an 'Essay on 
the Sentiments of Attraction, Adaptation, and Va- 

In 1836, Miss Baillie published three more vol- 
umes of plays, all illustrative of her favourite 
theoiy. " Even in advanced age," says a writer 
in the North American Review for October 1835, 
" we see Miss Baillie still tracing the fiery streams 
of passion to their sources, — searching into the 
hidden things of that dark mystery, the heart,— 
and an-anging her startling revelations in the im- 
posing garb of rich and classical poetry." Among 
the best of her di'amatic writings are the tragedies 
of Count Basil, and de Montfort. Sir Walter 
Scott has eidogised " Basil's love and Montfort's 
hate," as something like a revival of tne inspired 
strain of Shakspeare. 

De Montfort was brought out on tne London 
stage by John Philip Kemble, in 1801, soon after 
its publication. The great Mrs. Siddons perform- 
ed the part of Lady Jane, and both her acting in 
the piece as well as that of her brother, Mr. Kem- 
ble, -was so powerful that it ought to have sus- 
tained the play had there been any stage vitality 
in it. At that period it veas acted for eleven 

nights. It was then laid aside till 1821, when it 
was again produced, to exhibit Kean in the prin- 
cipal character ; but that great actor declared that 
though a fine poem, it would never be an acting 
play. Mr. Campbell, in his life of Mrs. Siddons, 
records this remark, and makes the following very 
just observations: Miss Baillie "brought to the 
drama a wonderful union of many precious requi- 
sites for a perfect tragic writer ; deep feeling, a 
picturesque imagination, and, except where the- 
ory and system misled her, a coiTect taste, that 
made her diction equally remote from the stiffness 
of the French, and the flaccid flatness of the Ger- 
man school ; a better stage style than any that 
we have heard since the time of Shakspeare, or, 
at least, since that of his immediate disciples. 
But to compose a tragedy that shall at once de- 
light the lovers of poetry and the populace is a 




prize in tlie lottery of fame, whicli has literally 
been only once drawn during the whole of the last 
century, and that was by the author of Douglas. 
If Joanna Baillie had known the stage practically, 
she would never have attached the importance 
which she does to the devplopnicnt of single pas- 
sions in single tragedies ; and she would have in- 
vented more stirring incidents to justify the pas- 
sion of her characters, and to give them that air 
of fatality which, though peculiarly predominant 
in the Greek drama, will also be found to a certain 
extent, in all successful tragedies. Instead of 
this, she contrives to make all the passions of her 
main characters proceed from the wilful natures of 
the beings themselves. Their feelings are not pre- 
cipitated by circumstances, like the stream down 
a declivity, that leaps ti-om rock to rock ; but for 
want of incident, they seem often like water on a 
level, without a propelling impulse." \_Life of 
Mrs. Siddons, vol. ii. p. 2.54.] The style of her 
dramas, however, is regular and vigorous ; her 
plots, though simple, exhibit both origiuality and 
carefulness of constniction ; and altogether her 
plays display a deep and thorough knowledge of 
the workings of the human heart. The following 
Is a portrait of Joanna Baillie from a painting by 
Sir W . Newton- 

As an authoress, the leading feature of her ge- 
nius was simple gi'eatncss. She had no airs, arti- 
fice, or pretension. Profound subtlety, a dec)) 
peuetration into character, and a wonderful fer- 
tility of invention, mark all her dramas. Her 
touches of natural description, the wild legendarj- 
grandeur which at times floats around her, the 
candour, charity, and womanliness of her nature, 
and the strong yet delicate imagery in which she 
enshrines her thoughts, with her sound morality 
and the simplicity and force of her language, 
impart a pleasing charm to her writings, and di.s- 
tiuguish them from those of all her contempora- 

Besides her dramas, Baillie was the au- 
thoress of various poems and songs, on miscellan- 
eous subjects, which were collected and published 
in one volume in 1841. These are, in general, 
remarkable for their truth and feeling and harmony 
of diction, qualities in which she was surpassed by 
few modern poets. Among the best of her poems 
are, one entitled " The Kitten," which first ap- 
peared in an early volume of the Edinburgh An- 
nual Register, and the Birthday address to her 
sister. Miss Agnes Baillie, both of which have been 
often quoted. The latter is equal, if not in some 
respects superior, to the fine lines of Cowper, writ- 
ten " On receiving his Mother's Picture." The 
most popular of her songs are, " The Gowaii 
Glitters on the Sward ;" " Welcome Bat and Ow- 
let Gray;" "Good Night, Good Night;" "It fell 
on a Morning ;" which originally appeared in the 
collection of Scotch songs called ' The Harp of 
Caledonia,' edited by John Struthers, and pub- 
lished in Glasgow in 1821 ; " Woo'd and Mairied 
and a' ;" and " Hooly and Fairly." The two latter 
were written for Mr. George Thomson's celebrated 
collection of Scotch melodies, as was also " When 
white was my o'erlay as foam o' the linn," a new 
version of "Todlin Ilame." Her Scotch songs, 
distinguished by their simplicity, their quiet pawky 
humour, and pa.storal tenderness, are known by 
heart by all Scotsmen. 

Miss Baillie passed the greater portion of her 
life in retirement, and in her latter j-ears in strict 
seclusion, at her villa at Hampstead, where she 
died February 23, 1851, in her 89th year, retain- 
ing all her faculties to the last. Her sister, who 




Romiero, a tragedy ; Tlie Alienated Manor, a co- 

was also a poetess, and who died April 27, 1861, 

in her 101st year, always resided with her. Tlie j medy ; and Heuriquez, a tragedy 
following lines are from the beginning of an 'Ad- 
dross to lier Sister Agnes, on her Birthday:' 

" Dear Agnes, gleamed nitli joy and daslied witli tears, 
O'er us have glided almost sixty years, 
Since we on Botliwcll's bonny braes were seen, 
liy those whose eyes long closed in death have been, 
Two tiny imps, who scarcely stooped to gather 
Tho slender harebell on the purple heather; 
No taller than the foxglove's spiky stem. 
That dew of morning studs with silver gem. 
Then every butterfly that crossed our view 
With joyful shout was greeted as it flew ; 
And moth, and ladybird, and beetle bright. 
In sheeny gold, were each a wondrous sight. 
Then as we paddled barefoot, side by side. 
Among the sunny shallows of the Clyde, 
Minnows or spotted parr, with twinkling fin. 
Swimming in mazy rings the pool within, 
A thrill of gladness through our bosoms sent, 
Seen in the power of early wonderment. 
Active and ardent, to my fancy's eye, 
Thou still art young, in spite of time gone by. 
Though oft of patience brief and temper keen. 
Well may it please me, in life's latter scene, 
To think what now thou art, and long to me hast been." 

The high literary fame which she acquired by her 
worlts never succeeded in drawing her generally 
into society. Her life was pure and virtuous in 
the highest degree, and characterised by tlie most 
consummate integi'ity, kindness, and active bene- 
volence. Gentle and unassuming to all, she pos- 
sessed an unchangeable simplicity of manner and 
character, and while she counted amongst her 
friends most of her contemporaries celebrated 
for their genius or their virtues, many foreigners, 
from various parts of Europe, on their coming to 
England, sought introductions to her. 

The series of plays on the passions consists of 
Count Basil, a tragedy, portraying love ; The 
Trial, a comedy ; De Montfort, a tragedy, de- 
picting hatred, with The Election, a comedy ; 
Ethelwald, a tragedy. Part I. ; the same. Part 
II. — both on ambition; On-a, a tragedy founded 
on fear ; The Dream, a tragedy in prose, in three 
acts ; The Siege, a comedy in five acts ; The Bea- 
con, a serious musical drama in two acts, the sub- 
ject hope, interspersed with some pleasing songs 

Her miscellaneous plays are Rayner, a tragedy; 
The Country Marriage, a comedy ; Constantia 
Paleologus, or the last of the Cssars, a tragedy ; 
Tlie Family Legend, a tragedy ; The Martyr, a 
drama; The Separation, a tragedy; The Strip- 
ling, a tragedy, in prose ; The Pliantom, a musi- 
cal drama ; Enthusiasm, a comedy ; Witchcraft, a 
tragedy in prose ; The Homicide, a tragedy in 
prose, with occasional passages in verse ; The 
Bride, a drama ; and The Match, a comedy. 
None of these are acting pieces. The Separation, 
and Henriquez, one of her sei'ies on the passions, 
were attempted on the London stage, but without 

Her Miscellaneous works consist of Metrical 
Legends, Songs and Poems on general subjects. 
A volume of her fugitive verses was published in 
1840. Many of the early specimens of her genius 
were collected in this volume. Under the head of 
Miscellaneous were classed various pieces divided 
into Songs, Romantic and other ballads, and poems 
of a tender domestic character. Among them 
were Lord John of the East, Malcolm's Heir, Sir 
Maurice, the Moody Seer, and the tragic and ap- 
palling ballad of the Elder Tree ; also. Lines on 
the Death of Su- Walter Scott. The third portion 
of the volume contained subjects of a devotional 
character; some of these it appears, as she states 
in her preface, were written for " the kirk, at the 
request of an eminent member of the Scotch church, 
at a time when it was in contemplation to compile, 
by authority, a new collection of hymns and sacred 
poetry for the general use of parochial congrega- 
tions." The plan meeting with opposition was, 
however, relinquished. 

A complete edition of Miss Baillie's works was 
published by Messrs. A. Longman and Co., in 
18.51, soon after her death. In this volume is 
inserted a poem entitled Ahalj'a Baee, which had 
been previously printed for private circulation, 
and amongst the fugitive verses are some short 
poems never before published. The following is a 
list of her productions : — 

Series of Phays; in which it is attempted 'to delineate the 
Stronger Passions of the Mind, each Passion being the sub- 
ject of a Tragedy or Comedy. Lond. 1798, 1802, 2 v^ils. 8vo 
5th edit. 1806, 2 vols. 8vo. Vol iii. 1812, 8vo. 




Miscellaneous ri.ivs. Lond. 1S04, 8vo. 2a edit 180G, 8vo. 
The Family Li'^eiid; a Tiascdv. 1810, 8vo. 
Collection of Poetical Jliscellanics. I^ndon, 1823, 8vo. 
AdditioniU Plays on the Passions. London, 183G. 8vo. 
Fugitive Verses, Miscellaneous Poems and Songs. London, 
Complete edition of Works. London, 1851, Imp. 8vo. 

BAILLIE, L.\i)Y Gkizkl, see Home, Lady 

BAILZIE, or B.viLLiii, William, a pliysician 
of the fifteenth centuiy, studied medicine in Italy 
witli so mudi reputation that he was first made 
rector, and afterwards professor of medicine in tlie 
university of Bologna, about 148-i. He adopted 
the Galenic system in preference to the Empiric, 
and wrote ' Apologia pro Galeni Doctrina contra 
Empiricos,' Lyons, 1550. According to Demp- 
ster, he returned to Scotland and died there, but 
the date of his death is not recorded. In his Scots 
writers, Mackenzie supposes him to be the author 
also of an octavo book, called ' De Quantitatc .Syl- 
labarum Grrecaruin et de Dialectis,' published in 

Badj, a surname derived from the Cielic word bane, sig- 
nifying white, or of a fair complexion, as Donald Bane, who 
usurped the Scottish throne after the death of his brother 
Malcolm Canmore. The name is sometimes spelled Baine, 
as in the following inst.ance, and sometimes Bayne, as in 
that of B.ayne, Alexander, the first professor of Scots Law in 
the university of Edinburgh, the subject of a subsequent 

BAINE, James, A.M., an eminent minister of 
(he Relief communion, and one of the fathers of 
that church, was the son of the minister of Bon- 
hill, Dumbartonshire, where he was born in the 
year 1710. He received the first part of his edu- 
cation at the parish school, and afterwards studied 
for the church at the university of Glasgow. Hav- 
ing been licensed to preach, he was presented by 
tlie duke of Montrose to the church of Killearn, 
the adjoining parish to Bonhill. In 1756 he be- 
came one of the ministers of the High cliurch of 
Paisley, and in the follondng year he had the cele- 
brated Dr. Witherspoon for his colleague. He 
was intimate with nianj' of the most distinguished 
clergymen in the Church of Scotland, and so 
early as 1745 his name is mentioned as having 
been warmly engaged among his parishioners in 
Killearn, in promoting a remarkable revival of re- 
ligion in the west of Scotland at that period. 
While he remained a minister of the Established 

church, he was a zealous defender of her liberty, 

independence, and legal rights, and a determined 
opponent of what he considered ecclesiastical tyr- 
anny. The conduct of the General Assembly in 
1752 in deposing the Rev. Thomas Gillespie o( 
Camock, from the office of the ministry, as well 
as some more recent proceedings, in his estima- 
tion infringed on the cause of religious liberty, and 
had a powerful influence in inducing him to resign 
his pastoral charge at Paisley. To this he was 
also led by the following circumstance : The office 
of session clerk of the parish having become va- 
cant, a dispute occuiTcd as to whether the kirk 
session or the town council had the right of ap- 
pointment. The case came to be litigated in the 
court of session, and was finally decided in favour 
of the town council. Mr. Baine took the part of 
the kirk session, his colleague of the members of 
the town council ; which caused a painful misun 
derstanding between them. He therefore came to 
the resolution of resigning his charge, wliich he 
did in a letter to the presbytery of date 10th Feb- 
ruary 1766, and in consequence was cited to ap- 
pear before the General Assembly 29th May of 
that year. Having appeared at the bar of the 
Assembly, and been heard at considerable length 
in an elaborate and able defence, he was declared 
by the venerable court to be no longer a minister 
of the Church of Scotland. Immediately after his 
deposition Mr. Baine published a pamphlet enti- 
tled 'Memoirs of modern Church Reformation, or 
the History of the General Assembly, 1766, with 
a brief account and vindication of tlie Presbytery 
of Relief The publication consisted of letters to 
a reverend friend, in which he gave an amusing 
account of the procedure of the supreme ecclesias- 
tical court in his case, and indulged in some acri- 
monious remarks on the conduct of the leading 
moderates. The pamphlet is now scarce. He had 
in the meantime accepted of a charge under the 
Relief body, then recently formed, and on the 13tli 
Februaiy 1766, he was inducted by the Rev. Mr. 
Gillespie, late of Camock, as the minister of Col- 
lege Street chapel, which was the first church 
opened in Edinburgh in connection with tlie Relief 
presbyterj'. Previous to his deposition by tlie 
Established church he is said, after his admission 
to South College Street clapel, to have conducted 




his new congregation to theneiglibourmgcliurch of 
Old Greyfriars, at that time under the pastoral 
care of Dr. Er^kine, in order to partake of the sa- 
crament of tlie Lord's snpper. 

Mr. Haine had always distinguished himself by 
test ifying against whatever he considered to be a vio- 
lation of public morality. Before he left Paisley he 
published a sermon preached before the Society for 
the Refoi-mation of Manners in that town, instituted 
under his auspices, in which he declared, in strong 
terms, against the prevailing vices of the age. In 
1770 he published a sermon, entitled *The Theatre 
Licentious and Perverted,' which he had preached 
against Foote's play of ' The Minor,' then acted 
at Edinburgh, in -which the characters of White- 
field and other zealous ministers, and even reli- 
gion itself, was most unjustly and profanely ridi- 
culed. To this attack Foote replied in 1771 in 
* An Apology for the ^Minor, in a Letter to the 
Rev. ISIr. Baine.' In 1777 Mr. Baine published a 
volume of sermons, among which is one on the 
subject of the Pastoral Care, delivered in the 
Low church of Paisley at the admission of his 
colleague in June 1757. Mi". Baine died January 
17, 1790, in the 80th year of his age. He had 
married the only daughter of Dr. Michael Potter, 
of Easter Livelands, Stirlingshire, professor of 
divinity in Glasgow university, and son of Michael 
Potter, one of the martyrs of the Bass. His eld- 
est sou, Captain Michael Bain, died a detenu in 
France. His second son, the Rev. James Bain, a 
probationer of the Established church of Scotland, 
receiving episcopal ordination, was appointed a 
chaplain in one of the colonies. The third son, 
Lieutenant-colonel William Bain of Easter Live- 
lands, served abroad during the American and 
Continental wars. He was succeeded by his eld- 
est son, Edwin Sandys Bain of Easter Livelands, 
sergeant at law. A volume of Mr. Baine's ser- 
mons was published nearly fifty years after his 
death. His talents and attainments were of a high 
order; and his voice was so musical that, while 
minister at Killearn, he was popularly known by 
the name of '' the Swan of the West." 

Baird, a surname of ancient standing in Scotland. Ac- 
cording to Nisbet, {Heraldry, vol. i. p. 314,) the famiL'es of 
this surname have for arms, Gules, a Boar passant, Or: as 
relative to the name. Tradition states that while William 
the Lion was hunting in one of the south-west counties, he 

happened to straggle from his attendants, and was alarmed 
by the approach of a wnld b:>ar, which was slain by one of hift 
retinue of the name of Baird, who had hastened to his as- 
sistance. For this signal service the king conferred upon 
him large gi-ants of land, and assigned him the above coat 
of arms, with the motto " Dominus fecit." 

In the reign of Alexander the Third, Robert, son of Wal- 
deve de Biggar, granted a charter to Richard Baird, of Sleikle 
and Little Kyp in Lanarkshire. \_Dalrymple's Collections^ p. 
397.] Among the names in the Ragman Roll of those who 
swore submission and fealty to lOng Edward the First of 
England, in 1292, 1296, 1297, &c., are Fergus de Bard, John 
Bard, and Robert Bard ; supposed to be of the Bairds of Kyp 
and Evandale, then a considerable family in Lanarkshire. 
There is a charter of King Robert the Bmce of the barony of 
Cambusnethan to Robert Baird. \_Haddmgton^s Collections.'] 

Baird of Carawath, with three or four other bai-ons of that 
name, being connoted of a conspu'acy against King Robert tlie 
Brace, in a parliament held at Perth, were forfeited and 
put to death in consequence. 

The estate of Cambusnethan went by marriage, hi the reign 
of David the Second, to Sir Alexander Stewart, afterward; 
of Damley and Crookston, who, in 1390, bestowed the lands 
of Cambusnethan on Janet his daughter and her husband, Sir 
Thomas Somerville of Camwath, created in 1427 Lord Som- 

From the Bairds of Ordinhivas in Banffshire, descendants 
of the family of Cambusnethan, came the Bairds of Aucli- 
medden in Aberdeenshire, who were long the piincipal family 
of the name, and for several generations sheriffs of that 

George Baird of Auchmedden, who was alive in 1568, mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Keith of Troup, bro- 
ther of the earl marischal. His son and successor, also named 
George, mamed in 1670, Lilias, daughter and heu- of Walter 
Baird of Ordinhivas, and had a numerous progeny. The eld- 
est son, George Baird nf Auchmedden, was ancestor of the 
Bairds of that place, now represented by Eraser of Findrach. 
[_Bitrke's Landed Gentry.l 

The fourth son, James Baird, advocate, and one of the com- 
missaries of Edinburgh in the time of Ch.arles the First, was 
the founder of the houses of Newbj'th and Saughtonhall. He 
man-ied Batliia, a daughter of Dempster of Pithver, by whom 
he had two sons, John and Robei*t. John the eldest was 
admitted advocate in June 1647. At the Restoration he was 
created a knight baronet, and made a lord of session, under 
the title of Lord Newbyth. He died at Edinburgh, 27th 
April 1698, in the 78th year of his age. He collected the 
decisions of the court from November 1664 to Febraary 
1667, and practiques from the former year to 1081, with an 
Appendix to 1690, the manuscripts of which are presen-od in 
the Advocates' Library. \^Haig and Bnmton's Senators of th^ 
College of Justice.'] He married Margaret, daughter of Wil- 
liam Hay of Linplum, the second son of James lord Yester, 
and brother of Jolm, first earl of Tweeddale. By her he had 
Sir William Baird of Newbyth, created a baronet of Nova 
Scotia in 1695. The latter was twice manned, first to Helen, 
daugliter of Sir John Gilmour of Craigmillar, president of the 
court of session, and secondly to Margaret, daughter of Lord 
Sinclair. His son, by his first wife, Sir John Baird the 
second baronet, manied Janet, daughter of the Hon. Sir 
David Dalrymple, advocate, grandfather of the celebrated 
Lord Hailes. Sir John died in 1746, without issue, when the 
baronetcy became extmct, but the estate was entailed on his 
second cousin, William Baird, the father of the celebrated 
Sir I>avid Baird. 




The yount^er son of Jitnies Baird, advocate, viz. Sir RoWrt 
Baird, Knight, of Sauclitonhall in Mid Lotliian, liad, witli 
other issue, James, his successor, created in Febniarv lliiHi. 
a baronet cif Nova .Scotia, and William Baird, tt nierdianl 
find a bailhe in Kdinhurgli. Tlie latter was the father of 
William Baird, who succeeded his second cousin Sir ,Iohn 
Baird in the estate of Newbyth. He mai-ried .Micia, fourth 
daughter of Johnston of Ililtown, in Berwickshire, by whom 
he had six sons and eight daughters. The gallant Sir- David 
Baird was the fifth son. 

The estate of Auchmedden was purchased by the third earl of 
Aberdeen from the Biiirds, on which, according to a local tradi- 
tion, a p:ur of eagles which had regularly nestled and brought 
forth their young in the neighbouring rocks of I'cnnan, dis- 
appcTi-ed, in fulfilment of an ancient prophecy by Thomas 
the KhjniuT, that there should be an eagle in the crags while 
there was a Baird in Auchmedden. It is stated that when 
Lord Ha.fdo mnrried Cliristian, youuRest daughter of William 
Baird, Esq. of Newbyth. the eaples returned to the rocks, and 
reninined until the estate pnescd into the hands of the ITon. 
■V^'illiam Gordon, when they ajrain fled. 

The baronetcy conferred, in 1S09, on General Sir David 
Baird (see p. 195) was inherited in 1S29 by his nephew, 
.Sir David, the remainder being, In default of issue of his 
own, to the issue male of his eldest brother, Robert. The 
second baronet died in 1852, when his son, Sir David, be- 
came third baronet, and m., June 15, 1864, Ellen, dr. of Lord 
Blantyre. His eldast s. David was 6. May 6, 1866. 

BAIRD, Sir David, Bart., K.C.B., a distin- 
guished British commander, descended, as above 
explained, from a junior branch of the Bairds of 
Auchmedden, in Aberdeenshire, was the fifth but 
second surviving sou of William Baird, Esq., heir 
by settlement of his second cousin. Sir John Baird 
of Newbvth, Bart., and was born at Edinburgh on 
6th December, 1757. His biographer Hook says 
he was born at Newbyth, but this is a mistake. 
The house in which he first saw the light, and 
where he was brought up, is sitn.ated in a court at 
the foot of Blair's close, Castleliill, Edinburgh, at 
one time possessed by the ducal family of Gordon, 
and latterly by the Newbyth family, by whom it 
was held for several generations. [Wilson^s ]\Te- 
morials of Edinburgh, vol. i. p. 139.] His father 
died when he was only eight years old, and he early 
evinced an inclination for a military life. He entered 
the army December 16, 1772, as an ensign in the 
second foot. He was then placed at Locie's aca- 
demy at Chelsea, where he remained some months, 
actively improving himself in the knowledge of 
military tactics. At Mr. Locie's acadenn-, as now 
at the military college, Sandhurst, the pupils were 
subjected to all the routine of military service. 
One evening when young Baird was on duty as 
si'.nti-y, one of his comuauions, considerably hLs se- 

nior, wislied to get out, in order to fulfil some cn- 

gagonient lir had iiiado in Lniiduii, and tried to 
liersnado Baird to jiennit liini to pass. " No," 
said tlic gallant boy, " tliul I cannot dn, but if you 
lilcase you may knock nic down, and walk out 
over my body." He joined Ids leginu'iit at Gib- 
raltar in April 17711. One evening when he was 
on guard, liaviiig dined with some of his hrotlier 
ofliccis, tliey resolved to detain him with them, 
and locked the door of the room to prevent his 
visiting his sentries at the usual lime. Baird 
found remonstrances in vain, but determined to 
let nothing interfere with duty, he sjirang to tlio 
window, which overluing the ranijiart, and with 
an agility and dexterity for which he was always 
remarkable, threw him-self out, escaped unhurt, 
and was at his post at the very minute appointed. 
[Hook's Life of Cineral Sir David Baird, vol. i. p. 
2, Note.1 He returned with his regiment to Bri- 
tain in 177G. 

Lord IMaclcod, eldest son of the earl of Crom- 
arty, having been, with his father, engaged in tho 
rebellion of 1745, spent several yeai-s in exile on 
the continent ; and obtained the rank of lieutenant- 
general in the Swedisli army. Ultimately, on ac- 
count of his youth at the time of joining the Pre- 
tender, he received an unconditional pardon for 
his share in the rebellion, and returning to Eng- 
land in the year 1777, he was presented to George 
the Third, who received him very gracion.sly. At 
the suggestion of Colonel Duff of I\hiirtown, who 
had served in Keith's Highlanders, and encouraged 
by the favourable reception he had met with in tlie 
north, he offered his services to raise a regiment. 
Tlie offer was accepted, and although without pro- 
perty or political influence, so great was the magic 
of his name among his clansmen, that eight hun- 
dred and forty Highlanders were in a very short 
time raised and marched to Elgin. In addition to 
these, two hundred and thirty-six lowlanders were 
raised by the Hon. John Lindsay, son of the earl of 
Balcarres, David Baird, the subject of this memoir, 
James Fowlis, and of herotficers ; besides thirty-four 
English and Irish, enlisted in Gla.sgow, making in 
all eleven hundred men. The corps was embodied 
at Elgin, and inspected there by General Skene in 
April seventeen hundred and seventy -eight, in 
which year Baird obtained a lieutenancy, and in 




Soptember of the same year lie became captain of 
tlie grenadiers in the 73d regiment, then raised by 
T.ord Maclcod. With this corps, which he joined 
at Elgin, lie embarked for Madras, where he ar- 
rived in January 1780, and immediately entered 
npon active service. This young and untried re- 
pimciit had scarcely arrived in India, when Hyder 
All, forcing his way through the Gauts, at the head 
of 100,000 men, burst like a mountain torrent into 
the Camatic. He had intei-posed his vast army 
between that of the British, commanded by Su- 
Hector Monro, and a smaller force under the com- 
mand of Colonel Baillie, which were endeavoui-ing 
to form a junction. The latter having, though 
victorious, sustained a serious loss in an engage- 
ment with Hyder Ali's troops, sent to the com- 
mander an account of his difficult position, stating 
that, from the loss he had sustained, and his total 
want of provisions, he was equally unable to ad- 
vance or remain in his then situation. With the 
advice of a council of war, Sii- Hector judged the 
only course was to endeavour to aid Colonel Bail- 
lie, with such a reinforcement as would enable him 
to push forward in defiance of the enem3^ Tlie 
detachment selected for this enterprise consisted 
of about 1,000 men under Colonel Fletcher; and 
its main force was composed of the grenadier and 
infantry companies of Lord Macleod's regiment, 
commanded by Captain Bau-d. Hyder All having 
gained intelligence of this movement, sent a strong 
body to cut them off on their way, but, by adopt- 
ing a long circuitous route, and marching by night, 
they at length safely effected a junction with Col- 
onel Baillie. With the most consummate skill, 
nowever, Hyder, determining thatthey shoulduever 
return, prepared an ambuscade; into which, early 
on the morning of the 10th of September, they un- 
warily advanced. The enemy, with admiralile 
coolness and self-command, reserved thcii- fire tUl 
the unhappy British were in the very midst of 
them. The army under the command of Colonels 
Baillie and Fletcher, and Captain Baird, marched 
in column. On a sudden, whilst in a nan-ow de- 
file, a battery of twelve guns opened upon them, 
and, loaded with grape-shot, poured in upon then- 
right flank. The British faced about; another 
battery opened immediately npon their rear. They 
bad no choice therefore but to advance ; other bat- 

teries met them here likewise, and in less than hall 
an hour fifty-seven pieces of cannon, brought to 
bear on them at all points, penetrated into every 
part of the British line. By seven o'clock in the 
morning, the enemy poured down upon them in 
thousands : Captain Babd and his grenadiers 
fought with the greatest heroism. Surrounded 
and attacked on all sides, by 25,000 cavaby, by 
thirty regiments of Sepoy infantry, besides Hyder's 
European corps, and a numerous artillery playing 
upon them from aU quarters, within gi'ape-shot 
distance, yet did this gallant column stand firm 
and undaunted, alternately facing theii' enemies 
on every side of attack. The French officers in 
Hyder's camp beheld with astonishment the Brit- 
ish gi-enadiers, under Captain Bah-d's command, 
performing theii- evolutions in the midst of all the 
tumult and extreme peril, with as much precision, 
coolness, and steadiness, as if upon a parade 
ground. The little army, so unexpectedly assail- 
ed, had only ten pieces of cannon, but these made 
such havoc amongst the enemy, that after a doubt- 
ful contest of three hours, from six in the morning 
till nine, victory began to declare for the British. 
The flower of the Mysore cavalry, after many 
bloody repulses, were at length entirely defeated, 
with great slaughter, and the right wing, com- 
posed of Hyder's best forces, was thrown into dis- 
order. Hj'der himself was about to give orders 
for retreat, and the French officer who directed 
the artillery began to draw it olF, when an unfore- 
seen and unavoidable misfortune occurred, which 
totally changed the fortune of the day. By some 
unhappy accident the tumbrils which contained 
the ammunition suddenly blew up in the centre of 
the British lines. One whole face of their column 
was thus entirely laid open, and their artUlery 
overturned and destroyed. The destruction of 
men was great, but the total loss of then- ammuni- 
tion was stiU more fatal to the survivors. Tippoo 
Saib, the son of Hyder, instantly seized the mo- 
ment of advantage, and without waiting for orders, 
fell with the utmost rapidity, at the head of the 
Mogul and Carnatic horse, into the broken square, 
which had not had time to recover its form and 
order. This attack by the enemy's cavaky being 
immediately seconded b}' the French corps, and 
by the first line of infantry, determined at once 




the fate of our unfwtiinate anny. After succes- 
sive prodigies of valour, the brave Sepoys were 
almost to a mau cut to pieces. Colonels Baillic 
and Fletelier, assisted by Captain Baird, made one 
more desperate effort. They rallied the Euro- 
peans, and, under the fti'c of the whole immense 
artillery of tlie enemy, gained a little eminence, 
and formed themselves into a new square. In 
this form did this intrepid band, though totally 
witliout amnuniition, the officers fighting only 
with their swords and the soldiers with their bay- 
onets, resist and repulse the myriads of the enemy 
in thirteen diiforent attacks ; until at length, inca- 
pable of withstanding the successive torrents of 
fresh troops which were continually pouring upon 
them, they were fairly bwne Aovm and tramjjk'd 
upon, many of them still continuing to fight under 
the very legs of the horses and elephants. To 
save the lives of the few brave men who snrvived. 
Colonel Baillie had displayed his handkerchief on 
his sword, as a flag of truce; quarter was pro- 
mised, but no sooner had the troops laid down 
their arms thnn they were attacked with savage 
fury by the enemy. By the humane interference, 
however, of the French ofBcera in Hyder's ser- 
vice, many lives were saved. 

The loss of the British in this engagement, call- 
ed the battle of Perimbancum, amounted to about 
four thousand Sepoys, and abont six hundred Eu- 
ropeans. Colonel Fletcher was slain on the field. 
Colonel Baillie, severely wounded, and several 
other officers, with two hundred Europeans, were 
made prisoners. When brought into the presence 
of Hyder, he, with tnie Asiatic barbarism, received 
them with the most insolent triumph. The Bri- 
tish officers, with a spirit worthy of their country, 
retorted with an indignant coolness and contempt. 
"Your son will infonn you," said Colonel Baillie, 
" that you owe the victory to our disaster, rather 
than to om- defeat." Hyder angrily ordered them 
from his presence, and commanded them instantly 
to prison. Captain Baird had received two sabrc- 
wounds on his head, a baU in his thigh, and a 
pike-wonnd in his arm. He lay a long time on the 
field of battle, narrowly escaping death from 
some of the more ferocious of the Mysore cavalry, 
who traversed the field spearing the wounded, 
and at last being uuable to -each the force 

nmler Munro, he was obliged to surrender to tht 

The result of this battle was the immediate re- 
treat of the main army under Sir Hector Munro 
to Madras. Colonel Baillie, Captain Baird, and 
five other British officers, were marched to one 
of Hyder's nearest forts, and afterwards remov- 
ed to Seringapatam, where they were joined by 
otliers of their captive countrymen, and subjected t( 
a most horrible and protr.ictcd imprisonment. It 
was commonly believed in Scotland that Captain 
Baird was chained by the leg to another man ; and 
Sir Walter Scott, writing in May 1821 to his son, 
then a cornet of dragoons, with his regiment in 
Ireland, when Sir David was commander of the 
forces there, says, "I remember a story that 
when report came to Europe that Tippoo's pris- 
oners (of whom Baird was one) were chained to- 
gether two and two, his mother said, ' God pity 
the poor lad that's chained to oar Davie 1 ' " Slie 
knew him to be active, spirited and daring, and 
probably thought that he would make some des- 
perate effort to escape. But it was not the case 
tliat he was chained to another. On the 10th of 
jNIay all the prisoners had been put in irons ex- 
cept Captain Baird ; this indignity he was not 
subjected to till the 10th of November following. 
" When they wei-e about," says his biographer, 
" to put the irons on Captain Baird, who was 
completely disabled in his right leg; in which the 
wound was still open, and whence the ball had 
just then been extracted, his friend Captain Lu- 
cas, who spoke the language perfectly, sprang for- 
ward, and represented in very strong terms to the 
Myar the barbarity of fettering him while hi such 
a dreadful state, and assured him that death would 
be the inevitable termination of Captain Baird's 
sufferings if the intention were persisted in. The 
]\Iyar replied that the Circar had sent as many 
pairs of irons as there were prisoners, and they 
must be put on. Captain Lucas then offi'red to 
wear two sets himself, in order to save his friend. 
This noble act of generosity moved the compassion 
even of the Myar, who said he would send to the 
Kellidar, (commander of the ibrt,) to open the 
book of fate. He did so, and when the messenger 
returned, he said the book had been opened, and 
Captain Baird's fate was good ; and the irons were 




in consequence not put on at that time. Could 
tliey rciilly liave looked into the volume of futu- 
rity, Baiid would undoubtedly have been the last 
man to be spared." [i{/e of Sir David Baird, 
vol. i. p. 44.] Each pair of irons was nine pounds 
weight. Captaiu Lucas died in prison. Captain 
Baird was preserved by Providence to revenge 
the sufferings which he and his fellow-prisoners 
endured by the glorious conquest of Seringapatam 
on the 4th of May, 1799. 

He remained a prisoner for three years and a 
half. He and his companions were only allowed 
a gold fanam, value about sixpence, a-day each, 
to support themselves in prison, a pittance which 
could only purchase them the poorest necessaries, 
and Captain Baird, on recovering from a severe 
attack of dysentery, suffered so much from hunger 
that he was often tempted to snatch his neighbour's 
share, and ate with greediness whatever happen- 
ed to be left. On the cessation of hostilities, in 
March 1784, he and the surviving prisoners were 
released, and in July he joined his regiment at 
Madras. In 1785 the number of the regiment was 
changed to the 71st. It was also called the Glas- 
gow Highland light infantry, from the success with 
which the recruiting had been carried on in that 
city. So destructive had been the carnage in this 
regiment in the short time it had been in India, 
that it was said Captain Baird and one sergeant 
were the only two individuals belonging to the 
original 73d. In 1787 he removed with his regi- 
ment to Bombay. On the 5th of June of that year 
he became major of the 71st, and in October he 
returned home on leave of absence. In December 
1790 he obtained the lieutenant-colonelcy of his 
regiment, the 71st; and in 1791, on his return to 
India, he joined the army under Marquis Cora- 

As commander of a brigade of Sepoys, Colonel 
Baii-d was present at the attack of a number of 
Droogs, or hill forts, and at the siege of Seringa- 
patam in February 1792 ; and likewise at the 
storming of Tippoo Sultaun's lines and camps on 
the island of Seringapatam. In 1793 he com- 
manded a brigade of Europeans, and was present 
at the reduction of Pondicherry. He was after- 
wards appointed to the command at Tanjore. On 
the drafting of the 71st into other regiments, in 

October 1797 he embarked at Madras for Europe. 
In December, when he arrived at tlie Cape of 
Good Hope, he was appointed brigadier-general, 
and placed on that staff, in command of a brigade. 
On June 18, 1798, he was appointed major-gen- 
eral, and returned to the staff in India. In Janu- 
ary 1799 he anived at Madras, in command of 
two regiments of foot, together with the drafts of 
the 28th dragoons, and on the 1st of Febraary 
joined the army at Velore, where he was appoint- 
ed to the command of the first European brigade. 

On the 4th of May of that memorable year 
General Baird commanded the storming party at 
the assault of Seringapatam. One o'clock was 
fixed upon for the assault, it being known that the 
natives usually sought shelter and repose from tlie 
heat of the sun at that hour. When the precise 
moment arrived, Baii'd ascended the parapet of the 
trenches in full view of both armies, " a military 
figure," obsen'es Colonel Wilks, " suited to such 
an occasion ;" and, drawing his sword, and gal- 
lantly waving it, shouted out, " Now, my brave 
fellows, follow me, and prove yourselves worthy 
of the name of British soldiers !" His personal ap- 
pearance added greatly to Hie chivalrous bearing 
of his manner. His figure was tall and symme- 
trical ; his countenance cheerful and animated. 
On his open manly brow were legibly displaved 
the indications of that lofty courage, that firmness 
of pui-pose, and that vigour of intellect which so 
conspicuously marked his whole career. Within 
seven minutes the British flag floated from the 
outer bastion of the fortress ; and before night 
Seringapatam was in possession of the besiegers. 
General Baird, who was undoubtedly entitled to 
the governorship of the town which he had thus 
taken, fixed his head-quarters at the palace of 
Tippoo, who was among the slain. He was next 
day abruptly commanded to deliver up the keys of 
the town to Colonel Wellesley, who, as it hap- 
pened, had no active share in the capture, hut who 
was appointed to the command by his brother, the 
governor-general. "And thus," said Baird, "be- 
fore the sweat was dry on my brow, I was super- 
seded by an inferior officer ;" that " inferior offi- 
cer" being afterwards the duke of Wellington 1 

In consequence of his signal success on this oc- 
casion, lie was presented by tlie army, thi-ougb 




General Harris, the commander-in-cliief, with the 
state sword of Tippoo Sultaun. The field officers 
under his immediate command at the assault pre- 
sented him at tlie same time witli a dross sword. 
In 1800 he was removed to the Bengal statT". 

In 1801 General Baird was appointed to the 
command of an expedition intended to act against 
Batavia, but wliich was afterwards sent to Egypt. 
In 1802 he returned in command of the Egyptian 
Indian anny overland to India. In September of 
that year lie was removed to the Madras staff, and 
commanded a large division of the army forming 
against the Malirattas. He was afterwards era- 
ployed in the Mysore country. In consequence 
of the great reduction of his division of the army, 
by the drafts made from it by General Sir Arthur 
Wellesley, who was employed in the same ser- 
vice. General Baird resigned his command and 
sailed for Britain ^vith his staff', March 1803. In 
December he obtained the royal permission to 
wear the Turkish order of the crescent. In June 
1804 he was knighted by patent, 
and, on the 18fh of August luilow- 
ing, became a military companion 
of the Bath. 

On 30th October 1805 he was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant- 
general, and commanded an expedi- 
tion against the Cape of Good Hope. 
Arriving there January 5, 1806, ha 
attacked and beat the Dutch armj 
on the 8th, and on the 18th received 
the surrender of the colony. He 
remained in the government of the 
Cape till January 1807, when he 
was recalled, and arrived in Britain 
in March of that year. On the 19th 
July he was transferred from the col- 
onelcy of the 54th to that of the 
24th, and placed on the foreign stafl 
under General Lord Cathcart. At 
the siege of Copenhagen, where he 
commanded a division, he was sliglit- 
ly wounded. He was afterwards 
employed for a short time in Ireland, 
with the command of the " drill 
camp" there, and was sworn ni a 
member of the. Irisli privy council. 

Having been ordered to the Peninsula, in the 
beginning of November 1808 he arrived at Co- 
runna, in command of about 10,000 men, and 
formed a junction with the army under General 
Sir John Moore. In the battle of Corunna, Janu- 
ary 16, 1809, he commanded the first division of 
the army, and lost his left arm. On tlie death of 
Sir John Moore, he succeeded to the chief com- 
mand, and on communicating the intelligence of 
tlie victory to government, he received for the 
fourth time tlie thanks of parliament, the previous 
occasions being, for the operations of the army in 
India in 1799, for those of Egypt in 1801, and for 
the Danish expedition. On this occasion also he 
received the red riband, on being appointed a 
knight grand cross of the Bath. On the 18th of 
April he was created a baronet by patent, and re- 
ceived a grant of the honourable armorial 
bearings, having relation to his military transac- 
tions. The following is a portrait of Sir David 
from a painting by Sir Henry Eacburn: 




On Sir David's return to Edinburgh after the 
Spanish campaign, he called upon the then pos- 
sessor of the mansion on the Castlehill where he 
was bora, and requested to be allowed to s«e the 
house in which he had passed liis infancy, and the 
garden behind, where he said he had spent many 
liappy days in boyish amusements. This was 
readily conceded, and after viewing the house, he 
was conducted to the garden, where he saw the 
children of the tenant of the house engaged in the 
very same species of mischievous sport which he 
declared had often been his own, namely, throw- 
ing stones and kail castocks down the chimneys- 
of the houses in the Grassmarket below. {Cham- 
bers' TradUiuns of Edinburgh, vol. i. p. 155.] 

Sir David married, 4th August 1810, Miss 
Campbell Preston of Ferntower and Lochlane, 
Pertlishire, niece of Sir Robert Preston, of Valley- 
field, Baronet. In 1814 he was promoted to the 
rank of general. In 1820 he was appointed com- 
mander of the forces in Ireland, and sworn of his 
majesty's privy council there, and in 1828 he be- 
came governor of Fort-George in Scotland. He 
died at an advanced age, August 18, 1829, at his 
seat of Ferntower in Pertlishire, where he passed 
the latter years of his life, and leaving no issue, was 
succeeded in the baronetcy by his nephew^. Captain 
Baird. His widow survived till 28th May 1847. 
A monument erected by her on Tom-a-Chastel, a 
most romantic hill on her estate, to the memory of 
her gallant husband, is in the form of an obelisk, 
of Aberdeen granite, eighty-two feet four inches 
in height, and an exact fac simile of Cleopatra's 
needle ; most fitting model for the monument 
of the gallant soldier who was the first with a 
European army to ascend the Red Sea, cross the 
desert, descend the Nile, and display the united 
standards of Britain and Brama on the shores of 
Alexandria. \New Stat. Ace. vol. x. p. 741.] 

Sir David Baird was deservedly popular with 
the army. Although a strict disciplinarian, he 
had the power to an extreme degi-ee of winning 
the attachment and respect of the men under his 
command. "There was," says General Middle- 
more, who sei-ved with him in Egypt, " something 
about him which gave at once complete confidence 
in him : his countenance bespoke a mind spotless 
from guile or subterfuge. You felt that truth 

beamed in all his features — it was impossible to 
doubt him — you might implicitly place your life, 
and honour, and happiness, on his bare word. 
He could not deceive ; and as he was firm and in- 
flexible upon every point of discipline and duty, 
so was he incapable of injuring a human being. 
With the courage of a hero, his heart was as kind 
and gentle as a woman's." His power over his 
soldiers, even under the most trying circumstan- 
ces, was strikingly exemplified at Wallajahbad in 
1797, when the order came for breaking np the 
71st regiment, which he had so long commanded, 
and drafting the men fit for service into other regi- 
ments. The order was read to the men by the 
adjutant, Sii' David being too much afl'ected to 
read it himself. "The effect produced by it," 
says his biographer, "was beyond description. 
It seems as if a sudden dismay had seized the 
whole regiment. It was a moment of trial in 
which there was something awfiU ; but Baird, whc 
knew his duty, and who always did it, addressed 
the men thus : ' My poor fellows — not a word — 
the order must be obeyed.' And then, to conceal 
emotions of which even he need not have been 
ashamed, he turned round, and ordered the band 
to strike up the popular Scottish air, the chorus of 
which is in these words — 

The king commands, and we'll obey, 
Over the Mils and far away." 

He is said himself to have been passionately fond 
of the native airs of his country. He fre- 
quently spoke, with the most affectionate delight, 
of the way in which his mother used to sing them, 
and he had them similarly arranged for the band 
of his regiment. The Life of Sir David Baird by 
Theodore Hook was published at London in 1832 
in two volumes. 

BAIRD, George Httsband, the very rev., 
D.D., principal of the university of Edinburgh, 
the author and unwearied promoter of the scheme 
for the education of the Highlanders, was born in 
1761, in the parish of Bon-owstounness, where his 
father, a considerable proprietor in the county of 
Stirling, rented a farm from the duke of Hamil- 
ton. He received the rudiments of his education, 
first at the parish school of Borrowstounness, and 
subsequently, upon his fatner acquiring and re- 




moving to the property of Mannel, in Wcst-Lo- 
fhiaii, at the grammar school of Linlithgow. In 
177.'? lie entered as a student at the university of 
Edinburgli ; and while tliere, acquired the special 
notice of Principal Robertson, Professor Dalzel, 
and others of the jirofessors, for iiis diligence and 
jiroficiency. At college lie and tlio late Professor 
Finlayson, and .Tosiah Walker, who were fellow- 
students with him, associated for tlie prosecution 
of studies beyond what was required by tlie col- 
lege courses ; by whicli he was enabled to mal<e 
himself master of most of the European languages. 
These three young men, it is stated in the sl;etch 
of Baird's life in Kay's Edinburgh Portraits, are 
said to have entered into an agreement to promote 
the advancement of one anotlier in life to the ut- 
most of their power; and though, it is added, 
there was a degree of singularity in tlie compact, 
and perhaps no real increase from it in tlie dispo- 
sition to serve each other, it is certain that indi- 
vidually all the three parties mentioned could 
ascribe important advantages to the good offices 
of one or other in that association, one much to 
be commended and imit.ated. The reverse of such 
conduct, from unworthy feelings of envy and jea- 
lousy, is too often exhibited in after-life by those 
who had once been schoolfellows and close com- 
panions in their youth. In 1784 he was recom- 
mended by Professor Dalzel as tutor to the fam- 
ily of Colonel Blair of Blair. In 1786 he was 
licensed by the presbytery of Linlithgow, and in 
the following year he was ordained to the parish of 
Dunkeld, to which charge he had been presented 
by the duke of Athol, through the influence of his 
friend, IMr. Finlayson. At Dunkeld he remained 
for several years, living as an inmate of the duke's 
family, and superintending the education of Iiis 
grace's three sons, the last survivor of whom was 
the late Lord Glenlyon. In 1789 or 1790 lie was 
presented to Lady Tester's church, Edinburgli, 
but at the request of the duke and duchess of 
Atliol, he declined it. In 1792 he was trans- 
ferred to the New Greyfriars churcli, Edinburgli ; 
and at the same time was elected professor of 
oriental languages m the university there. In 
1793, on tlie death of Dr. Robertson, he was, 
when not more than thirty-tliree y(»,irs of age, 
apjioiiited the principal of the university. 

As principal ho was onco called upon to excr- college disciiiliiu' in the case of three of the stn- 
donts wlio afterwards attained to great distinction, 
which has rendered tliis instance of the maintenance 
of acadcmie authority memorable in the annals of 
the university. A challenge liaving been sent to 
one of the professors, tlie parties imjilicated in this 
misdemeanor, namrly, Lind Henry Petty (after- 
wards the marquis of Lansdowne), the late Fran- 
cis Horner, Esq., JI.P., and Mr. (now Lord) 
Brougham, were sunimoned before tlie Senatns 
Academicus. The only one wlio appeared was 
Brougham, and the rebuke of tlie principal was at 
once so administered and so received, that a friend- 
ship ensued between tliem, which was continued 
long after the former had entered upon public life. 
In 1799 Principal Baird was translated to the 
New North cliurch ; and in 1801, on the death 
of Dr. Blair, lie was removed to the High cliurch, 
where he continued to officiate till his death. 
He married the eldest daughter of Thomas El- 
der, Esq. of Forneth, Lord Provost of Edin- 
burgh. His later years, until prevented by the 
infirmities of age, were prhicipally occupied in 
promoting his truly benevolent and philantliro- 
[lic plan, for extending a religious education 
among tlie poorer classes of his fellow countr^'- 
men in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. 
At the meeting of the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland in ISIay 1824, he brought for- 
ward his motion for increasing tlie means of edu- 
cation throughout Scotland, but particularly in the 
Highlands and Lslands, and in large towns. The 
Assembl}' of 1 825 gave its sanction to tlie scheme 
proposed ; which mainly owed its success to the 
talents, labour, indnstry, influence, and 
pious enthusiasm of the originator of the plan ; 
who lived to see a provision secured, by his exer- 
tions, for the Christian education of many thousand 
children of the poor. Such was his zeal to for- 
ward the educational interests, and to improve the 
moral condition of his Gaelic countrymen, that, in 
the autumn of 1827, in the G7th year of his age, 
he visited the Highlands of Argyleshire, the west- 
ern parts of Inverness and Ross, and the Western 
Islands, traversing the whole country from Lewis 
to Kintyre. The following year he visited for the 
same purposes, the North Highlands, and the 




Islands of Orkney and Shetland. Through his 
means also, the late Dr. Andrew Bell of Madras 
licqncathcd £5,000 to the scheme for education in 
the Highlands. In 1832 the thanks of the Gen- 
eral Assembly were conveyed to him by Dr. Chal- 
mers, the moderator, in the following terms:— 
"The benefits you have conferred on the cause of 
education in the Highlands and Islands of Scot- 
land will ever associate your name with the whole 
of that immense region, and hand down your me- 
mory to distant ages as the moral benefactor of 
many thousand families. I feel confident that I 
do not outrun the sympathy of a single individual 
in our church, when, in its name, I offer you, as 
the head of a noble and national enterprise, the 
meed of our united thanks, for the vigour, and ac- 
tivity, and the enthusiasm wherewith, at an ad- 
vanced period of life, you have addressed yourself 
to this great undertaking, and may now be said to 
have fully and firmly established it." By his be- 
nevolent exertions the worthy principal is said to 
have contributed much to the freeing the minds 
of the Highlanders from the superstitions which 
they were so fond of cherishing, and particularly 
to the expulsion of the fairies from the Highland 
hills A portrait of Principal Baird is subjoined. 

Dr. Baird died on the 14th January 1840, at his 
residence of Manuel near Linlithgow, in the 79th 
year of his age. He was, when a young man, a 
con-espondent of the poet Burns, and his name 
appears among the list of subscribers to the first 
or Kilmarnock edition of his poems. — Obituaries 
of the time. 

Balcanquall, a surname derived originally from the 
lands of that name in the parish of Strathmiglo, Fife. In 
Sibbald's List of the Heritors of county (1710) occurs 
the name of Balcanquhall of that Ilk. \_Hist. of Fife, Ap- 
pendix, No. 2.] The estate of Balcanquall afterwards be- 
longed to the Hopes of Pinkie. 

One of the first presbyterian ministers of Edinburgh was 
the Rev. Walter Balcanquall, the son of Balcanquhall of 
that ilk, Mr. James Melville, in his Di.iry, mentions him 
under date 1574 as " ane honest, vpright h.arted young, latlie ei.terit to that ministerie of Edinbruche." \_Mel- 
ville's Dianj. y. 41.] With his colleague Mr. James Law- 
son, Mr. Robert Pont, Mr. Andrew Melville, and others, he 
took an active pai-t against the scheme of Iving James for 
re-estabhsliing the bishops. On the assembly of the estates 
for that purpose in 1584, the king sent a message to the 
magistrates of Edinburgh to seize and imprison any of the 
ministers who should venture to speak against the proceedings 
of the parliament. Mr. Walter Balcanquha'l, however, ag 
well as Mr. Lawson, not only preached against these proceed- 
ings from the pulpit, but the former, with Mr. Robert Pont 
and others, app'jared at the Cross, on the heialds proceeding 
to proclaim the acts passed in parliament affecting the church, 
and publicly protested and took instruments in the name of the 
Kirk of Scotland against them. For this, he and Mr Lawson 
were compelled to retire to England, \_IUd. p. 119,] where 
the latter died the same year. His will contained some 
cm'ious bequests, among others the following to his colleague ; 
" Item, I will that my loving brother Mr. James Cannichaell, 
sail bow a rose noble instantlie, and deliver it to my deere 
brother and loring friend, Mr. Walter Balcanquall, who hath 
beene so carefiiU of me at all times, and cheefelie in time ot 
this my present sicknesse ; to remaine with him as a perpetuall 
tokin and remembrance of my speciall love and thankfull 
heart towards hira." [^Calderwood's Hist. vol. iv. p. 206.] 
In the following year Mr. Balcanquhall returned to his charge, 
and on Sunday, the 2d of January 1586, he preached before 
the Idug '' in the great Idrk of Edinbm-gh," when his majestj', 
" after sermoun, rebooked Mr. Walter publictlie from his 
feate in the loaft, and said he would prove there sould be 
oishops and spirituall magistrats endued with authoritie over 
the ministrie ; and that he (Balcanquhall) did not his dutie 
to condemn that which he had done in parliament." [Ibid. 
491.] In December 1596 he was agam obliged to ilee to 
England, but subsequently returned. After being one of the 
ministers of Edinburgh for foi-ty-three years, he died in 
1616. Of his son, well known as one of the executors of hia 
relative George Heriot, a notice follows. 

The surname of Balcanquhall seems to have been in course 
of time changed into Ballingall, as more euphonious. 

BALCANQUAL, Walter, an eminent Epis- 
copalian divine of the seventeenth century, the 
son of the Rev. Walter Balcanqual, mentioned 
above, born in Edinburgh about ].^86. Although 




nis father was a Presbyterian, he himself, probably 
couvinced by the arguments of King James in fa- 
vour of bishops, preferred taking orders in the 
Church of England. He commenced his studies 
at the university of Edinburgh, where, in 1609, he 
took his degree of M.A. He afterwards entered 
at Pembroke Hall, Oxford, as a bachelor of di- 
vinity, and was admitted a fellow, September 8, 
1611. He was one of the chaplains of James 
VI. In 1017 he was appointed master of the 
Savoy, in the Strand, Loudon; and in 1G18 he 
was sent by his majesty to the synod of Dort. 
His letters coucemiug that assembly, addressed to 
Sir Dudley Carlton, may be found in Mr. John 
Hales' * Golden Kemains.' Before proceeding to 
the synod of Dort, he received the degree of D.D. 
from the university of Oxford. In March 162-1, 
he obtained the deanery of Rochester, and after- 
wards in May 1639, he was made dean of Dur- 
ham. On the death of George Heriot, jeweller to 
the king, February 12, 1624, being appointed one 
of the three executors of his last will, with the 
principal charge of the establishment of Heriot's 
hospital at Edinburgh, Dr. Balcanqual drew up 
the statutes, which are dated 1627, and discharged 
the onerous trust imposed upon him, with much 
ability, judgment, and good sense. In 1638 he 
accompanied the marquis of Hamilton, the king's 
commissioner, to Scotland, in the capacity of chap- 
lain ; and his double dealing, on this and subse- 
quent occasions, rendered him obnoxious to the 
party in both kingdoms who were struggling for 
their religious rights. He is said to have written 
the apologetical nan-ative of the court proceed- 
ings, which, under the title of ' His Majestie's 
Large Declaration concealing the late Tumults in 
Scotland,' appeared in folio in 1639. On July 29, 
1641, he and five other gentlemen were denounced 
as incendiaries by the Scottish parliament. He 
was afterwards exposed to much persecution from 
the English Pm'itans, and after being plundered, 
sequestrated, and forced to fly from London, he 
went to Oxford, and for some years shared the 
waning fortunes of his sovereign. He died at 
Chirk ca.stle, Denbighshire, on Christmas day, 
1645, just after the battle of Naseby ; and a splen- 
did monument was subsequently erected to his 
memory in the pariali church of Chirk, by Sir 

Thomas Middleton. — Steven's History of IleriofM 

Dr. Balcanqual's works arc the following: 

His Majestie's Largo Decljinition concerning the late Tn- 
miilts in